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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771862/efficacy-and-safety-of-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-thalassemic-children
#1
Shivadatta Padhi, Sudhir Maharshi, Gaurav K Gupta, Kapil Garg, Sandeep Nijhawan
OBJECTIVES: There is limited data on the efficacy and safety of directly acting antiviral therapy (DAA) for chronic hepatitis C in pediatric population. The aim was to assess the efficacy and safety of DAA in chronic hepatitis C β-thalassemic major pediatric patients. METHODS: Prospective study was conducted from September 2015 to January 2017. All β-thalassemic major chronic hepatitis C pediatric patients with age between 5 and 14 years were included in this study...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757383/considerations-of-antiviral-treatment-to-interrupt-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-in-china
#2
Fuqiang Cui, Joseph Woodring, Polin Chan, Fujie Xu
Background: Treating high-risk women with antivirals in their third trimester is a promising intervention to further reduce perinatal transmission in neonates born to hepatitis B surface antigen positive [HBsAg(+)] mothers. Methods: We estimated the number of perinatal infections based on coverage and effectiveness of hepatitis B immunization. We compared cost-effectiveness of different approaches to identify high-risk women for antiviral treatment, by region and urban/rural residence...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739700/catalysing-the-development-and-introduction-of-paediatric-drug-formulations-for-children-living-with-hiv-a-new-global-collaborative-framework-for-action
#3
Martina Penazzato, Melynda Watkins, Sébastien Morin, Linda Lewis, Fernando Pascual, Marissa Vicari, Janice Lee, Sally Hargreaves, Meg Doherty, George K Siberry
Progress in the development and introduction of paediatric formulations for key infectious diseases is poor in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although major steps have been made in the scale-up of antiretroviral medicines in LMICs, the development and deployment of formulations for infants and children is suboptimal. Of the children living with HIV globally (most in Africa), only 43% are receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), many with suboptimal formulations. These shortfalls pose a series of challenges to meeting global treatment targets of 1·6 million children (aged 0-14 years) on ART by the end of 2018 (95% coverage) and to ensuring that 95% of those on ART are virologically suppressed...
May 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735782/an-overview-of-liver-transplant-pathology-data-from-a-tertiary-referral-centre-in-western-india
#4
Fiona Fonseca, Bijal Kulkarni, Meenal Hastak, Vinay Kumaran, Vibha Varma, Sorabh Kapoor
INTRODUCTION AND AIM: 1. Study of liver explants - Etiologic types of end-stage chronic liver disease (ESCLD) and acute liver failure (ALF) in adults and children. 2. Assessment of donor steatosis and incidental granulomas. 3. Post-transplant liver biopsies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens of 180 explant hepatectomies, 173 donor wedge and 30 core liver biopsies, and 58 post transplant liver biopsies received in our department from April 2013 to March 2017. RESULTS: 1...
April 9, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735580/natural-history-clinical-manifestations-and-pathogenesis-of-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-1-and-2-infections
#5
Rakesh Aggarwal, Amit Goel
Infection with genotype 1 or 2 hepatitis E virus (HEV) results primarily from human-to-human transmission through the fecal-oral route in low-resource countries. It presents primarily as "acute viral hepatitis" syndrome, usually a self-limiting illness. A few cases progress to acute liver failure, a serious illness with high fatality. Clinical disease is infrequent among children. Infection during pregnancy is associated with a higher risk of symptomatic disease, severe liver injury, and mortality...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735579/epidemiology-of-genotype-1-and-2-hepatitis-e-virus-infections
#6
Kenrad E Nelson, Alain B Labrique, Brittany L Kmush
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotypes 1 and 2 are responsible for the majority of acute viral hepatitis infections in endemic areas in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. In addition to frequent sporadic illnesses throughout the year, these viruses often cause large epidemics in association with monsoon rains in Asia or during humanitarian crises in Africa. Clinical hepatitis commonly involves adults more often than young children, with an overall mortality of ∼1%. However, the mortality among pregnant women is often 30% or higher...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696674/a-pilot-single-arm-observational-study-of-sofosbuvir-ledipasvir-200-45-mg-in-6-to-12-year-old-children
#7
M H F El-Shabrawi, N M Kamal, H R El-Khayat, E M Kamal, M M A H AbdElgawad, M Yakoot
BACKGROUND: No available data on the use of sofosbuvir/ledipasvir combination in treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in children 6- to 12- year old. AIM: To assess the safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ledipasvir in children 6- to 12- year old with chronic HCV genotype 4 infection. METHODS: This is a pilot prospective single arm observational open-label multicentre study. A total of 20 consecutive eligible chronic HCV infected children, aged from 6- to 12- years were included in this study and treated with a fixed sofosbuvir/ledipasvir combination in half the adult dose (200/45 mg) once daily for 12 weeks...
