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Mitochondrial liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161501/phenanthrene-induced-apoptosis-and-its-underlying-mechanism
#1
Xiangsheng Hong, Jianhui Qin, Rui Chen, Lilai Yuan, Jinmiao Zha, Chao Huang, Na Li, Xiaoya Ji, Zijian Wang
Phenanthrene (Phe) is one of the most abundant low-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Widespread human and aquatic organism exposure to Phe has been reported, but the toxic effects of Phe and potential mechanisms are unclear. We focused on the chronic hepatotoxicity of Phe in adult Chinese rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus) and the underlying mechanisms. The chronic effects of exposing Chinese rare minnows to 8.9, 82.3, or 510.0 μg/L Phe for 30 days were examined by histopathological observation, TUNEL assays, caspase activity assays, and gene expression profiles...
November 21, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159461/severe-hyperammonemic-encephalopathy-requiring-dialysis-aggravated-by-prolonged-fasting-and-intermittent-high-fat-load-in-a-ramadan-fasting-month-in-a-patient-with-cptii-homozygous-mutation
#2
P Phowthongkum, C Ittiwut, V Shotelersuk
BACKGROUND: Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPTII) deficiency is a mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorder that can present antenatally as congenital brain malformations, or postnatally with lethal neonatal, severe infantile, or the most common adult myopathic forms. No case of severe hyperammonemia without liver dysfunction has been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We described a 23-year-old man who presented to the emergency department with seizures and was found to have markedly elevation of serum ammonia...
November 21, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159459/epg5-related-vici-syndrome-a-primary-defect-of-autophagic-regulation-with-an-emerging-phenotype-overlapping-with-mitochondrial-disorders
#3
Shanti Balasubramaniam, Lisa G Riley, Anand Vasudevan, Mark J Cowley, Velimir Gayevskiy, Carolyn M Sue, Caitlin Edwards, Edward Edkins, Reimar Junckerstorff, C Kiraly-Borri, P Rowe, J Christodoulou
Vici syndrome is a rare, under-recognised, relentlessly progressive congenital multisystem disorder characterised by five principal features of callosal agenesis, cataracts, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency and oculocutaneous hypopigmentation. In addition, three equally consistent features (profound developmental delay, progressive failure to thrive and acquired microcephaly) are highly supportive of the diagnosis. Since its recognition as a distinct entity in 1988, an extended phenotype with sensorineural hearing loss, skeletal myopathy and variable involvement of virtually any organ system, including the lungs, thyroid, liver and kidneys, have been described...
November 21, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159325/role-of-aramchol-in-steatohepatitis-and-fibrosis-in-mice
#4
Marta Iruarrizaga-Lejarreta, Marta Varela-Rey, David Fernández-Ramos, Ibon Martínez-Arranz, Teresa C Delgado, Jorge Simon, Virginia Gutiérrez-de Juan, Laura delaCruz-Villar, Mikel Azkargorta, José L Lavin, Rebeca Mayo, Sebastiaan M Van Liempd, Igor Aurrekoetxea, Xabier Buqué, Donatella Delle Cave, Arantza Peña, Juan Rodríguez-Cuesta, Ana M Aransay, Felix Elortza, Juan M Falcón-Pérez, Patricia Aspichueta, Liat Hayardeny, Mazen Noureddin, Arun J Sanyal, Cristina Alonso, Juan Anguita, María Luz Martínez-Chantar, Shelly C Lu, José M Mato
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the advanced form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which sets the stage for further liver damage. The mechanism for the progression of NASH involves multiple parallel hits including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation and others. Manipulation of any of these pathways may be an approach to prevent NASH development and progression. Aramchol (arachidyl-amido cholanoic acid) is presently in a phase IIb NASH study. The aim of this study was to investigate Aramchol's mechanism of action and its effect on fibrosis using the methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) diet model of NASH...
