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Chronic liver disease children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092152/issues-in-nutrition-dietary-considerations-in-select-chronic-conditions
#1
Margaret E Thompson, Mary Barth Noel
Chronic diseases that affect the gastrointestinal tract also tend to affect nutrition. The incidence of chronic liver disease is increasing. As the prevalence of obesity rises, so do the incidences of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Patients with chronic liver disease usually have some degree of malnutrition. In the absence of encephalopathy, patients with chronic liver disease should consume more protein than that in the average diet. There is some controversy about whether diet plays a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease...
January 2017: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044976/-kidsetransplant-a-serious-game-for-liver-transplanted-children
#2
Ana-Maria Calinescu, Valérie McLin, Stéphane Spahni, Thomas Boggini, Mirana Randriambelonoro, Roxane Jaquier-Grant, Michèle Steiner, Antoine Geissbuhler, Barbara E Wildhaber
Serious games are increasingly used in pediatric care, especially to educate young patients with chronic diseases, to improve their understanding of the disease and develop independence in disease management, as it can ultimately improve clinical results. This is also true for liver transplanted children and adolescents, who are not only challenged by their therapeutic burden, but who need to face transition to adult care, often without remembering their transplantation, which was performed, most of the time, very early in their life...
December 2016: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040394/long-term-hematological-visceral-and-growth-outcomes-in-children-with-gaucher-disease-type-3-treated-with-imiglucerase-in-the-international-collaborative-gaucher-group-gaucher-registry
#3
Amal El-Beshlawy, Anna Tylki-Szymanska, Ashok Vellodi, Nadia Belmatoug, Gregory A Grabowski, Edwin H Kolodny, Julie L Batista, Gerald F Cox, Pramod K Mistry
In Gaucher disease (GD), deficiency of lysosomal acid β-glucosidase results in a broad phenotypic spectrum that is classified into three types based on the absence (type 1 [GD1]) or presence and severity of primary central nervous system involvement (type 2 [GD2], the fulminant neuronopathic form, and type 3 [GD3], the milder chronic neuronopathic form). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with imiglucerase ameliorates and prevents hematological and visceral manifestations in GD1, but data in GD3 are limited to small, single-center series...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040302/omega-3-fatty-acids-as-a-treatment-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#4
Lian-Hui Chen, Yong-Fen Wang, Qing-Hong Xu, Shan-Shan Chen
BACKGROUND: The most typical chronic liver disease in children and adolescents is non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The dietary addition of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) provides a promising therapy for children with NAFLD due to its convenience and safety; however, several studies suggested contradictory results for PUFA supplementation in children. Hence, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of PUFA supplementation in children with NAFLD...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027602/is-size-the-only-determinant-of-delayed-abdominal-closure-in-pediatric-liver-transplant
#5
Shirin Elizabeth Khorsandi, Arthur William Raven Day, Miriam Cortes, Akash Deep, Anil Dhawan, Hector Vilca-Melendez, Nigel Heaton
The aim was to determine the factors associated with the use of delayed abdominal closure in pediatric liver transplant and whether this affected outcome. From a prospectively maintained database, transplants performed in children (≤ 18 years) were identified (October 2010 - March 2015). Primary abdominal closure was defined as mass closure performed at time of transplant. Delayed abdominal closure was defined as mass closure not initially performed at the same time as transplant. 230 children underwent liver transplantation...
December 27, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006876/health-related-quality-of-life-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Arpita Parmar, Shannon Marie Vandriel, Vicky Lee Ng
With improved survival rates after pediatric liver transplantation (LT), attention is targeting improving the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as an outcome metric. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to examine HRQOL after pediatric LT, focusing on assessment tools, and factors associated with HRQOL.A literature search was conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, OVID, and Google Scholar for all studies matching the eligibility criteria between January 2004 and September 2016. Titles and abstracts were screened independently by two authors and consensus for included studies was achieved through discussion...
