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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898721/hepatitis-b-virus-infections-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-clinic-at-deder-hospital-eastern-ethiopia
#1
Abdi Umare, Berhanu Seyoum, Tesfaye Gobena, Tamirat Haile Mariyam
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem worldwide. Reports have shown that 68,600 people die of HBV infection and more than 300,000 deaths due to liver cancer secondary to hepatitis B every year globally. Women who are infected with HBV can vertically transmit the infection to their infants. This study aims to determine the prevalence of HBV infection and associated factors among pregnant women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women who attended antenatal care clinic (ANC) for routine pregnancy check-up between 18 March 2015 and 15 May 2015...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877087/il28b-snp-rs12979860-is-the-critical-predictor-for-sustained-viral-response-in-chinese-children-aged-1-to-6-years-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#2
Yan-Wei Zhong, Hong-Fei Zhang, Yan-Min Shi, Yong-Li Li, Fang Chu, Zhi-Qiang Xu, Da-Wei Chen, Yu Gan, Fu-Chuan Wang, Mei-Lei Gu, Yi Dong, Shi-Shu Zhu, Ce Shi, Hua-Hao Fan, Xiu-Chang Zhang, Min Zhang
Clinical data on children with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) remain extremely limited. This study investigated sustained virologic response (SVR) to alfa-interferon 2b plus RBV treatment in children aged 1-6 years with unsafe injection-acquired CHC. 154 children with CHC aged 1 to 6 years were enrolled, 101 of them were male (65.6%) and 53 were female (34.4%), and they were treated with alfa-interferon at a dose of 1-5 MIU/m(2) 3 times weekly plus oral RBV (15 mg/kg/day) for 48 weeks. 57(39.3 %) of them were genotype 1b, 73(50...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812178/evaluation-of-the-g145r-mutant-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus-as-a-minor-strain-in-mother-to-child-transmission
#3
Haruki Komatsu, Ayano Inui, Shuichiro Umetsu, Tomoyuki Tsunoda, Tsuyoshi Sogo, Yasuhiro Konishi, Tomoo Fujisawa
The role of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) mutant G145R, with a single change in amino acid 145 of the surface protein, as a minor population remains unknown in mother-to-child transmission. The minor strain as well as the major strain of the G145R mutant were evaluated in three cohorts using a locked nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR. The breakthrough cohort consisted of children who were born to HBV carrier mothers and became HBV carriers despite immnoprophylaxis (n = 25). The control cohort consisted of HBV carriers who had no history of receiving the hepatitis B vaccine, hepatitis B immunoglobulin or antiviral treatment (n = 126)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801781/function-and-regulation-of-micrornas-and-their-potential-as-biomarkers-in-paediatric-liver-disease
#4
REVIEW
Diego A Calvopina, Miranda A Coleman, Peter J Lewindon, Grant A Ramm
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs involved in biological and pathological processes of every cell type, including liver cells. Transcribed from specific genes, miRNA precursors are processed in the cytoplasm into mature miRNAs and as part of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) complex binds to messenger RNA (mRNA) by imperfect complementarity. This leads to the regulation of gene expression at a post-transcriptional level. The function of a number of different miRNAs in fibrogenesis associated with the progression of chronic liver disease has recently been elucidated...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781124/systemic-manifestation-of-rotavirus-infection-in-children-a-report-of-three-cases
#5
Meltem Akcaboy, Melahat Melek Oguz, Esma Altınel Acoglu, Mehtap Acar, Pelin Zorlu, Ferda Ozbay Hosnut, Saliha Senel
INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus is a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in children. Although the clinical complaints associated with rotavirus are generally gastrointestinal, including vomiting and diarrhea, data suggest that it can also cause symptoms that extend beyond the gastrointestinal tract. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We report three pediatric cases of rotavirus infection: one accompanied by encephalopathy and two with elevated hepatic transaminase activity. The patients were admitted to Dr...
August 2016: Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778427/drug-hypersensitivity-syndrome-with-prolonged-course-complicated-by-parvovirus-infection
#6
Carrie C Coughlin, Melinda V Jen, Markus D Boos
Drug hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS) is a severe medication reaction involving multiple organ systems that is characterized by rash, lymphadenopathy, and laboratory aberrations, including hepatic enzyme changes. Viral reactivation in the setting of DHS can significantly affect the course of disease. We report two children in whom parvovirus infection prolonged and complicated their course of DHS. Most other DHS-complicating viruses are herpesviruses; this report broadens the scope of DHS-modifying infections to include activation of Parvoviridae...
