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Hbv children

Hitoshi Tajiri, Tomoko Takano, Hideo Tanaka, Kosuke Ushijima, Ayano Inui, Yoko Miyoshi, Keiichi Ozono, Daiki Abukawa, Takeshi Endo, Stephen Brooks, Yasuhito Tanaka
The aims of the study were to elucidate the clinical characteristics of patients who developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related to persistent HBV infection since childhood and to investigate usefulness of assessing alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in this population. A nationwide multicenter survey of children with chronic HBV infection was performed. Among 548 patients, 15 patients developed HCC at the median age of 15 years (range 9-36), including 13 males and 2 females. A case-control comparison showed that HBeAg seroconversion and liver cirrhosis were associated with the occurrence of HCC...
October 17, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Philippa J Easterbrook
Testing and diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective hepatitis epidemic response. In contrast to HIV, a systematic approach to hepatitis C testing has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, include lack of simple, reliable, and low cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to test; stigmatization and social marginalization of some groups with or at risk of viral hepatitis; and lack of international or national guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings...
October 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Jean-Pierre Allain, Ohene Opare-Sem
HBV testing and diagnosis of HBV-related liver disease in low-income and middle-income countries differs substantially from that in developed countries in terms of access to resources and expensive technologies requiring highly specialized staff. For identification and classification of HBV infection, genomic amplification methods to detect and quantify HBV DNA are often nonexistent or available only in central laboratories of major cities. When samples from peripheral locations do arrive, delays in receiving results generate loss to follow-up...
September 14, 2016: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Hartono Gunardi, Melanie Y Iskandar, Turyadi, Susan I Ie, Pramita G Dwipoerwantoro, Rino A Gani, David H Muljono
BACKGROUND: HBV-infected patients are potential sources of intra-familial transmission. We studied HBV transmission and molecular characteristics within families of HBV-related chronic liver disease (CLD) patients. METHODS: Family members [index cases (ICs), spouses, and 1-18-year-old children] of HBV-related CLD patients were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs. HBsAg-positive subjects were tested for HBeAg/anti-HBe. Anti-HBc-positive children together with their family members were further investigated for HBV DNA...
September 13, 2016: Hepatology International
Maria Inge Lusida, Juniastuti, Yoshihiko Yano
Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
N Urganci, D Kalyoncu, A S Ozer
Background: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Hepatitis B Vaccination (HBV) vaccination and factors associated with vaccine unresponsiveness in healthy children. Methods: A total of 141 healthy children aged between 2-5 years were included in the study. All of the cases had received 20 µg of recombinant DNA vaccine for hepatitis B (0,1 and 6 months). Demographic features and the factors such as duration of breastfeeding, exposure to HBsAg-positive family members, administration of concomitant vaccines and exposure to smoke were determined...
October 15, 2015: West Indian Medical Journal
Kali Zhou, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Nick Walsh, Ji Young Kim, Roger Chou, Mellanye Lackey, Julia Scott, Ying-Ru Lo, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Advances in therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have ushered in a new era in chronic hepatitis treatment. To maximise the effectiveness of these medicines, individuals must be engaged and retained in care. We analysed operational interventions to enhance chronic viral hepatitis testing, linkage to care, treatment uptake, adherence, and viral suppression or cure. METHODS: We did a systematic review of operational interventions, and did meta-analyses for sufficiently comparable data...
September 5, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Mohammad Reza Aghasadeghi, Ali Akbar Velayati, Setareh Mamishi, Mahmood Nabavi, Arezoo Aghakhani, Farahnaz Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Mohammad-Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Shahram Sabeti, Mohammad Banifazl, Fatemeh Azimian-Zavareh, Fatemeh Motevalli, Sepehr Soleymani, Amitis Ramezani
A nationwide hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination program for neonates was launched in Iran in 1993. Despite the success of this program, concern about its long-term success still remains, because breakthrough infections due to emergence of surface mutants have been reported in immunized children. We aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of HBV and vaccine escape mutants among individuals born after the initiation of the nationwide vaccination program in Iran. This study included 1115 participants younger than 23 years old, with 223 in each age cohort...
