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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089231/-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-despite-postexposure-prophylaxis-a-review-of-the-literature-and-description-of-11%C3%A2-observations
#1
B Biot, N Laverdure, F Lacaille, A Lachaux
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to a risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In France, where the prevalence of HBV is low, mother-to-child transmission is the cause of chronic infection in more than one-third of cases. After exposure, the risk of chronic infection is the highest for newborns (90 %). The World Health Organization implemented a global immunization program in 1991, applied in France in 1994. A significant number of children are infected each year, however, and failure of postexposure prophylaxis is reported in 4-10 % of newborns...
January 11, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070010/low-level-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-children-20-years-after-initiation-of-infant-vaccination-program-in-wallis-and-futuna
#2
Lorenzo Pezzoli, Jean Pierre Mathelin, Karen Hennessey, Padmasiri Eswara-Aratchige, Jayaprakash Valiakolleri, Sung Hye Kim
The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Wallis and Futuna (WAF) was one of the highest in the Pacific and was the driving factor for introducing hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination in 1992 and HepB birth dose (HepB-BD) in 2006. Using transmission assessment survey (TAS) as a survey platform for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF), we assessed HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) seroprevalence, HepB vaccination coverage, and its timeliness among schoolchildren in WAF. From one finger prick of all registered fourth and fifth grade students, we tested HBsAg and filariasis antigen simultaneously, and estimated HepB vaccination coverage and timeliness by reviewing students' immunization cards...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069363/adolescent-booster-with-hepatitis-b-virus-vaccines-decreases-hbv-infection-in-high-risk-adults
#3
Yuting Wang, Taoyang Chen, Ling-Ling Lu, Minjie Wang, Dongmei Wang, Hongyu Yao, Chunsun Fan, Jun Qi, Yawei Zhang, Chunfeng Qu
BACKGROUND: Neutralizing antibodies (anti-HBs) after immunization with hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines against HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) wane after 10-15years. We analyzed the effect of an adolescent booster given to vaccination-protected children born to mothers with different HBsAg-carrying status against HBV infection in their mature adulthood. METHODS: A total of 9793 individuals, who were HBsAg-negative at childhood (baseline) and donated blood samples, both during childhood and adulthood, from the vaccination group in "Qidong Hepatitis B Intervention Study", were enrolled...
January 6, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039902/long-term-safety-and-efficacy-of-telbivudine-in-infants-born-to-mothers-treated-during-the-second-or-third-trimesters-of-pregnancy
#4
Guo-Rong Han, Hong-Xiu Jiang, Cui-Min Wang, Yi Ding, Gen-Ju Wang, Xin Yue, Liu Zhou, Wei Zhao
Telbivudine, an FDA pregnancy category B drug, has been found to reduce hepatitis B virus (HBV) perinatal transmission with no safety concerns in infants aged up to 1 year. This study evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of telbivudine in 214 infants born to 210 pregnant women with chronic hepatitis B infection who were treated with telbivudine during pregnancy (weeks 20-32 of gestation). The infants were followed for up to 5 years after birth. The efficacy endpoint was the rate of perinatal transmission, which was established by HBsAg and HBV DNA levels at 7 and 12 months...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030524/attitudes-of-swiss-health-care-providers-towards-childhood-immunizations
#5
Marianne Schuler, Sabine Schaedelin, Christoph Aebi, Christoph Berger, Pierre-Alex Crisinel, Alessandro Diana, Anita Niederer-Loher, Claire-Anne Siegrist, Bernard Vaudaux, Ulrich Heininger
BACKGROUND: INFOVAC is a network providing information about immunization issues to health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of INFOVAC subscribers towards the current Swiss immunization schedule, potential modifications, and current and hypothetical immunization practices regarding their own children. METHODS: In March 2015, a web-based survey was sent to 4260 physicians and pharmacists subscribed to INFOVAC. Participation was anonymous and voluntary...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027994/variations-in-il-1r1-gene-influence-risk-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-of-children-in-a-han-chinese-population
#6
Jie Fan, Yiling Cai, Xin Huang, Yan Wang, Lihong Mu, Li Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Host genetic factors play an important role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. However, the role of Interleukin1Receptor, Type I (IL-1R1) gene in HBV infection and breakthrough infection in children remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between SNPs in IL-1 family and HBV infection and breakthrough infection in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 627 Chinese children (274 HBV infected children and 353 controls) ages 6 months to 12 years were recruited from October 2013 to May 2015...
