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Pediatric hcv

Rachel A Annunziato, Samantha G Lee, Elizabeth Galici, Ronen Arnon
: Previous research on children with HCV has examined patient psychosocial outcomes but little is known about the impact of HCV and its prolonged treatment, which includes weekly injections and oral medications for 6-12 months, on caregivers and families. The present study aimed to address this gap. DESIGN AND METHODS: Using a case series design (N=10), baseline distress levels of individuals and families as well as changes during HCV treatment were examined. A brief patient, caregiver, and family assessment packet was given before and immediately after treatment, but before the final outcome of treatment was known...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Zeinab A Elkabbany, Nancy S Elbarbary, Eman A Ismail, Nesrine A Mohamed, Dina Ragab, Shereen Abdel Alem, Yasmine M Ezzat, Sarah S Maurice, Noha U Hashem
AIM: To identify the prevalence and effect of hepatopathies of different etiologies among pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) using transient elastography (TE) and its relation to glycemic control. METHODS: One hundred T1DM patients were studied focusing on liver functions, fasting lipid profile, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), hepatitis C virus (HCV), serum immunoglobulins, autoimmune antibodies; anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (ASMA), and anti-liver kidney microsomal antibody (anti-LKM)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
J Czerwiński, D Lewandowska, P Małkowski, R Danielewicz
BACKGROUND: Poltransplant managed a national transplant registry with the use of the Web tool It collects information about all organ transplantations in the country along with outcomes. This article presents a formal analysis of data collected in the registry for the years 1998 to 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results presented are actual, not extrapolated, numbers; these were calculated only for the events for which the observation was complete, meaning that a given term of follow-up had passed and the information on recipient's and graft survivals were available...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
J Czerwiński, D Lewandowska, P Małkowski, R Danielewicz
We aim to provide a panorama of liver donation and transplantation in Poland, where each year around 300 liver transplantations from deceased donors and 20 liver fragment transplantations from living donors are performed. This means about 9 transplantations per population of 1 million. Each year, the number of deceased donors reaches more than 500. In more than 50% of cases, livers are used. The law allows liver procurement from living donors. Until the end of 2013, liver fragments were recovered from 236 living donors and transplanted mainly to pediatric recipients (n = 232)...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Mohamed A El-Guindi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major medical challenge affecting around 200 million people worldwide. The main site of HCV replication is the hepatocytes of the liver. HCV is a positive enveloped RNA virus from the flaviviridae family. Six major HCV genotypes are implicated in the human infection. In developed countries the children are infected mainly through vertical transmission during deliveries, while in developing countries it is still due to horizontal transmission from adults. Minimal nonspecific and brief symptoms are initially found in approximately 15% of children...
June 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
C E Burton, K E Doucette, C A Mabilangan, S S Plitt, B E Lee, J K Preiksaitis
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are important causes of hepatitis and can be transmitted from organ donor to recipient. This study aimed to determine HBV and HCV serologic profiles of a population of Canadian solid organ transplant (SOT) donors and recipients, including prevalence of recipient HBV immunity. METHODS: Data on age, gender, organ transplanted, and pre-transplant HBV and HCV serology for SOT donors and recipients at a Canadian hospital from 2001 to 2011 were obtained from a transplant database...
August 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
Behairy El-Sayed Behairy, Mostafa Mohamed Sira, Khaled Refat Zalata, El-Sayed Ebrahem Salama, Mohamed Ahmed Abd-Allah
AIM: To evaluate transient elastography (TE) as a noninvasive tool in staging liver fibrosis compared with liver biopsy and morphometry in children with different chronic liver diseases. METHODS: A total of 90 children [50 with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV), 20 with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and 20 with Wilson disease] were included in the study and underwent liver stiffness measurement (LSM) using TE. Liver biopsies were evaluated for fibrosis, qualitatively, by Ishak score and quantitatively by fibrosis area fraction (FAF) using digital image analysis (morphometry)...