November 2017: Hepatol Commun
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158819/pro-inflammatory-cxcr3-impairs-mitochondrial-function-in-experimental-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#5
Jinghua Du, Xiang Zhang, Juqiang Han, Kwan Man, Yanquan Zhang, Eagle Sh Chu, Yuemin Nan, Jun Yu
Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a crucial role in the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the regulator of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of NASH is still largely unclear. CXCR3 is an essential pro-inflammatory factor in chronic liver diseases. We explored the significance of CXCR3 in regulating mitochondrial function during NASH development in animal models and cultured hepatocytes. METHODS: The effects of CXCR3 on mitochondrial function were evaluated by genetic knockout or pharmacological inhibition in mouse models and in vitro...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158815/tethering-interleukin-22-to-apolipoprotein-a-i-ameliorates-mice-from-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury
#6
Wei Chen, Xuyao Zhang, Jiajun Fan, Wenjing Zai, Jingyun Luan, Yubin Li, Shaofei Wang, Qicheng Chen, Yichen Wang, Yanxu Liang, Dianwen Ju
Increasing evidence indicates that interleukin-22 (IL-22) holds tremendous potential as a protective agent in preventing liver injury, but its pleiotropic effects and pathogenic role in carcinogenesis, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis restrict its systemic application. Here, we first developed a nanoparticle (liposIA) as a liver-targeted agent through IL-22 tethered to apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) in a gene therapy vector. LiposIA was prepared using thin film dispersion method and the complexes exhibited desirable nanoparticle size, fine polydisperse index, highly efficient transfection, and excellent serum and storage stability...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157470/therapeutic-potential-of-hiv-nosode-30c-as-evaluated-in-a549-lung-cancer-cells
#7
Anisur Rahman Khuda-Bukhsh, Jesmin Mondal, Rajesh Shah
OBJECTIVES: To examine if HIV nosode in 30c dilution (HIV 30c) has therapeutic potential against lung cancer cells (A549) as compared to WRL-68 normal cells and to elucidate its possible molecular mechanism of action on DNA replication and apoptosis. METHODS: Effects of HIV 30c were thoroughly tested for its possible anticancer potential on A549 cells (lung cancer); WRL-68 normal liver cells served as control. Three doses, one at LD50 and two below LD-50, were used...
November 2017: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157282/updated-molecular-phylogenetic-data-for-opisthorchis-spp-trematoda-opisthorchioidea-from-ducks-in-vietnam
#8
Thanh Thi Ha Dao, Thanh Thi Giang Nguyen, Sarah Gabriël, Khanh Linh Bui, Pierre Dorny, Thanh Hoa Le
BACKGROUND: An opisthorchiid liver fluke was recently reported from ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) in Binh Dinh Province of Central Vietnam, and referred to as "Opisthorchis viverrini-like". This species uses common cyprinoid fishes as second intermediate hosts as does Opisthorchis viverrini, with which it is sympatric in this province. In this study, we refer to the liver fluke from ducks as "Opisthorchis sp. BD2013", and provide new sequence data from the mitochondrial (mt) genome and the nuclear ribosomal transcription unit...
November 21, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156373/mitochondria-targeted-ubiquinone-mitoq-enhances-acetaldehyde-clearance-by-reversing-alcohol-induced-posttranslational-modification-of-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-2-a-molecular-mechanism-of-protection-against-alcoholic-liver-disease
#9
Liuyi Hao, Qian Sun, Wei Zhong, Wenliang Zhang, Xinguo Sun, Zhanxiang Zhou
Alcohol metabolism in the liver generates highly toxic acetaldehyde. Breakdown of acetaldehyde by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in the mitochondria consumes NAD(+) and generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, which represents a fundamental mechanism in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). A mitochondria-targeted lipophilic ubiquinone (MitoQ) has been shown to confer greater protection against oxidative damage in the mitochondria compared to untargeted antioxidants. The present study aimed to investigate if MitoQ could preserve mitochondrial ALDH2 activity and speed up acetaldehyde clearance, thereby protects against ALD...
