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Viral hepatitis children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113691/general-practitioners-and-vaccination-of-children-presenting-with-a-benign-infection
#1
M Le Maréchal, L Fressard, J Raude, P Verger, C Pulcini
PURPOSE: To assess the self-reported vaccination behavior of general practitioners (GPs) when asked whether they would recommend the vaccination of a child presenting with a febrile uncomplicated common cold. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey in 2014 on a national sample of GPs. GPs were randomly assigned to one of eight clinical vignettes, all describing a child presenting with an uncomplicated febrile common cold, but differing by age (4 or 11 months), temperature (38°C or 39°C), and the mother's emotional state (calm or worried)...
November 4, 2017: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062906/elevated-cystatin-c-is-it-a-reflection-for-kidney-or-liver-impairment-in-hepatic-children
#2
Behairy El-Sayed, Hanaa El-Araby, Nermin Adawy, Mona Hassona, Naglaa El-Nady, Haidy Zakaria, Mohammed Khedr
AIM OF THE STUDY: To assess if elevated serum cystatin C (Cyst-C) is an indicator for renal or hepatic dysfunction in presence of liver fibrosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data of 50 children with chronic liver diseases (CLDs), out of which 25 were without renal impairment, and 25 with renal impairment were analyzed. Twenty healthy children served as a healthy control group. Routine investigations, creatinine clearance, hepatitis viral markers, abdominal ultrasonography, and liver biopsy were performed for patients with CLDs...
September 2017: Clin Exp Hepatol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022533/distribution-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-namibia
#3
P Mhata, T W Rennie, L F Small, P M Nyarang'o, Z Chagla, C J Hunter
BACKGROUND: Namibia regards hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection as a public health problem and introduced hepatitis B vaccinations for infants during 2009. However, information on HBV infection in the country remains limited, and effective public health interventions may be compromised in the absence of adequate evidence-based data. Available data from the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that 15 - 60% of the normal population in many African countries may be positive for one or more of the HBV serological markers...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016603/characterization-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-amerindian-children-and-mothers-from-amazonas-state-colombia
#4
Carlos Mario Jaramillo, Fernando de La Hoz, Alexandra Porras, Diana di Filippo, Luz Angela Choconta-Piraquive, Edra Payares, Neyla Montes, Maria-Cristina Navas
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a worldwide public health problem. In the 1980's a highly effective and safe vaccine against HBV was developed, although breakthrough infection still occasionally occurs because of the emergence of escape mutants. The aim of this study was to identify HBV genotypes and escape mutants in children and their mothers in Amerindian communities of the Amazonas State, Southern Colombia. METHODS: Blood specimens collected from children and mothers belonging to 37 Amerindian communities in Amazonas state, were screened for HBsAg and anti-HBc using ELISA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962610/assessment-of-the-hbv-vaccine-response-in-a-group-of-hiv-infected-children-in-morocco
#5
Houda Haban, Soumia Benchekroun, Mina Sadeq, Abdelaziz Benjouad, Said Amzazi, Hicham Oumzil, Elmir Elharti
BACKGROUND: Since its development in the early 1980s, Hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine has been proven to be highly protective. However, its immunogenicity may be ineffective among HIV-infected children. In Morocco, HBV vaccine was introduced in 1999, and since then all infants, including vertically HIV-infected infants, have been following the vaccination schedule, implemented by the Moroccan ministry of health. An assessment of the immunization of these children is important to optimize efforts aimed at tackling Hepatitis B coinfection, within the country...