April 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Ramadan A Mahmoud, Abdel-Azeem M El-Mazary, Ashraf Khodeary
Background. Frequent blood transfusions in thalassemia major children expose them to the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) in thalassemic children attending the Pediatrics Departments of both Sohag and Minia Universities of Upper Egypt, during the period from May 2014 to May 2015. Methods. Serum samples were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HCV, anti-CMV, and anti-HIV type 1 and type 2 using the Vitek Immunodiagnostic Assay System...
2016: Advances in Hematology
Aswine Bal, Anna Petrova
Background.  Perinatally acquired hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the main source of pediatric HCV infection. However, the best time for initiation of screening and follow up of these infants is still unknown. Analysis of the clinical data of infants born to HCV-infected mothers, transmission rates, and pathway of HCV testing could be important for optimization of their management. Methods.  Children of mothers with chronic HCV infection, who were observed between 1998 and 2013 at the pediatric infectious disease clinic for the first 18 months of their life, were eligible for enrollment...
January 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Huabo Cai, Baoxing Huang, Zhongsheng Zhu, Dongling Dai, Shaoming Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the etiology and clinical characteristics of hypoxic hepatitis (HH) in children. METHOD: Clinical data of 7 patients with HH in Shenzhen Children's Hospital from January 2011 to March 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. RESULT: Seven cases diagnosed as HH, age from 4 months to 11 years, were admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), and accounted for 0.32% of patients in PICU during the same period. The primary causes of HH were respiratory failure and cardiac shock caused by severe hand-foot-and-mouth disease, fulminant myocarditis, infant muggy syndrome ...
March 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Pier-Angelo Tovo, Carmelina Calitri, Carlo Scolfaro, Clara Gabiano, Silvia Garazzino
The worldwide prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children is 0.05%-0.4% in developed countries and 2%-5% in resource-limited settings, where inadequately tested blood products or un-sterile medical injections still remain important routes of infection. After the screening of blood donors, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HCV has become the leading cause of pediatric infection, at a rate of 5%. Maternal HIV co-infection is a significant risk factor for MTCT and anti-HIV therapy during pregnancy seemingly can reduce the transmission rate of both viruses...
January 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Danica E Kuncio, E Claire Newbern, Caroline C Johnson, Kendra M Viner
BACKGROUND: Vertical transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the most common route of pediatric HCV infection. Approximately 5% of children born to HCV-infected mothers develop chronic infection. Recommendations employ risk-based HCV testing of pregnant women, and screening children at a young age. This study assesses testing rates of children born to mothers tested HCV-positive in a major US city with a high burden of HCV infection. METHODS: HCV surveillance data reported to the Philadelphia Department of Public Health are housed in the Hepatitis Registry...
April 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Esther Granot, Etienne M Sokal
The major route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the pediatric age group is vertical, with infection occurring in up to 5% of infants born to mothers positive for HCV-RNA. The natural course of pediatric HCV infection is characterized by a high rate of spontaneous clearance, an asymptomatic clinical course, and normal or mild histologic changes. Cirrhosis is reported in 1-2% of children, and progression to severe chronic liver disease and HCC occurs 20-30 years after infection. Treatment with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) + ribavirin results in a sustained viral response (SVR) reaching 100% in children with HCV genotypes 2 or 3 but only 45-55% in those infected with genotypes 1 or 4...
November 2015: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Samantha Ohmer, Jonathan Honegger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Combined pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin remains the standard therapy for pediatric hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in 2016, but direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with greatly improved efficacy and safety are now approved for adults. Here we review the major classes of DAAs and their anticipated use for treatment and potentially prevention of HCV in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently approved DAAs target the viral protease, polymerase, and NS5A, a protein involved in viral replication and assembly...