April 25, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681166/direct-acting-antivirals-to-prevent-vertical-transmission-of-viral-hepatitis-c-when-is-the-optimal-time-to-treat
#8
Leigh Cervino, Lauren M Hynicka
OBJECTIVE: To describe the most current evidence for the use of direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) to treat hepatitis C along the pregnancy-pediatric continuum in the United States. DATA SOURCES: The MEDLINE/PubMed databases were searched (January 1995 to February 2018) for articles in English using the terms: hepatitis C, vertical transmission, pregnancy, pediatrics, ribavirin, interferon, direct acting antivirals, daclatasvir, dasabuvir, elbasvir, glecaprevir, grazoprevir, ledipasvir, ombitasvir, paritaprevir, pibrentasvir, simeprevir, sofosbuvir, and velpatasvir...
April 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667721/diverse-manifestations-of-acute-sickle-cell-hepatopathy-in-pediatric-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-a-case-series
#9
Lydia H Pecker, Nidhi Patel, Susan Creary, Anil Darbari, Emily Riehm Meier, Deepika S Darbari, Ross M Fasano
The hepatic complications of sickle cell disease (SCD) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in adults; children usually survive but may suffer significant sequelae. Few diagnostic tools differentiate the various hepatic manifestations of SCD. Why patients exhibit one hepatic pathology versus another is unclear. We report four pediatric patients with hemoglobin SS disease with diverse manifestations of acute hepatic involvement including acute sickle hepatic crisis, hepatic sequestration, sickle cell intrahepatic cholestasis, and a non-SCD cause of hepatopathy in a patient with viral hepatitis...
April 18, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599078/global-prevalence-treatment-and-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-2016-a-modelling-study
#10
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The 69th World Health Assembly approved the Global Health Sector Strategy to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Although no virological cure exists for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, existing therapies to control viral replication and prophylaxis to minimise mother-to-child transmission make elimination of HBV feasible. We aimed to estimate the national, regional, and global prevalence of HBsAg in the general population and in the population aged 5 years in 2016, as well as coverage of prophylaxis, diagnosis, and treatment...
March 26, 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584805/a-ten-year-immunopersistence-study-of-hepatitis-e-antibodies-in-rural-bangladesh
#11
Brittany L Kmush, K Zaman, Md Yunus, Parimalendu Saha, Kenrad E Nelson, Alain B Labrique
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute, viral hepatitis in Southeast Asia. Several studies have suggested that antibody persistence after HEV infection may be transient, possibly increasing the risk of re-infection and contributing to the frequency of outbreaks in HEV endemic regions. The specific conditions under which antibodies to HEV are lost, or "sero-reversion" occurs, are poorly understood. Here, one hundred participants from population-based studies in rural Bangladesh were revisited in 2015, ten years after a documented HEV infection to examine long-term antibody persistence...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538497/incomplete-childhood-immunization-with-new-and-old-vaccines-and-associated-factors-brisa-birth-cohort-s%C3%A3-o-lu%C3%A3-s-maranh%C3%A3-o-state-northeast-brazil
#12
Francelena de Sousa Silva, Yonna Costa Barbosa, Mônica Araújo Batalha, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa Ribeiro, Vanda Maria Ferreira Simões, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Waleska Regina Machado Araújo, Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva
This study estimated the percentages of incomplete immunization with new vaccines and old vaccines and associated factors in children 13 to 35 months of age belonging to a birth cohort in São Luís, the capital of Maranhão State, Brazil. The sample was probabilistic, with 3,076 children born in 2010. Information on vaccination was obtained from the Child's Health Card. The new vaccines, namely those introduced in 2010, were meningococcal C and 10-valent pneumococcal, and the old vaccines, or those already on the childhood immunization schedule, were BCG, hepatitis B, human rotavirus, polio, tetravalent (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae b), yellow fever, and triple viral (measles, mumps, rubella)...
March 12, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517711/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-intrauterine-transmission-among-pregnant-women-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#13
Songxu Peng, Zhihua Wan, Tingting Liu, Huiping Zhu, Yukai Du
GOALS: To identify the potential risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine transmission and predict the incidence of HBV intrauterine transmission among hepatitis B surface antigen-positive pregnant women with diverse viral load. BACKGROUND: The intrauterine transmission of HBV significantly contributes to the persistence of a high number of patients infected with HBV. However, its risk factors remain unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective study was performed on hepatitis B surface antigen-positive pregnant women who delivered from June 2012 to December 2016 at Wuhan Medical Care Center for Women and Children, Wuhan, China...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504349/choledochal-cyst-and-biliary-stone
#14
Anjum Saeed, Asaad Assiri
Choledochal cyst is not an uncommonly seen entity in children. Presentation may be varied and at different age groups. Abnormal pancreaticobiliary junction is usually a phenomenon in acquired type of choledochal cyst. A four years old child presented with symptoms of acute viral hepatitis A but persistence of symptoms beyond the usual time necessitated other conditions to be considered. Choledochal cyst was the final diagnosis complicating with biliary stone which was managed by surgical excision.