September 29, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951598/prevalence-and-predictors-of-liver-disease-in-hiv-infected-children-and-adolescents
#6
Maria Pokorska-Śpiewak, Aleksandra Stańska-Perka, Jolanta Popielska, Agnieszka Ołdakowska, Urszula Coupland, Konrad Zawadka, Małgorzata Szczepańska-Putz, Magdalena Marczyńska
Liver disease in HIV-infected patients may result from the infection itself, antiretroviral treatment or comorbidities. In this study, we analysed liver disease in 79 HIV-infected children and adolescents aged 14.0 ± 5.1 years. All the patients were receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with a mean duration of 11.5 ± 4.7 years. Six patients (8%) had detectable HIV viral load, and 8/79 (10%) of the participants were coinfected with hepatitis B or C virus (HCV, 6/8 or HBV, 2/8). Liver disease was defined as an elevation of any of the following parameters: alanine or aspartate aminotransferase (ALT and AST), total bilirubin, and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGTP)...
September 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931691/vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c-virus-variable-transmission-bottleneck-and-evidence-of-mid-gestation-in-utero-infection
#7
Sébastien Fauteux-Daniel, Ariane Larouche, Virginie Calderon, Jonathan Boulais, Chanel Béland, Doris G Ransy, Marc Boucher, Valérie Lamarre, Normand Lapointe, Isabelle Boucoiran, Armelle Le Campion, Hugo Soudeyns
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy and childbirth. However, the timing and precise biologic mechanisms that are involved in this process are incompletely understood, as are the determinants that influence transmission of particular HCV variants. Here we report results of a longitudinal assessment of HCV quasispecies diversity and composition in 5 cases of vertical HCV transmission, including 3 women coinfected with HIV-1. The population structure of HCV variant spectra based on E2 envelope gene sequences (nucleotide positions 1491-1787), including hypervariable regions 1 and 2, was characterized using next-generation sequencing and median joining network analysis...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903520/hepatic-renal-hematologic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-hiv-infected-children-on-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Ann J Melvin, Meredith Warshaw, Alexandra Compagnucci, Yacine Saidi, Linda Harrison, Anna Turkova, Gareth Tudor-Williams
Background: Data on long-term toxicity of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children are sparse. PENPACT-1 was an open-label trial in which HIV-infected children were assigned randomly to receive protease inhibitor (PI)- or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based ART. Methods: We examined changes in clinical, immunologic, and inflammatory markers from baseline to year 4 in the subset of children in the PENPACT-1 study who experienced viral suppression between week 24 and year 4 of ART...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902234/monitoring-of-post-vaccination-anti-hbs-titles-vaccine-in-children-and-adolescents-in-the-pre-dialysis-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Nathália Cristina Pereira da Costa, Mônica Ribeiro Canhestro, Cristina Maria Bouissou Morais Soares, Juliana Scudilio Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial or viral diseases are one of the major causes of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). These patients show a quantitative reduction of levels of antibodies over time. Among the infectious diseases that affect CKD patients, stands out hepatitis B (HB). Immunization and control of antibodies levels against the hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs) are ways to prevent the HB infection in this population. Patients with anti-HBs levels ≥10 IU/ml are considered adequate responders, whereas those with anti-HBs levels ≥ 100 IU/ml are considered excellent responders...
July 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893933/tumour-virus-epidemiology
#10
REVIEW
Ruth M Lunn, Gloria D Jahnke, Charles S Rabkin
A viral etiology of cancer was first demonstrated in 1911 by Peyton Rous who injected cell-free filtrate from a chicken sarcoma into healthy chickens and found it induced a tumour. Since the discovery over 50 years ago of the Epstein-Barr virus as the cause of Burkitt lymphoma, seven other human viruses or groups of viruses-hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1, some human papillomaviruses, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Merkel cell polyomavirus-have been linked to human cancer...