February 2016: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Tokan Sultanaliev, Assan Zhexembayev, Adilbek Mukazhanov, Bakhyt Zharkymbekov, Gani Kuttymuratov, Zhanat Spatayev, Bauyrzhan Ibrayev, Kakharman Yesmembetov, Aiymkul Ashimkhanova, Mels Asykbayev
OBJECTIVES: Kazakhstan is experiencing a high demand for liver transplants. More than 1000 patients have end-stage liver disease in the country, and liver transplant is the only viable option for their treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liver transplant patients, treated from February 2013 to December 2014, were included in this retrospective analysis. RESULTS: From February 2013 to December 2014, seven patients received a liver transplant in our center (1 pediatric patient was excluded)...
November 2015: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Doris Quon, Mark Reding, Chris Guelcher, Skye Peltier, Michelle Witkop, Susan Cutter, Cathy Buranahirun, Don Molter, Mary Jane Frey, Angela Forsyth, Duc Bobby Tran, Randall Curtis, Grant Hiura, Justin Levesque, Debbie de la Riva, Matthew Compton, Neeraj N Iyer, Natalia Holot, David L Cooper
Young adults with hemophilia face unique challenges during the transition to adulthood, including issues associated with switching from pediatric to adult hematology care, building mature interpersonal relationships, and establishing an independent career with an assurance of medical insurance coverage. A greater understanding of these challenges is essential for developing effective strategies to address the specific needs of this population. These challenges may be differentiated from those of older adults with hemophilia in large part because of more extensive childhood prophylaxis and safer factor products, resulting in fewer joint problems and lower rates of HIV and HCV infections...
December 2015: American Journal of Hematology
Hanaa M El-Karaksy, Engy A Mogahed, Mona S El-Raziky, Doaa Saleh, Mahmoud Besheer, Samah Mubarak
Combined treatment with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN)-α2b and ribavirin (RBV) is the only currently approved treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of combined treatment with PEG-IFN-α2b and RBV in Egyptian children and adolescents with genotype 4 (GT4) HCV infection. The study included 66 patients (3-17 years of age), of both sexes, infected with HCV GT4, treated with PEG-IFN-α2b (60 μg/m(2)), subcutaneously once weekly plus RBV (15 mg/kg/day) in 2 divided oral doses...
January 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
Nanda Kerkar, George Yanni
Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic progressive inflammatory disease of the liver that responds to immunosuppressive therapy. In patients with AIH who have an acute liver failure presentation or those who develop end stage liver disease despite medical therapy, liver transplantation (LT) may become necessary. Despite good outcomes after LT, AIH can develop/recur in the allograft with an estimated incidence of recurrence between 8 and 12% at 1 year and 36-68% at 5 years. The presence of non-organ specific autoantibodies, elevated serum aminotransferases and immunoglobulin G as well as the characteristic histologic features of interface hepatitis (peri-portal plasma cell infiltration) characterize recurrence of disease...
January 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
Sericea Stallings-Smith, Kevin R Krull, Tara M Brinkman, Melissa M Hudson, Rohit P Ojha
BACKGROUND: Pediatric cancer patients who received blood transfusions were potentially exposed to hepatitis C virus (HCV) prior to second-generation HCV screening of blood products in 1992. Limited evidence is available about long-term incident cirrhosis in this population. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the overall and sex-specific incidence of cirrhosis among HCV-seropositive survivors of pediatric cancer. STUDY DESIGN: We identified 113HCV-seropositive pediatric cancer patients treated at St...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Pietro Merli, Luisa Strocchio, Luciana Vinti, Giuseppe Palumbo, Franco Locatelli
INTRODUCTION: Eltrombopag is an orally bioavailable, non-peptide thrombopoietin receptor agonist capable of stimulating platelet production through the differentiation of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells into committed CD41+ megakaryocyte precursors and proliferation of megakaryocyte progenitor cells. AREAS COVERED: This drug has been tested in several clinical trials in adult patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), demonstrating the ability of the drug to reduce the burden of thrombocytopenia and its associated side effects...
2015: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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