November 11, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154964/lipotoxicity-and-the-gut-liver-axis-in-nash-pathogenesis
#10
REVIEW
Fabio Marra, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
The pathogenesis of nanoalcoholic fatty liver disease is still incompletely understood, in particolar the mechanisms whereby a minority of patients develop a more severe phenotype characterized by hepatocellular damage, inflammation, and fibrosis. In this review we discuss two pivotal aspects of the pathogenesis of NASH. We first analyze the initial mechanisms responsible of hepatocellular damage and inflammation, which derive from the toxic effects of excess lipids. Accumulating data indicate that the total amount of triglycerides stored in hepatocytes is not the major determinant of lipotoxicity, and that specific lipid classes act as damaging agents on liver cells...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154852/the-mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-2-gene-is-causal-for-the-spontaneous-polycystic-liver-diseases-in-mice
#11
Misa Hirose, Paul Schilf, Sarah Rohde, Yask Gupta, Tiphaine Sancerni, Marie-Clotilde Alves-Guerra, Christian Sina, Robert Jaster, Bruno Miroux, Saleh M Ibrahim
Polycystic liver diseases (PCLDs) are autosomal dominant disorders. To date, 3 genes are known to be associated with the disease, SEC63 and PRKCSH and LRP5. Here, we report that mice deficient in the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 gene (Ucp2(-/-)) spontaneously developed PCLDs when they were over 12months old. Macroscopical observation, blood chemistry as well as histopathological analysis demonstrated the PCLDs found in Ucp2(-/-) mice were very similar to the findings in human PCLDs. This is the first report describing the gene encoding mitochondrial protein is causative for PCLDs...
November 14, 2017: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154799/integrative-omics-data-analyses-of-repeated-dose-toxicity-of-valproic-acid-in-vitro-reveal-new-mechanisms-of-steatosis-induction
#12
Simone G J van Breda, Sandra M H Claessen, Marcel van Herwijnen, Daniël H J Theunissen, Danyel G J Jennen, Theo M C M de Kok, Jos C S Kleinjans
Valproic acid (VPA) is a very potent anti-cancer and neuro-protective drug probably by its HDAC inhibiting properties, which may cause steatosis in the liver. The present study investigates the effect of repetitive VPA treatment of primary human hepatocytes (PHH) on whole genome gene expression-, DNA methylation-, and miRNA changes, using microarrays and integrated data analyses. PHH were exposed to a non-cytotoxic dose of VPA for 5days daily which induced lipid accumulation. Part of the PHH was left untreated for 3days for studying the persistence of 'omics' changes...
November 14, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151958/santamarine-inhibits-nf-%C3%B0%C2%BAb-and-stat3-activation-and-induces-apoptosis-in-hepg2-liver-cancer-cells-via-oxidative-stress
#13
Tahir Mehmood, Amara Maryam, Xiangge Tian, Muhammad Khan, Tonghui Ma
Sesquiterpene lactones have long been used in traditional Chinese medicines to treat inflammatory diseases. Recently, sesquiterpene lactone family compounds have been recognized as potential anticancer agents. Thus, it is necessary to explore new sesquiterpene lactones and their antitumor mechanism for cancer treatments. In the present study, we have explored the potential anti-cancer activity of a novel sesquiterpene lactone compound "santamarine" (STM) in HepG2 cells. It inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis dose-dependently with IC50 ~ 70 μM...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145655/paternal-exposure-to-environmental-chemical-stress-affectsmale-offspring-s-hepatic-mitochondria
#14
Roger Godschalk, Alex Remels, Camiel Hoogendoorn, Jan van Benthem, Mirjam Luijten, Nur Duale, Gunnar Brunborg, Ann-Karin Olsen, Freek G Bouwman, Armelle Munnia, Marco Peluso, Edwin Mariman, Frederik Jan van Schooten
Pre-conceptional paternal exposures may affect offspring's health, which cannot be explained by mutations in germ cells, but by persistent changes in the regulation of gene expression. Therefore, we investigated whether pre-conceptional paternal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) could alter the offspring's phenotype. Male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to B[a]P by gavage for 6 weeks, 3x per week, and were crossed with unexposed BALB-c females 6 weeks after the final exposure. The offspring was kept under normal feeding conditions and was sacrificed at 3 weeks of age...