December 22, 2016: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957786/impaired-intention-to-treat-survival-after-listing-for-liver-transplantation-in-children-with-biliary-atresia-compared-to-other-chronic-liver-diseases-20%C3%A2-years-experience-from-the-nordic-countries
#7
S Malenicka, B-G Ericzon, M H Jørgensen, H Isoniemi, T H Karlsen, M Krantz, V Naeser, M Olausson, A Rasmussen, K Rönnholm, T Sanengen, T Scholz, B Fischler, A Nemeth
Biliary atresia (BA) is the most common indication for LT in children. We investigated whether this diagnosis per se, compared to other chronic liver diseases (OCLD), had an influence on patient survival. Data from 421 Scandinavian children, 194 with BA and 227 with OCLD, listed for LT between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed. The intention-to-treat survival and influencing risk factors were studied. Patients with BA had higher risk of death after listing than patients with OCLD. The youngest (<1 year) and smallest (<10 kg) children with the highest bilirubin (>510 μmol/L), highest INR (>1...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931582/liver-transplantation-for-hepatitis-b-in-early-adulthood-analysis-of-the-united-network-for-organ-sharing-database
#8
G Rifai, A Anani, I A Hanouneh, B Mohamad, A Matloob, R Lopez, N N Zein, N Alkhouri
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has a mild course in most children that may delay initiation of treatment even when indicated. Unfortunately, a small number of cases can progress rapidly to cirrhosis, which may require liver transplantation (LT) in early adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of HBV-positive young adults who received LT and to evaluate post-transplant outcomes including patient and graft survival and differences between pre- and post-implementation of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) prioritization...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906803/naspghan-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-children
#9
Miriam B Vos, Stephanie H Abrams, Sarah E Barlow, Sonia Caprio, Stephen R Daniels, Rohit Kohli, Marialena Mouzaki, Pushpa Sathya, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Shikha S Sundaram, Stavra A Xanthakos
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a highly prevalent chronic liver disease that occurs in the setting of insulin resistance and increased adiposity. It has rapidly evolved into the most common liver disease seen in the pediatric population and is a management challenge for general pediatric practitioners, subspecialists and for health systems. In this guideline, the expert committee on NAFLD (ECON) reviewed and summarized the available literature, formulating recommendations to guide screening and clinical care of children with NAFLD...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898169/cross-sectional-analysis-of-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis-in-puerto-rican-children
#10
Dellys M Soler, Antonio I Del Valle, David Fernandez-Lube, Benjamin L Shneider
OBJECTIVE: Specific inherited disorders may be more common in island communities. Prior case reports suggest that cholestatic liver diseases may constitute a group of these inherited disorders in Puerto Rico. A cross-sectional survey of liver diseases in children was conducted to assess this hypothesis. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed in patients with chronic cholestasis at "Hospital Pediátrico Universitario" in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Ten potential participants with high gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGTP) cholestasis were identified...
December 2016: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862714/de-novo-inflammatory-bowel-disease-after-pediatric-kidney-or-liver-transplant
#11
Melissa A Fernandes, Hillary J Braun, Kim Evason, Sue Rhee, Emily R Perito
A subset of children who receive a liver and/or kidney transplant develop de novo inflammatory bowel disease-like chronic intestinal inflammation, not explained by infection or medications, following transplant. We have conducted a single-center, retrospective case series describing the unique clinical and histologic features of this IBD-like chronic intestinal inflammation following solid organ transplant. At our center, nine of 327 kidney or liver recipients developed de novo IBD following transplant (six liver, two kidney, one liver-kidney)...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822476/pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-interactions-between-liver-parenchymal-and-nonparenchymal-cells
#12
REVIEW
Nancy Magee, An Zou, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning), inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818588/update-on-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#13
REVIEW
Manoochehr Makvandi
The event of mutations in the surface antigen gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen with positive/negative anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody status in serum and this phenomenon is named occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The presence of anti-HBc antibody in serum is an important key for OBI tracking, although about 20% of OBI cases are negative for anti-HBc antibody. The diagnosis of OBI is mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815224/minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-children-with-chronic-liver-disease-prevalence-pathogenesis-and-magnetic-resonance-based-diagnosis
#14
Anshu Srivastava, Saurabh Chaturvedi, Rakesh Kumar Gupta, Rohan Malik, Amrita Mathias, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan, Sunil Jain, Chandra Mani Pandey, Surender Kumar Yachha, Ram Kishor Singh Rathore
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Data on minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in children is scarce. We aimed to study MHE in children with chronic liver disease (CLD) and to validate non-invasive objective tests which can assist in its diagnosis. METHODS: We evaluated 67 children with CLD (38 boys; age 13 [7-18] years) and 37 healthy children to determine the prevalence of MHE. We also assessed the correlation of MHE with changes in brain metabolites by magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)HMRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived metrics, blood ammonia and inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 [IL6], tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α])...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801916/preventing-foodborne-and-enteric-illnesses-among-at-risk-populations-in-the-united-states-and-rhode-island
#15
Jonathan Barkley, Ernest Julian, Brendalee Viveiros, Michael Gosciminski, Utpala Bandy
One out of every six people in the United States is estimated to become sick each year from pathogens that can cause foodborne illness. The groups at greatest risk for serious illness, hospitalization, or death include young children, older adults, people with chronic conditions, and pregnant women. Such health disparities must be considered along with those disparities that may exist among racial and ethnic groups and among groups of varying socioeconomic status. We analyzed risk profiles for enteric disease using data from Rhode Island and the nation as a whole, exploring disparities among groups defined by demographic and health characteristics...
