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Viral hepatitis children

Seung Man Cho, Byung-Ho Choe
This review article was requested by editor-in-chief of this journal as 'pediatric CHB treatment' for the upcoming special issue. The main objective of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is diminishing the risk of complications related to chronic liver disease. In Asia, there are already some reports about hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected children. The key points of treatment in children with CHB infections are selection of which patients to treat and conformation of the optimal therapy time that would reduce viral resistance...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
Mirinae Jang, Min Su Oh, Se Cheol Oh, Ki Soo Kang
Although liver function test abnormality is frequently noted in children, there is no report about the distribution of the etiology and natural recovery time of the abnormal liver function. From March 2005 to February 2014, clinical information was retrospectively collected from 559 children who had abnormal liver function and were hospitalized or visited the outpatient clinic at the Jeju National University Hospital. The etiology of abnormal liver function was classified into groups and the natural recovery time of abnormal liver function was analyzed...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
R Šošovičková, J Smetana, E Beranová, K Kučerová, R Chlíbek
OBJECTIVE: Viral hepatitis A continues to occur in the Czech Republic due to the high susceptibility of the population and existing opportunities for the transmission of the disease. The aim was to describe and analyse the incidence of viral hepatitis A in the Hradec Králové Region in the Czech Republic in 2005-2014, including the study of two outbreaks that required a different approach of field epidemiologists. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2015, a retrospective analysis was carried out of the data on the incidence of viral hepatitis A in Hradec Králové Region in 2005-2014...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Gamal Hasan, Asaad Assiri, Naglaa Marzuuk, Enas Daef, Sayed Abdelwahab, Ahmed Ahmed, Ismail Mohamad, Ayman Al-Eyadhy, Ali Alhaboob, Mohamad-Hani Temsah
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in a cohort of children from Upper Egypt using data from a large multicentre prospective study of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). METHODS: Data from subjects aged 2-18 years with AVH or close contacts of those with AVH found to have asymptomatic AVH were included in the analysis. Information concerning medical history, clinical examination, liver function tests and screening for hepatotropic viruses was recorded and analysed...
September 29, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
Grazia Tosone, Silvia Mascolo, Roberto Bruni, Stefania Taffon, Michele Equestre, Maria Elena Tosti, Anna Rita Ciccaglione, Fiorella Martucci, Alfonso Liberti, Maria Donata Iannece, Raffaele Orlando
Hepatitis A virus is a widely occurring disease, with different prevalence rates between countries in the North and West and those in the South and East. In Italy endemicity is low/medium, but not homogeneously distributed: in the northern/central regions a large hepatitis A outbreak due to genotype IA, related to the consumption of contaminated mixed frozen berries, occurred between 2013 and 2014, whereas in southern Italian regions recurrent outbreaks of hepatitis A, due to the IB genotype, still result from consumption of raw seafood...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Hanaa M El-Karaksy, Sahar A Sharaf, Iman A Mandour, Engy A Mogahed, Normeen H Rady, Fatma A El-Mougy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Studying predictors of response to therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children may help avoid the inappropriate use of currently available costly therapy associated with numerous adverse effects. We tested the hypothesis that inheritance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter gene might influence response to HCV treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The impact of SNPs, -1082 G/A and -592 C/A, in the promoter region of IL-10 gene, on response to HCV therapy was assessed in a cohort of 40 children treated with a combination of pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) α2b and ribavirin...
September 19, 2016: Human Immunology
Philippa J Easterbrook
Testing and diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective hepatitis epidemic response. In contrast to HIV, a systematic approach to hepatitis C testing has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, include lack of simple, reliable, and low cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to test; stigmatization and social marginalization of some groups with or at risk of viral hepatitis; and lack of international or national guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings...
October 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Giuseppe Indolfi, Gabriella Nebbia, Mara Cananzi, Anna Maccabruni, Marco Zaramella, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Laura Grisotto, Chiara Azzari, Massimo Resti
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem. While new, highly effective and safe direct acting antivirals have been approved for adults, the only drugs currently registered for children are pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The timelines for the pediatric approval of the new treatment regimens are far off. Three phase II-III pediatric trials with direct acting antivirals are recruiting and the estimated dates of completion of these studies range between April 2018 and January 2023...
September 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak, Barbara Kowalik-Mikołajewska, Małgorzata Aniszewska, Magdalena Pluta, Bożena Walewska-Zielecka, Magdalena Marczyńska
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the liver histology is essential for the management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the histopathological features in children with CHB and compare them with clinical and laboratory data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study comprised 30 treatment-naïve children (mean age: 12.8 ± 2.4; mean duration of infection: 11.7 ± 2.5 years; 16/30 HBeAg-positive and 14/30 HBeAg-negative), who underwent a liver biopsy due to CHB...
July 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Maria Inge Lusida, Juniastuti, Yoshihiko Yano
Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Chee Wah Tan, Han Kang Tee, Michelle Hui Pheng Lee, I-Ching Sam, Yoke Fun Chan
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease, and is occasionally associated with neurological complications and death in children. Reverse genetics is widely used in the field of virology for functional study of viral genes. For EV-A71, such tools are limited to clones that are transcriptionally controlled by T7/SP6 bacteriophage promoter. This is often time-consuming and expensive. Here, we describe the development of infectious plasmid DNA-based EV-A71 clones, for which EV-A71 genome expression is under transcriptional control by the CMV-intermediate early promoter and SV40 transcriptional-termination signal...
