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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351639/call-to-action-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-africa
#1
Peyton Wilson, Jonathan B Parr, Ravi Jhaveri, Steve R Meshnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a significant public health issue that has not been adequately addressed, especially in the high-prevalence region of Africa. Despite the incorporation of HBV vaccines into the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI), children continue to be infected with HBV through maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT). The addition of a birth dose of HBV vaccine would be a cost-effective method to reduce MTCT. Birth-dose HBV vaccine policies have been adopted in the Western Pacific region but have yet to be implemented in the African region...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337651/the-effects-of-booster-vaccination-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-on-children-5-15-years-after-primary-immunization-a-5-year-follow-up-study
#2
Zikang Wu, Jun Yao, Hongdan Bao, Yongdi Chen, Shunshun Lu, Jing Li, Linna Yang, Zhenggang Jiang, Jingjing Ren, Kai-Jin Xu, Bing Ruan, Shi-Gui Yang, Tian-Sheng Xie, Qian Li
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in hepatitis B surface antibody titers (anti-HBs) after booster vaccinations in children aged 5-15 y and to provide suitable immunization strategies. A total of 2208 children were initially enrolled in screening, and 559 children were finally included. The participants were divided into 2 groups according to their pre-booster anti-HBs levels: Group I, <10 mIU/ml and Group II, ≥10 mIU/ml. Group I was administered 3 doses of booster hepatitis B vaccine (0-1-6 months, 10 μg), and Group II was administered 1 dose of booster hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg)...
January 16, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318526/evaluation-of-the-protection-provided-by-hepatitis-b-vaccination-in-india
#3
Jacob Puliyel, Pathik Naik, Ashish Puliyel, Kishore Agarwal, Vandana Lal, Nimmi Kansal, Devki Nandan, Vikas Tripathi, Prashant Tyagi, Saroj K Singh, Rajeev Srivastava, Utkarsh Sharma, V Sreenivas
OBJECTIVE: In India, Hepatitis B vaccination is recommended at 6 wk except for hospital-deliveries. The authors examined protection afforded by the birth dose. METHODS: A case-control study was done. HBsAg and HBcAb were tested in 2671 children, 1 to 5 y and HBsAb was evaluated in a subset of 1413 children. Vaccination history was recorded. Cases were HBsAg carriers. In another analysis, children who got infected (HBsAg and/or HBcAb positive) were considered as cases...
January 10, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315536/a-decision-analytic-model-for-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-sub-saharan-africa-using-birth-dose-vaccination
#4
Sarah Anderson, Lorie M Harper, Jodie Dionne-Odom, Gregory Halle-Ekane, Alan T N Tita
OBJECTIVE: To compare prenatal maternal hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening and infant vaccination strategies to inform policy on HBV prevention in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A decision analytic model was created using previously published data to assess the ability of three intervention strategies to prevent HBV infection by age 10 years. Strategy 1 comprised of universal vaccination with a pentavalent vaccine (HBV, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and Haemophilus influenzae) at age 6 weeks...
January 8, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286012/hepatitis-a-b-c-and-hiv-seroprevalence-among-syrian-refugee-children-admitted-to-outpatient-clinics
#5
Şükran Köse, Ilker Ödemiş, Didem Çelik, Bengü Gireniz Tatar, Ilkay Akbulut, Dilek Yilmaz Çiftdoğan
Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of serious health problems such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leading to immunodeficiency disorders through different mechanisms, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes the development of severe secondary infections. Hepatitis A (HAV) is thought to spread by the faecal-oral route, while Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV are mostly transmitted vertically during childhood. In our study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV among Syrian refugee children who were admitted to outpatient clinics...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262499/-comprehensive-review-of-factors-and-preventions-of-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus
#6
Q Wang, Y Y Jiang, X Y Wang, Y P Qiao, L X Dou, M Su, A L Wang
Mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of major public health issues. Difference is found on effect of preventions of mother to child transmission of HBV such as Hepatitis B vaccine, Hepatitis B immunoglobulin and antiretroviral drugs. Based on the risks of hepatitis B virus on children, influencing factors and interventions of HBV mother-to-child transmission were explored to improve prevention mother-to-child transmission of hepatitis B and to search appropriate strategies reducing mother-to-child transmission of HBV...
