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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328393/paediatric-virology-and-its-interaction-between-basic-science-and-clinical-practice-review
#1
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Maria Rusan, Angeliki Melidou, Paraskevi Korovessi, Georgia Papaioannou, Alexia Papatheodoropoulou, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Liston, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
The 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on October 7th, 2017 in Athens, Greece, highlighted the role of breast feeding in the prevention of viral infections during the first years of life. Moreover, it focused on the long-term outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections in prematurely born infants and emphasised the necessity for the development of relevant preventative strategies. Other topics that were covered included the vaccination policy in relation to the migration crisis, mother‑to‑child transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, vaccination against human papilloma viruses in boys and advances on intranasal live‑attenuated vaccination against influenza...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286012/hepatitis-a-b-c-and-hiv-seroprevalence-among-syrian-refugee-children-admitted-to-outpatient-clinics
#2
Şükran Köse, Ilker Ödemiş, Didem Çelik, Bengü Gireniz Tatar, Ilkay Akbulut, Dilek Yilmaz Çiftdoğan
Viral hepatitis is the most common cause of serious health problems such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leading to immunodeficiency disorders through different mechanisms, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes the development of severe secondary infections. Hepatitis A (HAV) is thought to spread by the faecal-oral route, while Hepatitis B (HBV), Hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV are mostly transmitted vertically during childhood. In our study, we aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HAV, HBV, HCV and HIV among Syrian refugee children who were admitted to outpatient clinics...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262490/-epidemiological-analysis-of-viral-hepatitis-a-in-china-2004-2015
#3
X J Sun, F Z Wang, H Zheng, N Miao, Q L Yuan, H Q Wang, Z D Yin, G M Zhang
Objective: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis A cases in China from 2004 to 2015. Methods: Data of hepatitis A were reported through national notifiable disease information reporting system, which covered the 31 provinces (Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan excluded). The inclusion criteria was: date of illness onset was between January 1(st) 2004 and December 31(st) 2015, the status of reported card was confirmed, the case was classified as laboratory confirmed or clinical diagnosed, the disease was Hepatitis A...
December 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227269/reye-ray-s-syndrome-a-problem-everyone-should-remember
#4
I Chornomydz, O Boyarchuk, A Chornomydz
Reye syndrome is a rare but a very dangerous emergency that children and teenagers suffer. This threatening condition occurs during the treatment of fever in the clinical course of viral diseases with drugs containing acetylsalicylic acid and other salicylates. The high mortality rate from this disease is associated with the development of a rapidly progressing toxic encephalopathy and hepatic insufficiency. The etiology and pathogenesis of the Reye syndrome, despite the large number of investigations, is not clear enough...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207801/autoimmune-haemolytic-anaemia-a-spectrum-of-presentation-in-children
#5
Amitabh Singh, Anirban Mandal, Ankita Patel, Sataroopa Mishra
Autoimmune Haemolytic Anaemias (AIHAs) are rare in children. They can be either a primary disease or secondary to/triggered by a host of other clinical conditions. We present five interesting cases of paediatric AIHA associated with infections (viral, bacterial and atypical) and autoimmune diseases {Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH)}. The H1N1 influenza associated AIHA responded to oseltamivir and Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IvIg) while the cases secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae and pneumococcal bacteraemia required only treatment of the primary infection...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190337/optimizing-research-to-speed-up-availability-of-pediatric-antiretroviral-drugs-and-formulations
#6
Martina Penazzato, Devasena Gnanashanmugam, Pablo Rojo, Marc Lallemant, Linda L Lewis, Francesca Rocchi, Agnes Saint Raymond, Nathan Ford, Rohan Hazra, Carlo Giaquinto, Yodit Belew, Diana M Gibb, Elaine J Abrams
Globally 1.8 million children are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), yet only 51% of those eligible actually start treatment. Research and development (R&D) for pediatric antiretrovirals (ARVs) is a lengthy process and lags considerably behind drug development in adults. Providing safe, effective, and well-tolerated drugs for children remains critical to ensuring scale-up globally. We review current approaches to R&D for pediatric ARVs and suggest innovations to enable simplified, faster, and more comprehensive strategies to develop optimal formulations...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181956/infectious-diseases-in-poland-in-2015