October 25, 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761440/treatment-strategies-according-to-genotype-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Seung Man Cho, Byung-Ho Choe
This review article was requested by editor-in-chief of this journal as 'pediatric CHB treatment' for the upcoming special issue. The main objective of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) treatment is diminishing the risk of complications related to chronic liver disease. In Asia, there are already some reports about hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected children. The key points of treatment in children with CHB infections are selection of which patients to treat and conformation of the optimal therapy time that would reduce viral resistance...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709857/distribution-of-diseases-causing-liver-function-test-abnormality-in-children-and-natural-recovery-time-of-the-abnormal-liver-function
#8
Mirinae Jang, Min Su Oh, Se Cheol Oh, Ki Soo Kang
Although liver function test abnormality is frequently noted in children, there is no report about the distribution of the etiology and natural recovery time of the abnormal liver function. From March 2005 to February 2014, clinical information was retrospectively collected from 559 children who had abnormal liver function and were hospitalized or visited the outpatient clinic at the Jeju National University Hospital. The etiology of abnormal liver function was classified into groups and the natural recovery time of abnormal liver function was analyzed...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690473/-the-incidence-of-viral-hepatitis-a%C3%A2-in-the-hradec%C3%A2-kr%C3%A3-lov%C3%A3-region-in-the-czech-republic-in-the-last-decade
#9
R Šošovičková, J Smetana, E Beranová, K Kučerová, R Chlíbek
OBJECTIVE: Viral hepatitis A continues to occur in the Czech Republic due to the high susceptibility of the population and existing opportunities for the transmission of the disease. The aim was to describe and analyse the incidence of viral hepatitis A in the Hradec Králové Region in the Czech Republic in 2005-2014, including the study of two outbreaks that required a different approach of field epidemiologists. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 2015, a retrospective analysis was carried out of the data on the incidence of viral hepatitis A in Hradec Králové Region in 2005-2014...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688687/incidence-and-characteristics-of-hepatitis-e-virus-infection-in-children-in-assiut-upper-egypt
#10
Gamal Hasan, Asaad Assiri, Naglaa Marzuuk, Enas Daef, Sayed Abdelwahab, Ahmed Ahmed, Ismail Mohamad, Ayman Al-Eyadhy, Ali Alhaboob, Mohamad-Hani Temsah
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in a cohort of children from Upper Egypt using data from a large multicentre prospective study of acute viral hepatitis (AVH). METHODS: Data from subjects aged 2-18 years with AVH or close contacts of those with AVH found to have asymptomatic AVH were included in the analysis. Information concerning medical history, clinical examination, liver function tests and screening for hepatotropic viruses was recorded and analysed...
September 29, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668904/a-family-cluster-of-hepatitis-a-virus-due-to-an-uncommon-ia-strain-circulating-in-campania-southern-italy-not-associated-with-raw-shellfish-or-berries-a-wake-up-call-to-implement-vaccination-against-hepatitis-a
#11
Grazia Tosone, Silvia Mascolo, Roberto Bruni, Stefania Taffon, Michele Equestre, Maria Elena Tosti, Anna Rita Ciccaglione, Fiorella Martucci, Alfonso Liberti, Maria Donata Iannece, Raffaele Orlando
Hepatitis A virus is a widely occurring disease, with different prevalence rates between countries in the North and West and those in the South and East. In Italy endemicity is low/medium, but not homogeneously distributed: in the northern/central regions a large hepatitis A outbreak due to genotype IA, related to the consumption of contaminated mixed frozen berries, occurred between 2013 and 2014, whereas in southern Italian regions recurrent outbreaks of hepatitis A, due to the IB genotype, still result from consumption of raw seafood...
September 1, 2016: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660094/effect-of-interleukin-10-gene-promoter-polymorphisms-1082-g-a-and-592-c-a-on-response-to-therapy-in-children-and-adolescents-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#12
Hanaa M El-Karaksy, Sahar A Sharaf, Iman A Mandour, Engy A Mogahed, Normeen H Rady, Fatma A El-Mougy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Studying predictors of response to therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children may help avoid the inappropriate use of currently available costly therapy associated with numerous adverse effects. We tested the hypothesis that inheritance of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) promoter gene might influence response to HCV treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The impact of SNPs, -1082 G/A and -592 C/A, in the promoter region of IL-10 gene, on response to HCV therapy was assessed in a cohort of 40 children treated with a combination of pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) α2b and ribavirin...
September 19, 2016: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641988/who-to-test-and-how-to-test-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-2016-who-testing-guidance-for-low-and-middle-income-countries
#13
REVIEW
Philippa J Easterbrook
Testing and diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the gateway for access to both treatment and prevention services, and crucial for an effective hepatitis epidemic response. In contrast to HIV, a systematic approach to hepatitis C testing has been fragmented and limited to a few countries, and there remains a large burden of undiagnosed cases globally. Key challenges in the current hepatitis testing response, include lack of simple, reliable, and low cost diagnostic tests, laboratory capacity, and testing facilities; inadequate data to guide country-specific hepatitis testing approaches and who to test; stigmatization and social marginalization of some groups with or at risk of viral hepatitis; and lack of international or national guidelines on hepatitis testing for resource-limited settings...
