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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757383/considerations-of-antiviral-treatment-to-interrupt-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-china
#1
Fuqiang Cui, Joseph Woodring, Polin Chan, Fujie Xu
Background: Treating high-risk women with antivirals in their third trimester is a promising intervention to further reduce perinatal transmission in neonates born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive [HBsAg(+)] mothers. Methods: We estimated the number of perinatal infections based on coverage and effectiveness of hepatitis B immunization. We compared cost-effectiveness of different approaches to identify high-risk women for antiviral treatment, by region and urban/rural residence...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752131/effectiveness-of-the-dtpa-hbv-ipv-hib-vaccine-against-invasive-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-disease-in-the-netherlands-2003-16-a-case-control-study
#2
Susana Monge, Susan Jm Hahné, Hester E de Melker, Elisabeth Am Sanders, Arie van der Ende, Mirjam J Knol
BACKGROUND: In 2016, an increase in invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) disease was reported in the Netherlands in children younger than 5 years, which coincided with the introduction of the hexavalent diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis-hepatitis B virus-inactivated polio virus/Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) from 2011 onwards. We aimed to estimate the effectiveness of the hexavalent vaccine to assess whether this increase could be explained by decreasing effectiveness...
May 8, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726943/hepatitis-b-vaccination-effective-in-children-exposed-to-anti-tnf-alpha-in-utero
#3
Alison de Lima, Shannon L Kanis, Johanna C Escher, C Janneke van der Woude
INTRODUCTION: Neonates exposed to TNF alpha inhibitors in utero are born with detectable drug levels which can still be detected throughout the first year of life. Since 2011, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine is routinely administered to all newborns in the Netherlands. Adults treated with anti-TNF have been reported to respond inadequately to the HBV vaccine. The aim of this study was to compare anti-HBs levels in anti-TNF exposed children with non- exposed children following routine Dutch HBV vaccination...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718537/resolution-of-hbv-infection-occurs-sooner-than-recovery-of-renal-disease-in-adult-serum-hbsag-negative-hbv-associated-glomerulonephritis
#4
Fang Xu, Chong Wang, Xiaoju Shi, Jie Hou, Xiaolin Guo, Pujun Gao
BACKGROUND: Most cases of hepatitis B virus-associated glomerulonephritis (HBV-GN) occur in children and present with serum HBsAg positivity. Few studies have investigated adult HBV-GN patients who are serum HBsAg-negative. This study aimed to determine the clinical and pathological features of serum HBsAg-negative adult HBV-GN patients. METHODS: Clinical, pathologic and laboratory findings were collected and analyzed in a cohort of 27 adult HBV-GN patients who were serum HBsAg negative upon diagnosis...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716597/hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-turkey-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Hakan Leblebicioglu, Resat Ozaras
Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a non-enveloped single stranded RNA virus causes sporadic cases of hepatitis or outbreaks. The disease is generally self-limited although it may cause fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women, elderly, those with underlying chronic hepatitis, immunosuppressed, and transplant recipients. It is transmitted through fecal-oral route and zoonotic transmission. Hepatitis is a main health care problem in Turkey; HBV and HCV prevalences are 4 and 1% respectively. Hepatitis D represents another considerable hepatitis etiology with a prevalence of 5-27%...
May 2, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689122/efficacy-and-safety-of-peginterferon-alfa-2a-40kd-in-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-the-peg-b-active-study
#6
Stefan Wirth, Hongfei Zhang, Winita Hardikar, Kathleen B Schwarz, Etienne Sokal, Weibo Yang, Huimin Fan, Vyacheslav Morozov, Qing Mao, Hong Deng, Yang Huang, Lei Yang, Nicolas Frey, Clare Nasmyth-Miller, Vedran Pavlovic, Cynthia Wat
Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) represent an area of unmet medical need, due to increased lifetime risk of CHB sequelae and limited therapeutic options compared with adult CHB patients. The PEG-B-ACTIVE (NCT01519960) phase III study evaluated peginterferon (PegIFN) alfa-2a treatment in children aged 3 to <18 years with CHB. A total of 161 hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive immune-active patients without advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis were randomized (2:1) to PegIFN alfa-2a (Group A, n = 101) or no treatment (Group B, n = 50); patients with advanced fibrosis were assigned to PegIFN alfa-2a (Group C, n = 10)...
April 24, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629487/quasispecies-characters-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-immunoprophylaxis-failure-infants
#7
Xin Wang, Wanyan Deng, Keli Qian, Haijun Deng, Yong Huang, Zeng Tu, Ailong Huang, Quanxin Long
Hepatitis B vaccination prevents 80-95% of transmission and reduces the incidence of HBV in children. The variations in the a determinant of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) have been reported to be the most prevalent cause for vaccine or antibody escape. There is a conflicting evidence on as to whether escape mutants arise de novo in infected infants or whether the mutants, that have preexisted maternally, subsequently undergo selective replication in the infant under immune pressure. Here, we report that nearly 65% (55 of 85) vaccination failure in child patients has no amino acid substitution in a determinant as seen by Sanger sequencing...
