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Metabolic liver disease children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699612/relationship-between-immune-parameters-and-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-obese-children
#1
Jun-Qi Shi, Wen-Xia Shen, Xiang-Zhi Wang, Ke Huang, Chao-Chun Zou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between immune parameters and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in obese children. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Zhejiang Province, China on July to September 2015. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 117 obese children and 209 healthy non-obese children were studied as the obese and control groups. Depending on the severity of NAFLD, the obese group was divided into subgroups 1 (without NAFLD), 2 (with simple fatty liver) and 3 (with steatohepatitis)...
July 11, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689548/-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Jessica Björklund, Tea Lund Laursen, Konstantin Kazankov, Karen Louise Thomsen, Stephen Hamilton-Dutoit, Elisabeth Stenbøg, Henning Grønbæk
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by liver fat accumulation and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with inflammation and fibrosis, which may lead to cirrhosis also in childhood. NAFLD/NASH in children are related to obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and incidence and prevalence are expected to increase. Children having liver steatosis and elevated liver enzymes are most often asymptomatic, and a liver biopsy is necessary for correct diagnosis and staging. The treatment should focus on lifestyle changes, as pharmacological therapy needs further evaluation...
July 3, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685316/-liver-biopsy-in-children-and-adolescents-preliminary-morphological-examinations-in-diffuse-liver-disease
#3
REVIEW
C Lackner, A S Knisely
BACKGROUND: Frequencies of types of liver disease differ between adults and nonadults (NA). OBJECTIVES: The particular problems encountered in interpreting liver-biopsy findings in NA often require referral in consultation.  To permit this efficiently, we recommend specific approaches to light microscopy, with special stains and immunohistochemistry, as well as to ultrastructural study. METHODS: Prosection and the choice of special stains are described, and are discussed in relation to clinical questions...
July 2017: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677866/increased-incidence-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-male-rat-offspring-exposed-to-fluoxetine-during-fetal-and-neonatal-life-involves-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-and-augmented-de-novo-hepatic-lipogenesis
#4
Nicole E De Long, Daniel B Hardy, Noelle Ma, Alison C Holloway
Up to 10% of women take selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) during pregnancy. Children exposed to SSRIs in utero have an increased risk of being overweight suggesting that fetal exposure to SSRIs can cause permanent metabolic changes. We have previously shown in rats that fetal and neonatal exposure to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine results in metabolic perturbations including increased hepatic triglyceride content; a hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the mechanism(s) underlying the fluoxetine-induced increase in intrahepatic triglyceride content...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676332/circulating-exosomes-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-as-phenotypic-biomarkers-and-mechanistic-messengers-of-end-organ-morbidity
#5
REVIEW
Abdelnaby Khalyfa, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, David Gozal
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), the most severe form of sleep disordered breathing, is characterized by intermittent hypoxia during sleep (IH), sleep fragmentation, and episodic hypercapnia. OSA is associated with increased risk for morbidity and mortality affecting cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurocognitive systems, and more recently with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cancer-related deaths. Substantial variability in OSA outcomes suggests that genetically-determined and environmental and lifestyle factors affect the phenotypic susceptibility to OSA...
July 1, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663066/successful-management-of-acute-liver-failure-in-italian-children-a-16-year-experience-at-a-referral-centre-for-paediatric-liver-transplantation
#6
A Di Giorgio, A Sonzogni, A Piccichè, G Alessio, E Bonanomi, M Colledan, L D'Antiga
BACKGROUND: Identifying the causes of acute liver failure (ALF) and predictors of death or liver transplantation (LTX) is crucial to decide its management. We aimed to describe features and outcome of ALF in Italian children. METHODS: Retrospective review of cases presenting between 1996-2012. ALF was defined by high transaminases, INR ≥2.0 regardless of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), no evidence of underlying chronic liver disease. RESULTS: 55 children (median age 2...
June 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646278/liver-involvement-in-kidney-disease-and-vice-versa
#7
REVIEW
Karen Van Hoeve, Djalila Mekahli, Eva Morava, Elena Levtchenko, Peter Witters
The liver and kidneys are often similarly affected by a single disease. This is the case in metabolic, immunological, toxic, and infectious diseases, and in the different congenital malformation syndromes. Also, an enzymatic defect in an otherwise healthy liver or the consequences of advanced liver disease by itself can cause kidney disease as a secondary phenomenon. In this review, we describe numerous pathogenic mechanisms leading to dysfunction or malformations of the liver and kidneys in children. We encourage multidisciplinary management for optimal care...