October 2016: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636721/kinetic-of-virologic-response-to-pegylated-interferon-and-ribavirin-in-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-predicts-the-effect-of-treatment
#14
Giuseppe Indolfi, Gabriella Nebbia, Mara Cananzi, Anna Maccabruni, Marco Zaramella, Lorenzo D'Antiga, Laura Grisotto, Chiara Azzari, Massimo Resti
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is a global health problem. While new, highly effective and safe direct acting antivirals have been approved for adults, the only drugs currently registered for children are pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The timelines for the pediatric approval of the new treatment regimens are far off. Three phase II-III pediatric trials with direct acting antivirals are recruiting and the estimated dates of completion of these studies range between April 2018 and January 2023...
September 15, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629842/predictors-of-liver-disease-severity-in-children-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#15
Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak, Barbara Kowalik-Mikołajewska, Małgorzata Aniszewska, Magdalena Pluta, Bożena Walewska-Zielecka, Magdalena Marczyńska
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of the liver histology is essential for the management of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in children. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze the histopathological features in children with CHB and compare them with clinical and laboratory data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study comprised 30 treatment-naïve children (mean age: 12.8 ± 2.4; mean duration of infection: 11.7 ± 2.5 years; 16/30 HBeAg-positive and 14/30 HBeAg-negative), who underwent a liver biopsy due to CHB...
July 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621573/current-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-situation-in-indonesia-and-its-genetic-diversity
#16
REVIEW
Maria Inge Lusida, Juniastuti, Yoshihiko Yano
Indonesia has a moderate to high endemicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The risk for chronic HBV infection is highest among those infected during infancy. Since 1997, hepatitis B (HepB) vaccination of newborns has been fully integrated into the National Immunization Program. Although HBV infection has been reduced by the universal newborn HepB immunization program, it continues to occur in Indonesia. The low birth dose coverage and the presence of vaccine escape mutants might contribute to this endemicity among children...
August 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617744/enterovirus-a71-dna-launched-infectious-clone-as-a-robust-reverse-genetic-tool
#17
Chee Wah Tan, Han Kang Tee, Michelle Hui Pheng Lee, I-Ching Sam, Yoke Fun Chan
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes major outbreaks of hand, foot and mouth disease, and is occasionally associated with neurological complications and death in children. Reverse genetics is widely used in the field of virology for functional study of viral genes. For EV-A71, such tools are limited to clones that are transcriptionally controlled by T7/SP6 bacteriophage promoter. This is often time-consuming and expensive. Here, we describe the development of infectious plasmid DNA-based EV-A71 clones, for which EV-A71 genome expression is under transcriptional control by the CMV-intermediate early promoter and SV40 transcriptional-termination signal...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27615026/interventions-to-optimise-the-care-continuum-for-chronic-viral-hepatitis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#18
Kali Zhou, Thomas Fitzpatrick, Nick Walsh, Ji Young Kim, Roger Chou, Mellanye Lackey, Julia Scott, Ying-Ru Lo, Joseph D Tucker
BACKGROUND: Advances in therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) have ushered in a new era in chronic hepatitis treatment. To maximise the effectiveness of these medicines, individuals must be engaged and retained in care. We analysed operational interventions to enhance chronic viral hepatitis testing, linkage to care, treatment uptake, adherence, and viral suppression or cure. METHODS: We did a systematic review of operational interventions, and did meta-analyses for sufficiently comparable data...
September 5, 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612896/aetiology-and-outcome-of-acute-liver-failure-in-children-experience-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-of-bangladesh
#19
M W Mazumder, A B Karim, M Rukunuzzaman, M A Rahman
Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rapidly progressive, potentially fatal syndrome resulting from rapid death or injury to a large proportion of hepatocytes, caused by a variety of insult, leaving insufficient hepatic paranchymal mass to sustain liver function. The aetiology of ALF varies according to the age of patient and development of the country. The outcome of ALF also varies according to aetiology: survival is better in paracetamol poisoning whereas it is poor in metabolic diseases. The present study was undertaken to observe the underlying aetiology and outcome of ALF in children under 18 years of age admitted at the department of Paediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605415/yap-subcellular-localization-and-hippo-pathway-transcriptome-analysis-in-pediatric-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#20
Michael J LaQuaglia, James L Grijalva, Kaly A Mueller, Antonio R Perez-Atayde, Heung Bae Kim, Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili, Khashayar Vakili
Pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rare tumor which is associated with an extremely high mortality rate due to lack of effective chemotherapy. Recently, the Hippo pathway and its transcriptional co-activator Yes-associated protein (YAP) have been shown to play a role in hepatocyte proliferation and development of HCC in animal models. Therefore, we sought to examine the activity of YAP and the expression of Hippo pathway components in tumor and non-neoplastic liver tissue from 7 pediatric patients with moderately differentiated HCC...
2016: Scientific Reports
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