December 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232664/vaccination-practices-in-pediatric-dialysis-patients-across-europe-a-european-pediatric-dialysis-working-group-and-european-society-for-pediatric-nephrology-dialysis-working-group-study
#7
Sevcan A Bakkaloğlu, Yesim Özdemir Atikel, Fabio Paglialonga, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Varvara Askiti, Enrico Vidal, Gema Ariceta, Engin Melek, Enrico Verrina, Nikoleta Printza, Karel Vondrak, Aleksandra Zurowska, Ilona Zagozdzon, Mesiha Ekim, Elif Nursel Özmert, Stephanie Dufek, Augustina Jankauskiene, Claus Peter Schmitt, Eszter Lévai, Johan Vande Walle, Nur Canpolat, Tuula Holtta, Michel Fischbach, Guenter Klaus, Christoph Aufricht, Rukshana Shroff, Alberto Edefonti
BACKGROUND: Data on the immunization practices in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current vaccination practices for children on dialysis across European pediatric nephrology centers. METHODS: A total of 18 tertiary pediatric nephrology centers from 12 European countries were included in the study. The data on universal national immunization programs and immunization practices for children with chronic disease or risk were recorded from European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization...
December 12, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215820/antiviral-efficacy-of-tenofovir-monotherapy-in-children-with-nucleos-t-ide-naive-chronic-hepatitis-b
#8
Jae Young Choe, Jae Sung Ko, Byung Ho Choe, Jung Eun Kim, Ben Kang, Kyung Jae Lee, Hye Ran Yang
BACKGROUND: The purpose was to compare the efficacy between tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and lamivudine (LMV) in children with nucleos(t)ide-naive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. Patients with CHB were treated with TDF in the immune-reactive phase and compared with a historical control group of patients treated with LMV before the TDF era. METHODS: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA titer decrements (> 3 log₁₀ IU/mL) were monitored after treatment initiation...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182219/hepatitis-b-in-poland-in-2015
#9
Małgorzata Stępień, Katarzyna Piwowarow, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the epidemiological situation of hepatitis B in Poland in 2015 in relation to previous years. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Evaluation of the epidemiological situation carried out based on analysis of data from individual reports on acute hepatitis B cases registered by the sanitary-epidemiological stations, aggregate data published in annual bulletins “Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland” and data from annual bulletin “Vaccinations in Poland”...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181424/comparative-effectiveness-of-prophylactic-strategies-for-perinatal-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-a-network-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#10
Zhi-Xian Chen, Xun Zhuang, Xiao-Hong Zhu, Yan-Li Hao, Gui-Fang Gu, Meng-Zhi Cai, Gang Qin
Background: Perinatal transmission is the main route of hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission. While several measures have been attempted as means of preventing perinatal HBV transmission, the optimal strategy remains inconclusive. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search, through December 2016, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the following measures among pregnant women with HBV infection: placebo/none, active immunoprophylaxis (hepatitis B vaccine series starting at birth [HBVac]), passive-active immunoprophylaxis (hepatitis B immunoglobulin and vaccine [HBIG+HBVac]), prenatal HBIG administration (HBIG/HBIG+HBVac), and prenatal antiviral therapy (AVT/HBIG+HBVac)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174317/status-and-progress-of-hepatitis-b-control-through-vaccination-in-the-south-east-asia-region-1992-2015
#11
REVIEW
Lana Childs, Sigrun Roesel, Rania A Tohme
In 2016, the Immunization Technical Advisory Group of the South-East Asia Region (SEAR) endorsed a regional goal to achieve ≤1% prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among 5-year-old children by 2020. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is largely preventable with a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB-BD) followed by two to three additional doses. We reviewed the progress towards hepatitis B control through vaccination in SEAR during 1992-2015. We summarized hepatitis B vaccination data and reviewed the literature to determine the prevalence of chronic HBV infection pre- and post-vaccine introduction...