October 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882581/premature-ovarian-senescence-and-a-high-miscarriage-rate-impair-fertility-in-women-with-hcv
#11
Aimilia Karampatou, Xue Han, Loreta A Kondili, Gloria Taliani, Alessia Ciancio, Filomena Morisco, Rosina Maria Critelli, Enrica Baraldi, Veronica Bernabucci, Giulia Troshina, Maria Guarino, Simonetta Tagliavini, Federica D'Ambrosio, Laura Bristot, Laura Turco, Stefano Rosato, Stefano Vella, Tommaso Trenti, Isabella Neri, Antonio La Marca, Shivaji Manthena, Andrea S Goldstein, Savino Bruno, Yanjun Bao, Yuri Sanchez Gonzalez, Erica Villa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Premenopausal women who are HCV positive (HCV+) have failing ovarian function, which is likely to impact their fertility. Thus, we investigated the reproductive history, risk of infertility, and pregnancy outcomes in women of childbearing age who were HCV+. METHODS: Three different groups were studied: (1) Clinical cohort: 100 women who were HCV+ and also had chronic liver disease (CLD), age matched with 50 women who were HBV+ with CLD and with 100 healthy women; all women were consecutively observed in three gastroenterology units in hospitals in Italy; (2) 1,998 women who were HCV+ and enrolled in the Italian Platform for the Study of Viral Hepatitis Therapies (PITER); (3) 6,085 women, who were mono-infected with HCV, and 20,415 women, who were HCV-, from a large de-identified insurance database from the USA...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875002/prevalence-of-g6pd-deficiency-in-children-with-hepatitis-a
#12
Ghasem Miri-Aliabad, Ali Khajeh, Tooran Shahraki
Introduction: Hepatitis A virus is the most prevalent viral hepatitis. It is globally a major public health problem with different clinical symptoms. This study aimed at investigating the clinical findings and prevalence of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in children with hepatitis A. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, demographical information, clinical findings, and G6PD level of hepatitis A patients, who were visited at Pediatric Hematology clinic, were entered into the database...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875001/immune-thrombocytopenic-purpura-and-hemolytic-anemia-secondary-to-hepatitis-a
#13
Ghasem Miri-Aliabad, Somayeh Rashidi
Hepatitis A is common in children and usually is a self-limiting disease. Although extrahepatic and hematological immune manifestations following acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection have rarely been reported, they are frequently observed in other viral hepatitis. In this paper, we report the case of a 3-year-old girl who developed immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and hemolytic anemia after HAV infection. She was presented with malaise, pallor, ecchymosis, petechiae and purpura on the trunk and extremities...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860476/quantifying-perinatal-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-viral-quasispecies-by-tag-linkage-deep-sequencing
#14
Yushen Du, Xiumei Chi, Chong Wang, Jing Jiang, Fei Kong, Hongqing Yan, Xiaomei Wang, Jie Li, Nicholas C Wu, Lei Dai, Tian-Hao Zhang, Sara Shu, Jian Zhou, Janice M Yoshizawa, Xinmin Li, Debika Bhattacharya, Ting-Ting Wu, Junqi Niu, Ren Sun
Despite full immunoprophylaxis, mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of Hepatitis B Virus still occurs in approximately 2-5% of HBsAg positive mothers. Little is known about the bottleneck of HBV transmission and the evolution of viral quasispecies in the context of MTCT. Here we adopted a newly developed tag linkage deep sequencing method and analyzed the quasispecies of four MTCT pairs that broke through immunoprophylaxis. By assigning unique tags to individual viral sequences, we accurately reconstructed HBV haplotypes in a region of 836 bp, which contains the major immune epitopes and drug resistance mutations...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820758/lack-of-association-between-interleukin-28b-polymorphism-and-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-c
#15
Afrodite Psaros Einberg, Ann-Sofi Duberg, Olga Filipovich, Jessica Nyström, Anton Zhirkov, Erwin Daniel Brenndörfer, Lars Frelin, Elena Rukoiatkina, Yuriy Lobzin, Matti Sällberg, Björn Fischler, Anton Lutckii
OBJECTIVES: Single genetic nucleotide polymorphism (rs12979860) near the gene for Interleukin 28B (IL28B), is known to be of importance for frequency of spontaneous clearance and treatment outcome in interferon based therapies in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this study was to investigate if IL28B polymorphism in children and/or their mothers plays a role in vertical transmission of HCV (HCV-VT). METHODS: Plasma samples from 59 infected women, 76 uninfected children born to infected mothers, and 47 children with known vertically transmitted HCV infection, were analysed for IL28B polymorphism and classified by the IL28B genotype (C/C, C/T and T/T) as well as by viral genotype...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798927/is-dengue-emerging-as-important-cause-of-acute-liver-failure-in-endemic-regions
#16
Lavleen Singh, Amitabh Singh, Mitali Agarwal, Sataroopa Mishra
Dengue virus infection continues to be major public health problem in large part of world. The epidemiology of dengue viral infection is becoming increasingly complex and has substantially changed over almost past six decades not only in terms of prevalent strains and geographical locations but also in terms of disease severity and atypical presentations. Though liver is the most common organ affected but is generally asymptomatic. We present a case of infant with severe dengue who died of fulminant hepatic failure and showed pan lobular necrosis on post mortem liver biopsy...