December 2016: Archives of Virology
Maryam Foroughi, Saeedeh Moayedi-Nia, Alireza Shoghli, Saeed Bayanolhagh, Abbas Sedaghat, Mansoor Mohajeri, Seyed Noraldin Mousavinasab, Minoo Mohraz
OBJECTIVES: The existence of street and working children in Iran is undeniable. The precarious conditions of these children (including disrupted family, poverty, high prevalence of crime among relatives, family members and peers) cause social harm and high-risk behaviours, including drug addiction, selling sex or having sex with adolescents or peers. Here we explore the HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C status of street and working children in Tehran. METHODS: One thousand street and labour children, aged 10-18 years, were recruited by using the time-location sampling method, and semistructured questionnaires were used to find demographic information and information on HIV/AIDS-related high-risk sexual behaviours...
September 6, 2016: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Jiang-Nan Wu, Da-Jin Li, Yong Zhou
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between the initiation of hepatitis B vaccine (HB vaccine) at birth and completion of the HB vaccine and the national immunization program vaccine (NIPV) series in Fujian, China. METHODS: A provincial survey, including children in the community and newborns in hospital, was conducted to evaluate coverage with a timely first dose of HB vaccine and the completion of three doses of HB vaccine and the NIPV series in 2013...
August 31, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Prabhu P Gounder, Lisa R Bulkow, Mary Snowball, Susan Negus, Philip R Spradling, Brian J McMahon
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk in Alaska Native children and young adults with hepatitis B virus (HBV). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a population-based cohort of Alaska Native persons with HBV followed during 1982-2012. All individuals with HBV were offered HCC screening regardless of age using alpha-fetoprotein every 6 months; persons with an elevated alpha-fetoprotein or persons at high-risk for HCC, such as cirrhosis, family history of HCC, were offered ultrasound...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Oana Falup-Pecurariu, Sorin C Man, Mihai L Neamtu, Gratiana Chicin, Ginel Baciu, Carmen Pitic, Alexandra C Cara, Andrea E Neculau, Marin Burlea, Ileana L Brinza, Cristina N Schnell, Valentina Sas, Valeriu V Lupu, Nancy François, Kristien Swinnen, Dorota Borys
Prophylactic paracetamol administration impacts vaccine immune response; this study ( : NCT01235949) is the first to assess PHiD-CV immunogenicity following prophylactic ibuprofen administration. In this phase IV, multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled, non-inferiority study in Romania (November 2010-December 2012), healthy infants were randomized 3:3:3:1:1:1 to prophylactically receive immediate, delayed or no ibuprofen (IIBU, DIBU, NIBU) or paracetamol (IPARA, DPARA, NPARA) after each of three primary doses (PHiD-CV at age three/four/five months co-administered with DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib at three/five and DTPa-IPV/Hib at four months) or booster dose (PHiD-CV and DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib; 12-15 months)...
August 19, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
S S Zhu, Y Dong, L M Wang, Z Q Xu, D W Chen, Y Gan, F C Wang, J G Yan, L L Cao, P Wang, M Zhang, H F Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the liver pathological characteristics and the clearance rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with antiviral treatment for 1 to 7 years old children with heptitis B e antigen(HBeAg)-negative chronic hepatitis B. METHOD: A total of 49 cases with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B were treated with interferon (IFN) or IFN treatment for 6 months added with lamivudine, and were followed up for at least 6 months.Retrospective analysis was performed on the liver pathological characteristics, the efficacy of antivirus treatment and its influencing factors of the HBsAg clearance rate in the cases from June 2006 to December 2013 in the 302 Hospital of People's Liberation Army...
August 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Mohammad Reza Hasanjani Roushan, Fayyaz Saedi, Shima Soleimani, Masomeh Baiany
From 2007 to 2014, 328 infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers, who received passive-active immunization against hepatitis B at birth were tested for HBsAg, antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) at 12-15months of age. Thirteen (4%) cases were HBsAg positive. Forty-four infants who were anti-HBs, anti-HBc positive (group 1) and twenty-one infants who were anti-HBc positive alone (group 2) were identified. Both groups were followed-up annually for testing anti-HBs and anti-HBc to verify if anti-HBc was of maternal origin...