December 24, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974122/-association-between-il-19-gene-polymorphisms-and-hepatitis-b-virus-susceptibility-in-children
#7
Jie Fan, Li-Hong Mu, Li Zhou, Xin Huang, Yan-Feng Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of interleukin (IL)-19 and susceptibility to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in children. METHODS: A case-control study was performed, and 136 children with positive HBsAg(case group) and 297 healthy children with negative HBsAg(control group) were enrolled. PCR and DNA sequencing were used for genotyping. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the frequencies of genotypes of IL-19 rs1798 between the case and control groups...
December 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938558/-a-retrospective-study-on-hbsag-clearance-rate-after-antiviral-therapy-in-children-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-aged-1-7-years
#8
S S Zhu, Y Dong, Z Q Xu, L M Wang, D W Chen, Y Gan, F C Wang, J G Yan, L L Cao, P Wang, H F Zhang
Objective: To investigate the HBsAg clearance rate after antiviral therapy in children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) aged 1-7 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the HBsAg clearance rate in 293 children who were hospitalized in 302 Hospital of PLA from June 2006 to December 2013, met the inclusion criteria, received antiviral therapy, and were followed up for at least 6 months after the withdrawal of antiviral therapy. The t-test or the rank sum test was applied according to the distribution of continuous data, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933716/risks-and-treatment-strategies-for-de-novo-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-from-anti-hbc-positive-donors-in-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#9
Chong Dong, Wei Gao, Nan Ma, Chao Sun, Wei-Ping Zheng, Kai Wang, Zhong-Yang Shen
The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence and risk factors of de novo HBV infection in pediatric patients receiving living donor liver transplants (LDLT) from HBcAb-positive donors, and to explore its treatment strategies. The data of 101 pediatric recipients receiving LDLT in Tianjin First Central Hospital between September 2006 and December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. The HBV markers were regularly tested before and after the surgery, including HBsAb, HBsAg, HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb. The median follow-up period was 25...
December 9, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931582/liver-transplantation-for-hepatitis-b-in-early-adulthood-analysis-of-the-united-network-for-organ-sharing-database
#10
G Rifai, A Anani, I A Hanouneh, B Mohamad, A Matloob, R Lopez, N N Zein, N Alkhouri
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has a mild course in most children that may delay initiation of treatment even when indicated. Unfortunately, a small number of cases can progress rapidly to cirrhosis, which may require liver transplantation (LT) in early adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of HBV-positive young adults who received LT and to evaluate post-transplant outcomes including patient and graft survival and differences between pre- and post-implementation of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) prioritization...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898721/hepatitis-b-virus-infections-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinic-at-deder-hospital-eastern-ethiopia
#11
Abdi Umare, Berhanu Seyoum, Tesfaye Gobena, Tamirat Haile Mariyam
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Women who are infected with HBV can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among pregnant women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895405/impact-of-il28b-and-oas-gene-family-polymorphisms-on-interferon-treatment-response-in-caucasian-children-chronically-infected-with-hepatitis-b-virus
#12
Krzysztof Domagalski, Małgorzata Pawłowska, Agnieszka Zaleśna, Małgorzata Pilarczyk, Paweł Rajewski, Waldemar Halota, Andrzej Tretyn
AIM: To investigate the impact of IL28B and OAS gene polymorphisms on interferon treatment responses in children with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: We enrolled 52 children (between the ages of 4 and 18) with hepatitis B e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB), who were treated with pegylated interferon alfa for 48 wk. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the OAS1 (rs1131476), OAS2 (rs1293747), OAS3 (rs2072136), OASL (rs10849829) and IL28B (rs12979860, rs12980275 and rs8099917) genes were studied to examine their associations with responses to IFN treatment in paediatric patients...
November 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892847/international-adoption-from-ethiopia-an-overview-of-the-health-status-at-arrival-in-belgium
#13
Lydia Van Kesteren, Marek Wojciechowski
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is a densely populated country with a fast growing economy. Still socioeconomic and health issues render many children parentless. One thousand and twenty eight Ethiopian children have been adopted in Belgium from September 2005 to September 2015. Little has been published about their health status at arrival. METHODS: Three hundred and fifteen children adopted from Ethiopia were clinically evaluated at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp from 1 January 2008 until 31 December 2014...
November 28, 2016: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879486/prospective-interventional-study-of-tenofovir-in-pregnancy-to-prevent-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-highly-viremic-women
#14
Pierre O Sellier, Sarah Maylin, Béatrice Berçot, Dorothée Chopin, Amanda Lopes, Guy Simoneau, John Evans, Véronique Delcey, Jean-Louis Bénifla, François Simon, Jean-François Bergmann
BACKGROUND: The risk of vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) increases as maternal HBV DNA increase, despite serovaccination to newborns. METHODS: From 1 July 2012 to 1 January 2016, all pregnant women in Lariboisiere Hospital, Paris, France, with HBV DNA of 5 log10 IU/ml and above were administered tenofovir from week 28 of pregnancy until delivery. HBV DNA was measured at months 1, 2 of tenofovir and at delivery. The newborns were serovaccinated, tested for hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb)±HBV DNA, and hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) when aged 9 months, and then 24 months...