#7
Małgorzata Sadkowska-Todys, Andrzej Zieliński, Mirosław P. Czarkowski
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This is the next annual analysis of the situation of infectious and parasitic diseases in Poland in 2015 within the framework of the Epidemiological Chronicle of Przegląd Epidemiologiczny - Epidemiological Review. Its purpose is to identify potential threats to the health of populations from infectious diseases occurring in Poland with reference to other parts of the globe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This paper is an introduction to more detailed studies of the epidemiological situation of selected infectious diseases and summarizes the results of the surveillance of infectious diseases in Poland in 2015...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176474/hepatic-parenchymal-injury-in-crigler-najjar-type-i
#8
Ellen Mitchell, Sarangarajan Ranganathan, Patrick McKiernan, Robert H Squires, Kevin Strauss, Kyle Soltys, George Mazariegos, James E Squires
BACKGROUND: Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (CNI) arises from biallelic variants of UGT1A1 that abrogate UGT1A1 activity resulting in unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Historically, liver parenchyma in CNI was considered structurally and histologically normal. Recent review of CNI liver explants revealed fibrosis. Our aim was to investigate the association between hepatic histology and disease phenotype in CNI. METHODS: We extracted data from the medical record at the time of liver transplant from 22 patients with CNI at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, and reviewed explant histology...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175797/diagnosis-of-hepatitis-c-in-pregnant-mothers-and-its-transfer-pattern-in-neonates
#9
Nosheen Aslam, Abdul Ghaffar, Mohsin Khurshid, Syed Makhdoom Hussain, Muhammad Afzal
Hepatitis is the most common liver diseases in the Pakistan caused by blood-borne infection of HCV. Viral transmission is frequent through blood contact. Vertical transmission is transfer of disease from mother to infant. The women who are infected with hepatitis C virus RNA are at high risk of infecting their babies. Actual transmission occurs during labor and at time of delivery when blood of both mother and neonate is in contact with each other. Vertical transmission rate is lowered when mother is HCV RN A negative...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173793/antiviral-drugs-in-newborn-and-children
#10
REVIEW
Claudette L Poole, David W Kimberlin
This article focuses on the clinically relevant approved antiviral medications available for the treatment of infants and children. A brief overview of drug categories, mechanism of action, resistance, pharmacokinetics, and side effects is provided for the more commonly prescribed antivirals. The patient categories addressed are treatment and prophylaxis of influenza, neonatal herpes simplex virus and congenital cytomegalovirus, treatment and prophylaxis of viral disease in the immunocompromised host, and a brief introduction to the antivirals available to treat hepatitis B and hepatitis C in children...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156049/management-of-pregnant-women-and-children-focusing-on-preventing-mother-to-infant-transmission
#11
Huey-Ling Chen, Wan-Hsin Wen, Mei-Hwei Chang
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization has been effectively preventing chronic HBV infection with >90% efficacy in countries with universal neonatal immunization. Perinatal mother-to-infant transmission of HBV remains the major cause of chronic HBV infection despite immunization. Maternal hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg) and high viral load have been noted to be the most important risk factors for transmission. In recent years, short-term antiviral therapy for pregnant women in the third trimester has been shown to be highly effective in reducing 90% of vaccine failure in children...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113691/general-practitioners-and-vaccination-of-children-presenting-with-a-benign-infection
#12
M Le Maréchal, L Fressard, J Raude, P Verger, C Pulcini
PURPOSE: To assess the self-reported vaccination behavior of general practitioners (GPs) when asked whether they would recommend the vaccination of a child presenting with a febrile uncomplicated common cold. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey in 2014 on a national sample of GPs. GPs were randomly assigned to one of eight clinical vignettes, all describing a child presenting with an uncomplicated febrile common cold, but differing by age (4 or 11 months), temperature (38°C or 39°C), and the mother's emotional state (calm or worried)...