January 2018: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487714/ribavirin-as-a-potential-therapeutic-for-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumors
#15
Joshua Casaos, Sakibul Huq, Tarik Lott, Raphael Felder, John Choi, Noah Gorelick, Michael Peters, Yuanxuan Xia, Russell Maxwell, Tianna Zhao, Chenchen Ji, Thomas Simon, Julie Sesen, Sarah J Scotland, Richard E Kast, Jeffrey Rubens, Eric Raabe, Charles G Eberhart, Eric M Jackson, Henry Brem, Betty Tyler, Nicolas Skuli
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are highly aggressive, malignant tumors and are the most common malignant brain tumor in children under 6 months of age. Currently, there is no standard treatment for AT/RT. Recent studies have reported potential anti-tumoral properties of ribavirin, a guanosine analog and anti-viral molecule approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of hepatitis C. We previously demonstrated that ribavirin inhibited glioma cell growth in vitro and in vivo . Based on these results and the fact that no pre-clinical model of ribavirin in AT/RT exists, we decided to investigate the effect of ribavirin on several human AT/RT cell lines (BT12, BT16, and BT37) both in vitro and in vivo ...
January 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485727/shortening-the-decade-long-gap-between-adult-and-paediatric-drug-formulations-a-new-framework-based-on-the-hiv-experience-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#16
Martina Penazzato, Linda Lewis, Melynda Watkins, Vineet Prabhu, Fernando Pascual, Martin Auton, Wesley Kreft, Sébastien Morin, Marissa Vicari, Janice Lee, David Jamieson, George K Siberry
INTRODUCTION: Despite the coordinated efforts by several stakeholders to speed up access to HIV treatment for children, development of optimal paediatric formulations still lags 8 to 10 years behind that of adults, due mainly to lack of market incentives and technical complexities in manufacturing. The small and fragmented paediatric market also hinders launch and uptake of new formulations. Moreover, the problems affecting HIV similarly affect other disease areas where development and introduction of optimal paediatric formulations is even slower...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456414/high-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-antibody-loss-and-a-case-report-of-de-novo-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-a-child-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#17
Palittiya Sintusek, Nawarat Posuwan, Piyaporn Wanawongsawad, Suttiruk Jitraruch, Yong Poovorawan, Voranush Chongsrisawat
AIM: To assess the seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunity among previously vaccinated pediatric liver transplant recipients and present a case report of de novo hepatitis B infection after liver transplantation. METHODS: This study focused on children with chronic liver diseases who received primary hepatitis B immunization and had a complete dataset of anti-HBs before and after liver transplantation between May 2001 and June 2017. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for potential factors relating to HBV immunity loss...
February 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455437/live-donor-liver-transplantation-for-acute-liver-failure-a-single-center-experience
#18
Siddharth Mehrotra, Naimish Mehta, Prashantha S Rao, Shailendra Lalwani, Vivek Mangla, Samiran Nundy
INTRODUCTION: Acute liver failure (ALF) is an indication for emergency liver transplantation (LT). Although centers performing only deceased donor liver transplants (DDLT) have shown improved outcomes in this situation, they still have relatively long waiting lists. An alternative would be living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which has shown equivalent outcomes in the elective situation but there is limited evidence of its results in ALF. AIM: The purpose of this study was to assess the outcomes in patients with ALF undergoing emergency LDLT in our center in Delhi, India...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452204/antiviral-therapy-in-hepatitis-b-virus-infected-children-with-immune-tolerant-characteristics-a-pilot-open-label-randomized-study
#19
Shishu Zhu, Hongfei Zhang, Yi Dong, Limin Wang, Zhiqiang Xu, Weiwei Liu, Yu Gan, Hongmei Tang, Dawei Chen, Fuchuan Wang, Pan Zhao
BACKGROUND & AIM: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in children is a serious health problem worldwide. How to treat children with immune-tolerant chronic hepatitis B infection, commonly characterized by hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positivity, high viral load, normal or mildly elevated alanine aminotransferase and no or minimal inflammation in liver histology, remains unresolved. This trial aims to study the benefits of antiviral therapy in children with these characteristics...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369303/report-from-the-international-conference-on-viral-hepatitis-2017
#20
Vicente Soriano, Benjamin Young, Nancy Reau
The International Conference on Viral Hepatitis 2017 brought exciting news on the treatment of viral hepatitis. The most recent estimates of the burden for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were presented. The current gaps and prospects for regional and global eradication of viral hepatitis were discussed on the light of the WHO roadmap until 2030. Debates focused on hepatitis C and expectations using the new approved HCV pan-genotypic, once daily, oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir...
January 2018: AIDS Reviews
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