April 8, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609968/hepatitis-b-infection-control-in-colombian-amazon-after-15-years-of-hepatitis-b-vaccination-effectiveness-of-birth-dose-and-current-prevalence
#8
Diego Garcia, Alexandra Porras, Alejadro Rico Mendoza, Nelson Alvis, Maria Cristina Navas, Fernando De La Hoz, Marlen De Neira, Elkin Osorio, José Fernando Valderrama
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is highly endemic in the Colombian Amazon basin. In Colombia, the universal hepatitis B vaccination in that area has been active since 1993. The program targets children aged under five years. Newborns receive at least three doses, and in 2001, HBV vaccine birth dose was included. This study aimed to evaluate the advances on HBV control in the Colombian Amazon. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in children less than 11 years old in rural areas of the Colombian Amazon, in order to assess the current levels of HBV prevalence and evaluate the effectiveness of HBV vaccination...
March 30, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599078/global-prevalence-treatment-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-2016-a-modelling-study
#9
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The 69th World Health Assembly approved the Global Health Sector Strategy to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Although no virological cure exists for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, existing therapies to control viral replication and prophylaxis to minimise mother-to-child transmission make elimination of HBV feasible. We aimed to estimate the national, regional, and global prevalence of HBsAg in the general population and in the population aged 5 years in 2016, as well as coverage of prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment...
March 26, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588118/monitoring-the-efficacy-of-infant-hepatitis-b-vaccination-and-revaccination-in-0-to-8-year-old-children-protective-anti-hbs-levels-and-cellular-immune-responses
#10
Xuefen Li, Yumiao Xu, Yuejiao Dong, Xianzhi Yang, Bo Ye, Yiyin Wang, Yu Chen
Vaccination against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of infant hepatitis B vaccination and revaccination in 0- to 8-year-old children in the context of protective anti-HBs levels and cellular immune responses. Using a random questionnaire survey, 1695 pre-school children were recruited as research subjects during January 2015 to June 2017. Blood samples were obtained to measure HBV serological markers as well as peripheral immunocytes. The children were divided into non-, low- and hyper- responsive groups (NR, LR, and HR) based on the vaccination efficacy...
April 25, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567409/portuguese-preschool-children-benefit-epa-dha-and-se-and-risk-mehg-assessment-through-the-consumption-of-selected-fish-species
#11
C Cardoso, I Bernardo, N M Bandarra, L Louro Martins, C Afonso
This study aimed to assess the risk-benefit balance associated to fish consumption by Portuguese preschool children. For this purpose, databases (from IPMA and literature) were mined and mathematically processed by a model based on the Extreme Value Theory assuming consumption scenarios. Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and selenium (Se) and methylmercury (MeHg) were selected as critical components of fish, given their health impact and significant contents in some fish species. Assessment also took into account that Se may protect against MeHg toxicity...
March 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560290/a-public-health-analysis-on-gaps-in-disease-monitoring-and-opportunities-for-improved-care-for-the-management-of-hepatitis-b-and-c
#12
REVIEW
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C have been major disease-causing agents among humans since they were discovered in the 1960s. Both cause jaundice-like symptoms initially but their prognosis and treatment are somehow different and depend upon many demographic details, such as the age and susceptibility of the patients and any other comorbid conditions. They clinically present primarily with hepatitis and can have many adverse effects or even be life-threatening at times, if not treated properly. However, their epidemiological background and findings in terms of morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rates are different...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530634/early-and-long-term-anamnestic-response-to-hbv-booster-dose-among-fully-vaccinated-egyptian-children-during-infancy
#13
Iman I Salama, Samia M Sami, Zeinab N Said, Somaia I Salama, Thanaa M Rabah, Ghada A Abdel-Latif, Dalia M Elmosalami, Rehan M Saleh, Aida M Abdel Mohsin, Ammal M Metwally, Amal I Hassanin, Hanaa M Emam, Samia A Hemida, Safaa M Elserougy, Fatma A Shaaban, Walaa A Fouad, Amira Mohsen, Manal H El-Sayed
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate early and long term anamnestic response to a booster dose of HBV vaccine among non-seroprotected children. SUBJECTS AND METHOD: A national community based project was carried out on 3600 children aged 9 months to 16 years, fully vaccinated during infancy. They were recruited from 6 governorates representing Egypt. It revealed that 1535 children (42.8%) had non sero-protective anti-HBs (<10 IU/L) and were HBsAg or anti-HBc negative. A challenging dose of 10 μg of mono-valent Euvax HBV vaccine was given to 1121/1535 children...