November 1, 2016: Rhode Island Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801781/function-and-regulation-of-micrornas-and-their-potential-as-biomarkers-in-paediatric-liver-disease
#16
REVIEW
Diego A Calvopina, Miranda A Coleman, Peter J Lewindon, Grant A Ramm
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs involved in biological and pathological processes of every cell type, including liver cells. Transcribed from specific genes, miRNA precursors are processed in the cytoplasm into mature miRNAs and as part of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) complex binds to messenger RNA (mRNA) by imperfect complementarity. This leads to the regulation of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. The function of a number of different miRNAs in fibrogenesis associated with the progression of chronic liver disease has recently been elucidated...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801752/survey-on-clinical-practice-of-primary-prophylaxis-in-portal-hypertension-in-children
#17
Odile Jeanniard-Malet, Mathieu Duché, Alexandre Fabre
Primary prophylaxis in portal hypertension in children is controversial, as there are few studies documenting its efficacy on the risk of bleeding.28 centres out of the 38 we contacted returned a completed questionnaire about their clinical practices. More than 75% of the centres use endoscopy to screen patients diagnosed with portal cavernoma, biliary atresia, cystic fibrosis and other fibrotic chronic liver diseases with suspected portal hypertension.In cases of grade 2 varices with red marks and grade 3 varices more than 90% of centres perform sclerotherapy or endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL)...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761562/diverse-etiology-of-hyperlipidemia-among-hospitalized-children-in-western-region-of-saudi-arabia
#18
Abdulmoein E Al-Agha, Abrar M Alnawab, Tala M Hejazi
To determine the various etiologies of primary and secondary hyperlipidemia among children visiting the pediatric endocrine clinic. Methods: This is a retrospective, cross-sectional, cohort study conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from January 2010 to 2015 that included 253 children aged from birth to 12 years old. Data were obtained by reviewing medical reports of patients who presented with hyperlipidemia to the clinic, and their laboratory investigation results using KAUH electronic "Phoenix" system...
November 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761440/treatment-strategies-according-to-genotype-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Seung Man Cho, Byung-Ho Choe
This review article was requested by editor-in-chief of this journal as 'pediatric CHB treatment' for the upcoming special issue. The main objective of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is diminishing the risk of complications related to chronic liver disease. In Asia, there are already some reports about hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected children. The key points of treatment in children with CHB infections are selection of which patients to treat and conformation of the optimal therapy time that would reduce viral resistance...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756373/dieulafoy-lesion-in-a-two-year-old-boy-a-case-report
#20
Takaki Emura, Kenji Hosoda, Shota Harai, Noboru Oyachi, Takeyuki Suzuki, Ken Takada, Koji Kobayashi, Hisatake Ikeda
BACKGROUND: Massive gastrointestinal bleeding in children, mostly caused by esophageal varices secondary to chronic liver disease, is uncommon. Dieulafoy lesion in the gastrointestinal tract is a rare but important cause of gastrointestinal bleeding; massive bleeding from this lesion can be fatal unless adequate treatment is promptly initiated. We report a case of gastric Dieulafoy lesion in a 2-year old successfully treated with endoscopic hemoclipping. CASE PRESENTATION: A 2-year-old Japanese boy was admitted to our department with sudden massive hematemesis...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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