2016: PloS One
Kali Zhou, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Nick Walsh, Ji Young Kim, Roger Chou, Mellanye Lackey, Julia Scott, Ying-Ru Lo, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Advances in therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have ushered in a new era in chronic hepatitis treatment. To maximise the effectiveness of these medicines, individuals must be engaged and retained in care. We analysed operational interventions to enhance chronic viral hepatitis testing, linkage to care, treatment uptake, adherence, and viral suppression or cure. METHODS: We did a systematic review of operational interventions, and did meta-analyses for sufficiently comparable data...
September 5, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
M W Mazumder, A B Karim, M Rukunuzzaman, M A Rahman
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rapidly progressive, potentially fatal syndrome resulting from rapid death or injury to a large proportion of hepatocytes, caused by a variety of insult, leaving insufficient hepatic paranchymal mass to sustain liver function. The aetiology of ALF varies according to the age of patient and development of the country. The outcome of ALF also varies according to aetiology: survival is better in paracetamol poisoning whereas it is poor in metabolic diseases. The present study was undertaken to observe the underlying aetiology and outcome of ALF in children under 18 years of age admitted at the department of Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Michael J LaQuaglia, James L Grijalva, Kaly A Mueller, Antonio R Perez-Atayde, Heung Bae Kim, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili, Khashayar Vakili
Pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rare tumor which is associated with an extremely high mortality rate due to lack of effective chemotherapy. Recently, the Hippo pathway and its transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein (YAP) have been shown to play a role in hepatocyte proliferation and development of HCC in animal models. Therefore, we sought to examine the activity of YAP and the expression of Hippo pathway components in tumor and non-neoplastic liver tissue from 7 pediatric patients with moderately differentiated HCC...
2016: Scientific Reports
Aileen Raizner, Nick Shillingford, Paul D Mitchell, Sarah Harney, Roshan Raza, Jessica Serino, Maureen M Jonas, Christine K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Transient elastography (TE) measures liver stiffness to assess fibrosis. Studies in adults have shown that inflammation increases stiffness, leading to an overestimation of fibrosis. We investigated the contribution of inflammation to liver stiffness measurements (LSM) in children/ young adults. METHODS: This was a cohort analysis of children/ young adults who underwent TE within 1 year of liver biopsy. ALT was obtained within 30d of the biopsy and LSM...
August 18, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Sondes Bizid, Riadh Bouali, Amani Ouedrani, Ali Mrabet, Hatem Ben Abdallah, Ezzeddine Ghazouani, Nabil Abdelli
BACKGROUND:   A polymorphism upstream of interleukin (IL)-28B was recently identified to be associated with a 2-fold difference in sustained virologic response (SVR) to pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy in a large cohort of treatment-naive, adherent patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection. AIM: We sought to confirm the polymorphism's clinical relevance by intention-to-treat analysis evaluating on-treatment virologic response and SVR...
January 2016: La Tunisie Médicale
Merryn Voysey, Andrew J Pollard, Rafael Perera, Thomas R Fanshawe
INTRODUCTION: Disease incidence differs between males and females for some infectious or inflammatory diseases. Sex-differences in immune responses to some vaccines have also been observed, mostly to viral vaccines in adults. Little evidence is available on whether sex-differences occur in response to immunisation in infancy even though this is the age group in which most vaccines are administered. Factors other than sex, such as timing or coadministration of other vaccines, can also influence the immune response to vaccination...
2016: BMJ Open
Yukimatsu Toh, Justin Harper, Kelly A Dryden, Mark Yeager, Carlos F Arias, Ernesto Méndez, Yizhi J Tao
UNLABELLED: Human astrovirus (HAstV) is a leading cause of viral diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. HAstV is a nonenveloped virus with a T=3 capsid and a positive-sense RNA genome. The capsid protein (CP) of HAstV is synthesized as a 90-kDa precursor (VP90) that can be divided into three linear domains: a conserved N-terminal domain, a hypervariable domain, and an acidic C-terminal domain. Maturation of HAstV requires proteolytic processing of the astrovirus CP both inside and outside the host cell, resulting in the removal of the C-terminal domain and the breakdown of the rest of the CP into three predominant protein species with molecular masses of ∼34, 27/29, and 25/26 kDa, respectively...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Virology
Ioannis N Mammas, Demetrios A Spandidos
Hippocrates (Island of Kos, 460 B.C.-Larissa, 370 B.C.) is the founder of the most famous Medical School of the classical antiquity. In acknowledgement of his pioneering contribution to the new scientific field of Paediatric Virology, this article provides a systematic analysis of the Hippocratic Corpus, with particular focus on viral infections predominating in neonates and children. A mumps epidemic, affecting the island of Thasos in the 5th century B.C., is described in detail. 'Herpes', a medical term derived from the ancient Greek word 'ἕρπειν', meaning 'to creep' or 'crawl', is used to describe the spreading of cutaneous lesions in both childhood and adulthood...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Alaya Koneru, Noele Nelson, Susan Hariri, Lauren Canary, Kathy J Sanders, Justine F Maxwell, Xiaohua Huang, John A D Leake, John W Ward, Claudia Vellozzi
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality (1). Transmission of HCV is primarily via parenteral blood exposure, and HCV can be transmitted vertically from mother to child. Vertical transmission occurs in 5.8% (95% confidence interval = 4.2%-7.8%) of infants born to women who are infected only with HCV and in up to twice as many infants born to women who are also infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (2) or who have high HCV viral loads (3,4); there is currently no recommended intervention to prevent transmission of infection from mother to child (3)...
2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
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