June 23, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625218/the-response-of-male-and-female-rats-to-a-high-fructose-diet-during-adolescence-following-early-administration-of-hibiscus-sabdariffa-aqueous-calyx-extracts
#8
K G Ibrahim, E Chivandi, F B O Mojiminiyi, K H Erlwanger
Metabolic syndrome is linked to the consumption of fructose-rich diets. Nutritional and pharmacological interventions perinatally can cause epigenetic changes that programme an individual to predispose or protect them from the development of metabolic diseases later. Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS) reportedly has anti-obesity and hypocholesterolaemic properties in adults. We investigated the impact of neonatal intake of HS on the programming of metabolism by fructose. A total of 85 4-day-old Sprague Dawley rats were divided randomly into three groups...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608518/liver-transplantation-may-prevent-neurodevelopmental-deterioration-in-high-risk-patients-with-urea-cycle-disorders
#9
Jun Kido, Shirou Matsumoto, Ken Momosaki, Rieko Sakamoto, Hiroshi Mitsubuchi, Fumio Endo, Kimitoshi Nakamura
UCDs are among the most common inherited metabolic diseases in Japan. We investigated the clinical manifestations, treatment, and prognoses of 177 patients with UCDs who were evaluated and treated from January 1999 to March 2009 in Japan, using a questionnaire survey. Among these 177 patients, 42 (seven with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency, 27 with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, seven with argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency, and one with arginase 1 deficiency) underwent living-donor LT...
June 12, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606575/good-adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-reduces-the-risk-for-nash-and-diabetes-in-pediatric-patients-with-obesity-the-results-of-an-italian-study
#10
Claudia Della Corte, Antonella Mosca, Andrea Vania, Arianna Alterio, Salvatore Iasevoli, Valerio Nobili
OBJECTIVE: In the last decade, it was demonstrated that the Mediterranean diet (MD) represents an ideal diet for all age groups and has an important role in the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between adherence to the MD and NAFLD, with laboratory and histologic evaluation, in a group of children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: We enrolled 243 patients with obesity referred to our department from March 2014 to November 2015...
July 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600116/features-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-in-severely-obese-children-and-adolescents-undergoing-sleeve-gastrectomy
#11
Aayed Alqahtani, Mohamed Elahmedi, Khalid Alswat, Maha Arafah, Mosa Fagih, Jaehoon Lee
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an underrecognized co-morbidity of obesity. The characteristic features and severity of NAFLD in severe childhood obesity remain unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate features of NAFLD in obese children and identify predictors of significant disease. SETTING: Academic center with a standardized pathway for pediatric bariatric surgery and a dedicated multidisciplinary team. DESIGN: This is a baseline cross-sectional analysis for a data set obtained from a prospective clinical outcome study that included severely obese children (≤14 yr of age) and adolescents (14-21 yr of age) who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy between March 2008 and March 2015...
April 7, 2017: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588179/childhood-wilson-disease-bangladesh-perspective
#12
M Rukunuzzaman, A B Karim, M Nurullah, F Sultana, M W Mazumder, M A Rahman, S B Billah, F Begum, M Oliullah
Wilson's disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder affecting copper metabolism causing copper induced damage to various organs. In children liver is commonly involved. Central nervous system, eyes, RBC, kidneys, brain and bones may also be affected. Aim of the study is to evaluate clinical & laboratory profile of Wilson's disease in children. This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted at the department of Paediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from January 2011 to December, 2013...
April 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587303/the-role-of-lipid-and-lipoprotein-metabolism-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#13
REVIEW
Francesco Massimo Perla, Maurizia Prelati, Michela Lavorato, Daniele Visicchio, Caterina Anania
Due to the epidemic of obesity across the world, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one of the most prevalent chronic liver disorders in children and adolescents. NAFLD comprises a spectrum of fat-associated liver conditions that can result in end-stage liver disease and the need for liver transplantation. Simple steatosis, or fatty liver, occurs early in NAFLD and may progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of the liver injury in NAFLD is currently thought to be a "multiple-hit process" where the first "hit" is an increase in liver fat, followed by multiple additional factors that trigger the inflammatory activity...