August 31, 2016: Vaccine
Y Yang, L Jin, Y L He, J F Liu, J Wang, K Wang, X H Ma, Q Li, Y L Feng, Z Yan, R T Yi, T Y Chen, Y R Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission among family members in families with familial clustering of HBV infection and poor outcomes, as well as the prevalence and distribution characteristics of HBsAg in offspring with different parental HBsAg status. METHODS: The general information of each member in families with poor outcomes were collected from 2007 to 2010, and serological test was performed to analyze the prevalence and distribution of HBsAg in family members...
April 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Khalid M Al-Jubran, Mohamed A Al-Dossary, Salah H Elsafi
OBJECTIVES: To study age specific rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriage in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia following a 24 year immunization program.  METHODS: Hepatitis B surveillance data between January 2004 and December 2013 were analyzed in a retrospective study, which included 24,504,914 patients. Seropositive cases of hepatitis B were reported by laboratory personnel as part of various investigations. Hepatitis B cases including acute and chronic carriers were identified upon serological positivity of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)...
August 2016: Saudi Medical Journal
Jakob P Cramer, Katrin Dubischar, Susanne Eder, Gerd D Burchard, Tomas Jelinek, Bernd Jilma, Herwig Kollaritsch, Emil Reisinger, Kerstin Westritschnig
BACKGROUND: IXIARO® is a Vero cell-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine licensed mainly in western countries for children and adults traveling to JE endemic areas. Limited immunogenicity and safety data in elderly travelers have been available. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate safety and immunogenicity of IXIARO in elderly subjects. METHODS: Open-label, single arm, multi-centered study. Two-hundred subjects with good general health, including adequately controlled chronic conditions, received two doses of IXIARO®, 28days apart...
August 31, 2016: Vaccine
Luz Angela Choconta-Piraquive, Fernando De la Hoz-Restrepo, Carlos Arturo Sarmiento-Limas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B vaccination was introduced into the Expanded Program of Immunization in Colombia in 1992, in response to WHO recommendations on hepatitis B immunization. Colombia is a low endemic country for Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) but it has several high endemic areas like the Amazon basin where more than 70 % of adults had been infected. A cross- sectional study was carried out in three rural areas of the Colombian Amazon to evaluate compliance with the recommended schedule for hepatitis B vaccine in Colombian children (one monovalent dose given in the first 24 h after birth + 3 doses of a pentavalent containing Hepatitis B...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Minal K Patel, Kathleen Wannemuehler, Rangi Tairi, Rufina Tutai, Edna Moturi, Beia Tabwaia, Akineti Bauro Nikuata, Malae Fepuleai Etuale, Grizelda Mokoia
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is highly endemic in many of the Pacific Island countries. Four island countries-Cook Islands, Kiribati, Niue, and Tokelau-sought to evaluate the success of their hepatitis B vaccination programs by conducting nationally representative serosurveys among children born post-vaccine introduction. METHODS: Cook Islands, Niue, and Tokelau conducted school-based census serosurveys because of small populations. The Cook Islands tested children in second grade; Niue tested children in early childhood education through sixth grade; and Tokelau tested children in first through sixth grades...
August 5, 2016: Vaccine
Priyo Budi Purwono, Juniastuti, Mochamad Amin, Rendra Bramanthi, Nursidah, Erika Maria Resi, Rury Mega Wahyuni, Yoshihiko Yano, Soetjipto, Hak Hotta, Yoshitake Hayashi, Takako Utsumi, Maria Inge Lusida
A universal hepatitis B vaccination program for infants was adopted in Indonesia in 1997. Before its implementation, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive individuals in the general population was approximately 5-10%. The study aimed to investigate the hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological status and molecular profile among children, 15 years after adoption of a universal infant vaccination program in Indonesia. According to the Local Health Office data in five areas, the percentages of children receiving three doses of hepatitis B vaccine are high (73...
September 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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