November 22, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866767/minimization-of-hepatitis-b-infection-among-children-in-jiangsu-china-12years-after-integration-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-into-the-expanded-program-on-immunization
#15
Xiaoqian Lin, Jishi Yang, Huixia Lu, Yulin Zhou, Guiping Zhou, Huiyi Wu, Chenyu Xu, Qiaozhen Wu, Jingli Liu, Shanshan Chen, Muyi Yang, Guangyu Gu, Yali Hu, Yi-Hua Zhou
BACKGROUND: China has integrated hepatitis B vaccine into the Expanded Program on Immunization since 2002. We aimed to survey the seroprevalence of and immunity to hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children born from 2002 to 2014 in Jiangsu, China. METHODS: Totally 3442 children (M:F=2072:1370) at the age of 7months to 12years (5.5±3.6), from five cities and rural areas across Jiangsu province, were enrolled. Blood samples were measured for HBV markers by ELISA and quantitative microparticle enzyme immunoassay...
December 12, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819332/epidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-results-from-a-community-based-study-of-0-15-million-residents-in-south-china
#16
Fangfang Zeng, Pi Guo, Yun Huang, Wei Xin, Zhicheng Du, Shuming Zhu, Yu Deng, Dingmei Zhang, Yuantao Hao
Limited information is available about the current epidemic status of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Guangdong province in South China, where hepatitis B is endemic. We sought to provide an up-to-date assessment of hepatitis B prevalence in a large population through a community-based study. A total of 169,211 local residents were recruited using the stratified cluster random sampling method from 2014 to 2015, and each participant's information was collected using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Accordingly, the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the total population was 8...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818588/update-on-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#17
REVIEW
Manoochehr Makvandi
The event of mutations in the surface antigen gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen with positive/negative anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody status in serum and this phenomenon is named occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The presence of anti-HBc antibody in serum is an important key for OBI tracking, although about 20% of OBI cases are negative for anti-HBc antibody. The diagnosis of OBI is mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812178/evaluation-of-the-g145r-mutant-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus-as-a-minor-strain-in-mother-to-child-transmission
#18
Haruki Komatsu, Ayano Inui, Shuichiro Umetsu, Tomoyuki Tsunoda, Tsuyoshi Sogo, Yasuhiro Konishi, Tomoo Fujisawa
The role of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutant G145R, with a single change in amino acid 145 of the surface protein, as a minor population remains unknown in mother-to-child transmission. The minor strain as well as the major strain of the G145R mutant were evaluated in three cohorts using a locked nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR. The breakthrough cohort consisted of children who were born to HBV carrier mothers and became HBV carriers despite immnoprophylaxis (n = 25). The control cohort consisted of HBV carriers who had no history of receiving the hepatitis B vaccine, hepatitis B immunoglobulin or antiviral treatment (n = 126)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796133/vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-during-pregnancy-and-delivery-in-denmark
#19
Nina Weis, Susan Cowan, Sofie Hallager, Sandra Dröse, Lena Hagelskjær Kristensen, Karin Grønbæk, Janne Jensen, Jan Gerstoft, Lone G Madsen, Mette Rye Clausen, Suzanne Lunding, Britta D Tarp, Toke S Barfod, Stine Sloth, Dorte Kinggaard Holm, Jesper Jensen, Henrik Krarup
OBJECTIVE: In Denmark, pregnant women have been screened for hepatitis B virus (HBV) since 2005, and children born to HBV-infected mothers offered hepatitis B immunoglobulin at birth, vaccination against HBV at birth and after 1, 2 and 12 months. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of vertical HBV transmission in children born to mothers with chronic HBV infection, to investigate the antibody response in the children and to investigate possible maternal predictive risk factors for HBV transmission...
February 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795724/host-genetic-variants-in-hla-loci-influence-risk-for-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-children
#20
Jie Fan, Xin Huang, Juan Chen, Yiling Cai, Lin Xiong, Lihong Mu, Li Zhou
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem in China and worldwide. Mother-to-child transmission is one of HBV's main transmission routes in highly endemic regions. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at HLA loci as associated with HBV infection. However, the mechanisms of HBV perinatal transmission and breakthrough in children have not yet been clearly defined. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the association between SNPs at HLA loci and HBV infection and breakthrough in children...
August 2016: Hepatitis Monthly
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