November 14, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145424/levosimendan-protects-human-hepatocytes-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#15
Stefanie N Brunner, Nicolai V Bogert, Andreas A Schnitzbauer, Eva Juengel, Anton Moritz, Isabella Werner, Angela Kornberger, Andres Beiras-Fernandez
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a major challenge in liver transplantation. The mitochondrial pathway plays a pivotal role in hepatic IRI. Levosimendan, a calcium channel sensitizer, was shown to attenuate apoptosis after IRI in animal livers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of levosimendan on apoptosis in human hepatocytes. METHODS: Primary human hepatocytes were either exposed to hypoxia or cultured under normoxic conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144994/gene-pathways-associated-with-mitochondrial-function-oxidative-stress-and-telomere-length-are-differentially-expressed-in-the-liver-of-rats-fed-lifelong-on-virgin-olive-sunflower-or-fish-oils
#16
Alfonso Varela-Lopez, María Patricia Pérez-López, César Luis Ramirez-Tortosa, Maurizio Battino, Sergio Granados-Principal, María Del Carmen Ramirez-Tortosa, Julio José Ochoa, Laura Vera-Ramirez, Francesca Giampieri, José Luis Quiles
This study investigates the effect of lifelong intake of different fat sources rich in monounsaturated (virgin olive oil), n6 polyunsaturated (sunflower oil) or n3 polyunsaturated (fish oil) fatty acids in the aged liver. Male Wistar rats fed lifelong on diets differing in the fat source were killed at 6 and at 24 months of age. Liver histopathology, mitochondrial ultrastructure, biogenesis, oxidative stress, mitochondrial electron transport chain, relative telomere length and gene expression profiles were studied...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144408/antioxidant-effect-of-barley-sprout-extract-via-enhancement-of-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-activity-and-glutathione-synthesis
#17
Yun-Hee Lee, Sou Hyun Kim, Seunghyun Lee, Kyung-Mi Kim, Jae-Chul Jung, Tae Gen Son, Sung Hwan Ki, Woo-Duck Seo, Jae-Hwan Kwak, Jin Tae Hong, Young-Suk Jung
We previously showed that barley sprout extract (BSE) prevents chronic alcohol intake-induced liver injury in mice. BSE notably inhibited glutathione (GSH) depletion and increased inflammatory responses, revealing its mechanism of preventing alcohol-induced liver injury. In the present study we investigated whether the antioxidant effect of BSE involves enhancing nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activity and GSH synthesis to inhibit alcohol-induced oxidative liver injury. Mice fed alcohol for four weeks exhibited significantly increased oxidative stress, evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) level and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) immunostaining in the liver, whereas treatment with BSE (100 mg/kg) prevented these effects...
November 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143783/metformin-potentiates-the-benefits-of-dietary-restraint-a-metabolomic-study
#18
Marta Riera-Borrull, Anabel García-Heredia, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Noemí Cabré, Elisabet Cuyàs, Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Jordi Camps, Javier A Menendez, Jorge Joven
Prevention of the metabolic consequences of a chronic energy-dense/high-fat diet (HFD) represents a public health priority. Metformin is a strong candidate to be incorporated in alternative therapeutic approaches. We used a targeted metabolomic approach to assess changes related to the multi-faceted metabolic disturbances provoked by HFD. We evaluated the protective effects of metformin and explored how pro-inflammatory and metabolic changes respond when mice rendered obese, glucose-intolerant and hyperlipidemic were switched to diet reversal with or without metformin...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143438/protective-effects-of-coenzyme-q10-nanoparticles-on-dichlorvos-induced-hepatotoxicity-and-mitochondrial-lysosomal-injury
#19
Aziz Eftekhari, Elham Ahmadian, Aida Azami, Mohammad Johari-Ahar, Mohammad Ali Eghbal
Development of biocompatible antioxidant nanoparticles for xenobiotic-induced liver disease treatment by oral or parenteral administration is of great interest in medicine. In the current study, we demonstrate the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 nanoparticles (CoQ10-NPs) on hepatotoxicity induced by dichlorvos (DDVP) as an organophosphate. Although CoQ10 is an efficient antioxidant, its poor bioavailability has limited the applications of this useful agent. First, CoQ10-NPs were prepared then characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
November 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141573/liver-protective-effects-of-extra-virgin-olive-oil-interaction-between-its-chemical-composition-and-the-cell-signaling-pathways-involved-in-protection
#20
Sandra A Soto-Alarcon, Rodrigo Valenzuela, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The liver is an organ susceptible to a multitude of injuries that causes liver damage, like steatosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), presents several protective effects on the liver, reducing hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, fibrogenesis, preventing lipid peroxidation, among other effects. Due to its high levels of monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid and phenolic compounds, such as hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, EVOO is able to participate in the activation of different signaling pathways in the hepatocytes involved in the prevention of inflammation, oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and insulin resistance, allowing the prevention or resolution of liver damage...
November 14, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
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