November 21, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#12
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140938/immunity-following-childhood-vaccinations-in-perinatally-hiv-exposed-children-with-and-without-hiv-infection-in-latin-america
#13
Regina Cm Succi, Margot R Krauss, D Robert Harris, Daisy M Machado, Maria I de Moraes-Pinto, Marisa M Mussi-Pinhata, Noris Pavia Ruz, Russell B Pierre, Lenka A Kolevic Roca, Esaú Joao, Irene Foradori, Marcelo C Scotta, Rohan Hazra, George K Siberry
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV) children are at risk for undervaccination and poor vaccine response at four years of age. Childhood vaccine coverage and immune response were compared between PHIV and HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: PHIV and HEU children were enrolled prospectively at fifteen sites from 2002-2009. Full vaccination by age four years was defined as: three hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine doses; four tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine doses; three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine by age 12 months or ≥1 dose given after age 12 months; one measles-containing vaccine dose; one rubella-containing vaccine dose...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140871/hiv-prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#14
Elia John Mmbaga, Kåre Moen, Germana Henry Leyna, Rose Mpembeni, Melkizedeck Thomas Leshabari
INTRODUCTION: Limited studies and differential risk behaviours among men who have sex with men(MSM) in Africa calls for population specific studies. We present results from the largest integrated bio-behavioural survey among MSM in Africa to inform programming. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study utilizing respondent driven sampling to recruit MSM aged 18 and above. Data on socio-demographic characteristics and HIV-related risks were collected and all participants were tested for HIV, Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 (HSV-2), Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) and Syphilis...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091317/the-change-of-antibody-levels-in-children-changes-and-analysis-of-anti-hbs-titers-after-primary-immunization-in-1-16-year-old-chinese-children-a-hospital-based-study
#15
Xiaomei Yue, Congcong Ge, Shurui Zhuge, Hao He, Hui Yang, Hongmei Xu, Ailong Huang, Yao Zhao
Immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine is the most effective measure to prevent Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in antibody levels induced by administration of the hepatitis B vaccine in children aged 1-16 year-old in a large sample sized investigation. HBV markers were determined in 93,326 1-16 year-old hospitalized children who completed primary immunization as infants from southwest China, Chongqing. Analyses were performed on anti-HBs titer changes with increasing age, and the revaccination effect was evaluated in children aged 7-14...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082646/safety-and-efficacy-of-telbivudine-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-during-the-entire-pregnancy-long-term-follow-up
#16
J Shang, Q Wen, C C Wang, K Liu, L Bai, H Tang
The management of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in pregnancy is a unique issue. Telbivudine (LdT) is recommended to block HBV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) in the third trimester. However, the safety of LdT treatment during the entire pregnancy for the long-term growth of infants is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and long-term safety of LdT for the entire pregnancy period. This retrospective cohort study included 40 pregnant women and 43 children from 2011 to 2017. The antiviral effects and maternal abnormalities were evaluated...
November 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022533/distribution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-namibia
#17
P Mhata, T W Rennie, L F Small, P M Nyarang'o, Z Chagla, C J Hunter
BACKGROUND: Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate evidence-based data. Available data from the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 15 - 60% of the normal population in many African countries may be positive for one or more of the HBV serological markers...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017655/-application-of-active-immunization-in-the-prevention-of-de-novo-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-with-hbcab-positive-donor-liver
#18
Yufeng Cui, Wei Lu, Wei Gao, Chong Dong, Chao Han, Yihe Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of active immunization on prevention of post-transplantation de novo hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in patients receiving liver grafts from hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) positive donors. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted. Eighty-seven children undergoing liver transplantation from HBcAb positive donors admitted to Tianjin First Center Hospital from October 2012 to December 2016 were enrolled, and the data of donors and recipients were collected...
October 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017456/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-hepatitis-b-infection-among-mothers-and-children-with-hepatitis-b-infected-mother-in-upper-dolpa-nepal
#19
Purusotam Raj Shedain, Madhu Dixit Devkota, Megha Raj Banjara, Huang Ling, Subash Dhital
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. In Nepal, the prevalence of HBV is found to be low (0.9%), although high prevalence (≥8%) of HBV infection is depicted among subgroup/population in the mountain region by various studies. This study assessed the prevalence and the risk of HBV infection among mothers, as well as among the youngest child under 5 years old living with hepatitis B positive mothers in Dolpa, the most remote mountain district of Nepal...
October 10, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016603/characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-amerindian-children-and-mothers-from-amazonas-state-colombia
#20
Carlos Mario Jaramillo, Fernando de La Hoz, Alexandra Porras, Diana di Filippo, Luz Angela Choconta-Piraquive, Edra Payares, Neyla Montes, Maria-Cristina Navas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. In the 1980's a highly effective and safe vaccine against HBV was developed, although breakthrough infection still occasionally occurs because of the emergence of escape mutants. The aim of this study was to identify HBV genotypes and escape mutants in children and their mothers in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas State, Southern Colombia. METHODS: Blood specimens collected from children and mothers belonging to 37 Amerindian communities in Amazonas state, were screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc using ELISA...
2017: PloS One
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