April 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517711/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-intrauterine-transmission-among-pregnant-women-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#14
Songxu Peng, Zhihua Wan, Tingting Liu, Huiping Zhu, Yukai Du
GOALS: To identify the potential risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine transmission and predict the incidence of HBV intrauterine transmission among hepatitis B surface antigen-positive pregnant women with diverse viral load. BACKGROUND: The intrauterine transmission of HBV significantly contributes to the persistence of a high number of patients infected with HBV. However, its risk factors remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed on hepatitis B surface antigen-positive pregnant women who delivered from June 2012 to December 2016 at Wuhan Medical Care Center for Women and Children, Wuhan, China...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29498629/hepatitis-b-virus-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-hepatic-cancer-stem-cells
#15
REVIEW
Saravana Kumar Kailasam Mani, Ourania Andrisani
Chronic Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is linked to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) pathogenesis. Despite the availability of a HBV vaccine, current treatments for HCC are inadequate. Globally, 257 million people are chronic HBV carriers, and children born from HBV-infected mothers become chronic carriers, destined to develop liver cancer. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are needed to target essential pathways involved in HCC pathogenesis. Accumulating evidence supports existence of hepatic cancer stem cells (hCSCs), which contribute to chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence after treatment or surgery...
March 2, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489662/motor-development-delay-in-offspring-is-associated-with-prenatal-telbivudine-exposure
#16
Chengliang Zhou, Ying Yu, Qian Yang, Huihui Wang, Min Hou, Li Jin, Fanghong Zhang, Jiangzhong Sheng, Mingfang Miao, Xiaofu Yang, He-Feng Huang
Telbivudine is an orally nucleoside analog with potent and specific antihepatitis B virus (HBV) activity, and it has been reported to block mother-to-infant transmission. However, few studies have focused on the safety of prenatal exposure for offspring development.This is a prospective noninterventional study. Participants were enrolled during delivery through the Women's Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine between January 2012 and September 2013. Neonate's umbilical cord arterial blood (UCAB) was collected after delivery...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488227/hbv-pre-core-mutant-in-genotype-d-infected-children-is-selected-during-hbeag-anti-hbe-seroconversion-and-leads-to-hbeag-negative-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-adulthood
#17
Piero Colombatto, Cristiana Barbera, Flavia Bortolotti, Anna M Maina, Francesco Moriconi, Daniela Cavallone, Pierluigi Calvo, Filippo Oliveri, Ferruccio Bonino, Maurizia R Brunetto
Selection of HBeAg defective HBV mutants (mt) during childhood might influence infection outcome in adults. Aim of this study was to correlate the dynamics of pre-core HBV mutant (pre-C mt) selection with virological/clinical outcomes in children followed-up until adulthood. Eighty subjects (50-M/30-F), 70 HBeAg-positive (87.5%), and 10 (12.5%) HBeAg-negative/anti-HBe-positive at the admission, mostly genotype D infected (91.2%), with median age of 6.5 (range: 0.2-17) years, were followed-up for 14.3 years (range: 1...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479251/childhood-exposures-to-discarded-needles-and-other-objects-potentially-contaminated-with-blood-borne-pathogens-in-toronto-canada
#18
Faisal Kordy, Astrid Petrich, Stanley E Read, Ari Bitnun
Background: Exposure to discarded needles or other objects put children at risk for infection with blood-borne pathogens (BBP), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C. Objective: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively analyze the epidemiology, management and outcome of children following such exposures in the greater Toronto community setting. Methods: A retrospective study of children <19 years of age who had community-based exposure to objects that could contain BBP between January 2001 and December 2014...
October 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456414/high-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-antibody-loss-and-a-case-report-of-de-novo-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-a-child-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#19
Palittiya Sintusek, Nawarat Posuwan, Piyaporn Wanawongsawad, Suttiruk Jitraruch, Yong Poovorawan, Voranush Chongsrisawat
AIM: To assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity among previously vaccinated pediatric liver transplant recipients and present a case report of de novo hepatitis B infection after liver transplantation. METHODS: This study focused on children with chronic liver diseases who received primary hepatitis B immunization and had a complete dataset of anti-HBs before and after liver transplantation between May 2001 and June 2017. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for potential factors relating to HBV immunity loss...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452204/antiviral-therapy-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-children-with-immune-tolerant-characteristics-a-pilot-open-label-randomized-study
#20
Shishu Zhu, Hongfei Zhang, Yi Dong, Limin Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Weiwei Liu, Yu Gan, Hongmei Tang, Dawei Chen, Fuchuan Wang, Pan Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIM: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children is a serious health problem worldwide. How to treat children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B infection, commonly characterized by hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, high viral load, normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase and no or minimal inflammation in liver histology, remains unresolved. This trial aims to study the benefits of antiviral therapy in children with these characteristics...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
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