June 6, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579536/effects-of-dietary-fructose-restriction-on-liver-fat-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-insulin-kinetics-in-children-with-obesity
#14
Jean-Marc Schwarz, Susan M Noworolski, Ayca Erkin-Cakmak, Natalie J Korn, Michael J Wen, Viva W Tai, Grace M Jones, Sergiu P Palii, Moises Velasco-Alin, Karen Pan, Bruce W Patterson, Alejandro Gugliucci, Robert H Lustig, Kathleen Mulligan
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Consumption of sugar is associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular disease. The conversion of fructose to fat in liver (de novo lipogenesis, DNL) may be a modifiable pathogenetic pathway. We determined the effect of 9 days of isocaloric fructose restriction on DNL, liver fat, visceral fat (VAT), subcutaneous fat, and insulin kinetics in obese Latino and African American children with habitual high sugar consumption (fructose intake more than 50 g/day)...
June 1, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556786/elevated-hemoglobin-level-is-associated-with-advanced-fibrosis-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
Valentina Giorgio, Antonella Mosca, Arianna Alterio, Anna Alisi, Antonio Grieco, Valerio Nobili, Luca Miele
OBJECTIVES: Hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell distribution width (RDW) have been reported to be a risk marker of metabolic syndrome (MS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). No study exists on pediatric populations. We aimed to determine the association between hematological parameters, and the severity of disease in children with biopsy proven NAFLD. METHODS: 117 children (85 males, mean age 12 years) with ultrasound (US) evidence of NAFLD undergoing liver biopsy for diagnosis of non alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), were prospectively enrolled between January 2011 and May 2013 in the setting of a tertiary care centre...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556755/effects-of-exercise-training-alone-on-depot-specific-body-fat-stores-in-youth-review-of-recent-literature
#16
YoonMyung Kim
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased at an alarming rate. The increased obesity rate in pediatrics parallels the increased risks for developing metabolic abnormalities such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In particular, the strong relationship between obesity and such health consequences are well explained by the excessive accumulation of depot-specific body adiposity such as visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intrahepatic lipid content, intermuscular AT (IMAT), and/or intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content...
May 30, 2017: Pediatric Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555633/low-birthweight-increases-the-likelihood-of-severe-steatosis-in-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Elisabetta Bugianesi, Carla Bizzarri, Chiara Rosso, Antonella Mosca, Nadia Panera, Silvio Veraldi, Andrea Dotta, Germana Giannone, Massimiliano Raponi, Marco Cappa, Anna Alisi, Valerio Nobili
OBJECTIVES: Small for gestational age (SGA) is associated with an increased risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to investigate the correlation of birthweight with the severity of liver damage in a large cohort of children with NAFLD. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty-eight consecutive Caucasian Italian overweight/obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included in the study. We examined the relative association of each histological feature of NAFLD with metabolic alterations, insulin-resistance, I148M polymorphism in the patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) gene, and birthweight relative to gestational age...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529199/can-fetuin-a-be-a-marker-for-insulin-resistance-and-poor-glycemic-control-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Ülkü Gül Sıraz, Murat Doğan, Nihal Hatipoğlu, Sabahttin Muhtaroğlu, Selim Kurtoğlu
OBJECTIVE: Backgroud Metabolic impairment in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) with poor glycemic control causes insulin resistance, Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and atherosclerosis; thus, increased Carotid-intima media thickness (CIMT). The Fetuin-A has protective effect in cardiovascular disorders, which is increased in hepatosteatosis. We aimed to investigate reliability of Fetuin-A levels in early detection of diabetic complications in children with T1DM and to identify a cut-off value that may show poor metabolic control...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521872/non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-an-update-with-special-focus-on-the-role-of-gut-microbiota
#19
REVIEW
Michael Doulberis, Georgios Kotronis, Dimitra Gialamprinou, Jannis Kountouras, Panagiotis Katsinelos
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant global health burden in children, adolescents and adults with substantial rise in prevalence over the last decades. Accumulating data from manifold studies support the idea of NAFLD as a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, being rather a systemic metabolic disease than a liver confined pathology. Emerging data support that the gut microbiome represents a significant environmental factor contributing to NAFLD development and progression. Apart from other regimens, probiotics may have a positive role in the management of NAFLD through a plethora of possible mechanisms...
June 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520503/serum-alanine-aminotransferase-trends-and-their-relationship-with-obesity-and-metabolic-syndrome-in-united-states-adolescents-1999-2014
#20
Cyrelle R Fermin, Arthur M Lee, Stephanie L Filipp, Matthew J Gurka, Mark D DeBoer
INTRODUCTION: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), characterized by hepatocyte dysfunction, fat accumulation, and fibrosis, is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children. Elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) are used clinically to identify potential liver dysfunction. Our goal was to assess for changes in the national prevalence of elevated ALT over time and potential relationship to trends in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) severity and elevated body mass index (BMI)...
May 18, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
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