July 16, 2017: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798895/prevalence-and-identification-of-serum-markers-associated-with-vertical-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-in-pregnant-women-in-yaounde-cameroon
#17
Lucien Honoré Etame Sone, Roger Ahouga Voufo, Henriette Thérèse Dimodi, Michel Kengne, Cédric Gueguim, Nnanga Ngah, Julius Oben, Judith Laure Ngondi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection in pregnant women and identify markers associated with vertical transmission of HBV. METHODS: Prospective and cross-sectional study over 10 months on 298 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the Cité Verte and Efoulan District hospitals in Cameroon. A dry tube blood collection was performed on all pregnant women and babies born to HBsAg-positive mothers. Serum from the women was used to test for HBsAg through immunochromatography and then confirmed by ELISA...
2017: International Journal of MCH and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723858/maternal-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-and-pregnancy-outcomes-a-hospital-based-case-control-study-in-wuhan-china
#18
Zhihua Wan, Aifen Zhou, Huiping Zhu, Xiaofang Lin, Dan Hu, Songxu Peng, Bin Zhang, Yukai Du
GOALS: To examine the impact of maternal hepatitis B virus infection on pregnancy outcomes. BACKGROUND: Studies regarding hepatitis B virus infection and pregnancy outcomes are limited with inconsistent results, and none of them have evaluated the effect of maternal viral load in pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes. STUDY: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted. In total, 1728 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive women who delivered consecutively at Wuhan Women and Children Medical and Healthcare Center, Wuhan, China, from June 2008 to May 2015, were compared with 1497 HBsAg-negative women giving birth in the same hospital during the same period who were randomly identified and selected from the computerized medical record database in parallel...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663066/successful-management-of-acute-liver-failure-in-italian-children-a-16-year-experience-at-a-referral-centre-for-paediatric-liver-transplantation
#19
A Di Giorgio, A Sonzogni, A Piccichè, G Alessio, E Bonanomi, M Colledan, L D'Antiga
BACKGROUND: Identifying the causes of acute liver failure (ALF) and predictors of death or liver transplantation (LTX) is crucial to decide its management. We aimed to describe features and outcome of ALF in Italian children. METHODS: Retrospective review of cases presenting between 1996-2012. ALF was defined by high transaminases, INR ≥2.0 regardless of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), no evidence of underlying chronic liver disease. RESULTS: 55 children (median age 2...
June 12, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660149/mechanisms-and-prevention-of-vertical-transmission-in-chronic-viral-hepatitis
#20
REVIEW
Marianna G Mavilia, George Y Wu
Vertical transmission (VT) is the primary route of transmission of viral hepatitis in children. The rate of VT ranges from 1-28% with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 3-15% with hepatitis C virus (HCV). VT for both viruses can occur during the intrauterine or peripartum period. VT of HBV primarily occurs by intrauterine transmission (IUT). Hepatitis B surface antigen is unable to cross the placenta and, therefore, relies on processes like transplacental leakage, placental infection, cellular transmission by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and germline transmission...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
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