November 4, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062906/elevated-cystatin-c-is-it-a-reflection-for-kidney-or-liver-impairment-in-hepatic-children
#13
Behairy El-Sayed, Hanaa El-Araby, Nermin Adawy, Mona Hassona, Naglaa El-Nady, Haidy Zakaria, Mohammed Khedr
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess if elevated serum cystatin C (Cyst-C) is an indicator for renal or hepatic dysfunction in presence of liver fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data of 50 children with chronic liver diseases (CLDs), out of which 25 were without renal impairment, and 25 with renal impairment were analyzed. Twenty healthy children served as a healthy control group. Routine investigations, creatinine clearance, hepatitis viral markers, abdominal ultrasonography, and liver biopsy were performed for patients with CLDs...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022533/distribution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-namibia
#14
P Mhata, T W Rennie, L F Small, P M Nyarang'o, Z Chagla, C J Hunter
BACKGROUND: Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate evidence-based data. Available data from the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 15 - 60% of the normal population in many African countries may be positive for one or more of the HBV serological markers...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016603/characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-amerindian-children-and-mothers-from-amazonas-state-colombia
#15
Carlos Mario Jaramillo, Fernando de La Hoz, Alexandra Porras, Diana di Filippo, Luz Angela Choconta-Piraquive, Edra Payares, Neyla Montes, Maria-Cristina Navas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. In the 1980's a highly effective and safe vaccine against HBV was developed, although breakthrough infection still occasionally occurs because of the emergence of escape mutants. The aim of this study was to identify HBV genotypes and escape mutants in children and their mothers in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas State, Southern Colombia. METHODS: Blood specimens collected from children and mothers belonging to 37 Amerindian communities in Amazonas state, were screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc using ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962610/assessment-of-the-hbv-vaccine-response-in-a-group-of-hiv-infected-children-in-morocco
#16
Houda Haban, Soumia Benchekroun, Mina Sadeq, Abdelaziz Benjouad, Said Amzazi, Hicham Oumzil, Elmir Elharti
BACKGROUND: Since its development in the early 1980s, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has been proven to be highly protective. However, its immunogenicity may be ineffective among HIV-infected children. In Morocco, HBV vaccine was introduced in 1999, and since then all infants, including vertically HIV-infected infants, have been following the vaccination schedule, implemented by the Moroccan ministry of health. An assessment of the immunization of these children is important to optimize efforts aimed at tackling Hepatitis B coinfection, within the country...
September 29, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951598/prevalence-and-predictors-of-liver-disease-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents
#17
Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak, Aleksandra Stańska-Perka, Jolanta Popielska, Agnieszka Ołdakowska, Urszula Coupland, Konrad Zawadka, Małgorzata Szczepańska-Putz, Magdalena Marczyńska
Liver disease in HIV-infected patients may result from the infection itself, antiretroviral treatment or comorbidities. In this study, we analysed liver disease in 79 HIV-infected children and adolescents aged 14.0 ± 5.1 years. All the patients were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with a mean duration of 11.5 ± 4.7 years. Six patients (8%) had detectable HIV viral load, and 8/79 (10%) of the participants were coinfected with hepatitis B or C virus (HCV, 6/8 or HBV, 2/8). Liver disease was defined as an elevation of any of the following parameters: alanine or aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), total bilirubin, and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGTP)...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931691/vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c-virus-variable-transmission-bottleneck-and-evidence-of-midgestation-in-utero-infection
#18
Sébastien Fauteux-Daniel, Ariane Larouche, Virginie Calderon, Jonathan Boulais, Chanel Béland, Doris G Ransy, Marc Boucher, Valérie Lamarre, Normand Lapointe, Isabelle Boucoiran, Armelle Le Campion, Hugo Soudeyns
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. However, the timing and precise biological mechanisms that are involved in this process are incompletely understood, as are the determinants that influence transmission of particular HCV variants. Here we report results of a longitudinal assessment of HCV quasispecies diversity and composition in 5 cases of vertical HCV transmission, including 3 women coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The population structure of HCV variant spectra based on E2 envelope gene sequences (nucleotide positions 1491 to 1787), including hypervariable regions 1 and 2, was characterized using next-generation sequencing and median-joining network analysis...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903520/hepatic-renal-hematologic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-infected-children-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#19
Ann J Melvin, Meredith Warshaw, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saidi, Linda Harrison, Anna Turkova, Gareth Tudor-Williams
Background: Data on long-term toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children are sparse. PENPACT-1 was an open-label trial in which HIV-infected children were assigned randomly to receive protease inhibitor (PI)- or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Methods: We examined changes in clinical, immunologic, and inflammatory markers from baseline to year 4 in the subset of children in the PENPACT-1 study who experienced viral suppression between week 24 and year 4 of ART...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902234/monitoring-of-post-vaccination-anti-hbs-titles-vaccine-in-children-and-adolescents-in-the-pre-dialysis-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
Nathália Cristina Pereira da Costa, Mônica Ribeiro Canhestro, Cristina Maria Bouissou Morais Soares, Juliana Scudilio Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial or viral diseases are one of the major causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These patients show a quantitative reduction of levels of antibodies over time. Among the infectious diseases that affect CKD patients, stands out hepatitis B (HB). Immunization and control of antibodies levels against the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are ways to prevent the HB infection in this population. Patients with anti-HBs levels ≥10 IU/ml are considered adequate responders, whereas those with anti-HBs levels ≥ 100 IU/ml are considered excellent responders...
July 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
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