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Mitochondrial liver

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351246/addition-of-berberine-to-preservation-solution-in-an-animal-model-of-ex-vivo-liver-transplant-preserves-mitochondrial-function-and-bioenergetics-from-the-damage-induced-by-ischemia-reperfusion
#1
Rui Miguel Martins, Anabela Pinto Rolo, João Soeiro Teodoro, Emanuel Furtado, Rui Caetano Oliveira, José Guilherme Tralhão, Carlos Marques Palmeira
Liver transplantation is a therapeutic regimen to treat patients with non-malignant end-stage liver diseases and malignant tumors of hepatic origin. The ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in liver transplantation is associated with disruption of mitochondrial function in the hepatic parenchyma. Several studies have been conducted in animal models to identify pharmacological therapeutic strategies to minimize the injury induced by the cold/warm I/R in liver transplantation. Most of these studies were conducted in unrealistic conditions without the potential to be translated to clinical usage...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349446/ameliorative-role-of-camel-whey-protein-and-rosuvastatin-on-induced-dyslipidemia-in-mice
#2
Nashwa Ahmed El-Shinnawy, Sahar Sobhy Abd Elhalem, Nawal Zakaria Haggag, Gamal Badr
The incidence of obesity is rapidly increasing throughout the world. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for a number of chronic diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. This work presents a novel approach to study the activity of camel whey protein (WP) with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties as a cheap dietary protein substance extracted from camel milk to produce satiety and help in building muscles. Mice model suffering from dyslipidemia as a result of feeding on high fat-cholesterol diet for 8 weeks were administrated with either camel WP and/or rosuvastatin for 4 weeks...
January 19, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343773/mitochondrial-mutations-in-cholestatic-liver-disease-with-biliary-atresia
#3
Hong Koh, Gun-Seok Park, Sun-Mi Shin, Chang Eon Park, Seung Kim, Seok Joo Han, Huy Quang Pham, Jae-Ho Shin, Dong-Woo Lee
Biliary atresia (BA) results in severe bile blockage and is caused by the absence of extrahepatic ducts. Even after successful hepatic portoenterostomy, a considerable number of patients are likely to show progressive deterioration in liver function. Recent studies show that mutations in protein-coding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes and/or mitochondrial genes in nuclear DNA (nDNA) are associated with hepatocellular dysfunction. This observation led us to investigate whether hepatic dysfunctions in BA is genetically associated with mtDNA mutations...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342206/silymarin-prevents-acetaminophen-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-mice
#4
Zuzana Papackova, Marie Heczkova, Helena Dankova, Eva Sticova, Alena Lodererova, Lenka Bartonova, Martin Poruba, Monika Cahova
Acetaminophen or paracetamol (APAP) overdose is a common cause of liver injury. Silymarin (SLM) is a hepatoprotective agent widely used for treating liver injury of different origin. In order to evaluate the possible beneficial effects of SLM, Balb/c mice were pretreated with SLM (100 mg/kg b.wt. per os) once daily for three days. Two hours after the last SLM dose, the mice were administered APAP (300 mg/kg b.wt. i.p.) and killed 6 (T6), 12 (T12) and 24 (T24) hours later. SLM-treated mice exhibited a significant reduction in APAP-induced liver injury, assessed according to AST and ALT release and histological examination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341879/mechanisms-of-mitochondrial-toxicity-of-the-kinase-inhibitors-ponatinib-regorafenib-and-sorafenib-in-human-hepatic-hepg2-cells
#5
Franziska Paech, Cécile Mingard, David Grünig, Vanessa F Abegg, Jamal Bouitbir, Stephan Krähenbühl
Previous studies have shown that certain kinase inhibitors are mitochondrial toxicants. In the current investigation, we determined the mechanisms of mitochondrial impairment by the kinase inhibitors ponatinib, regorafenib, and sorafenib in more detail. In HepG2 cells cultured in galactose and exposed for 24 hours, all three kinase inhibitors investigated depleted the cellular ATP pools at lower concentrations than cytotoxicity occurred, compatible with mitochondrial toxicity. The kinase inhibitors impaired the activity of different complexes of the respiratory chain in HepG2 cells exposed to the toxicants for 24 hours and in isolated mouse liver mitochondria exposed acutely...
January 13, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339192/tissue-specific-differences-in-mitochondrial-dna-maintenance-and-expression
#6
Elena Herbers, Nina J Kekäläinen, Anu Hangas, Jaakko L Pohjoismäki, Steffi Goffart
The different cell types of multicellular organisms have specialized physiological requirements, affecting also their mitochondrial energy production and metabolism. The genome of mitochondria is essential for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXHPOS) and thus plays a central role in many human mitochondrial pathologies. Disorders affecting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance are typically resulting in a tissue-specific pattern of mtDNA deletions and rearrangements. Despite this role in disease as well as a biomarker of mitochondrial biogenesis, the tissue-specific parameters of mitochondrial DNA maintenance have been virtually unexplored...
January 12, 2018: Mitochondrion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337682/adverse-effects-of-organophosphorus-pesticides-on-the-liver-a-brief-summary-of-four-decades-of-research
#7
Somayyeh Karami-Mohajeri, Ahmad Ahmadipour, Hamid-Reza Rahimi, Mohammad Abdollahi
Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are widely used volatile pesticides that have harmful effects on the liver in acute and chronic exposures. This review article summarises and discusses a wide collection of studies published over the last 40 years reporting on the effects of OPs on the liver, in an attempt to propose general mechanisms of OP hepatotoxicity and possible treatment. Several key biological processes have been reported as involved in OP-induced hepatotoxicity such as disturbances in the antioxidant defence system, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and mitochondrial and microsomal metabolism...
December 20, 2017: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335519/metabolic-reprogramming-by-pck1-promotes-tca-cataplerosis-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-liver-cancer-cells-and-suppresses-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Meng-Xi Liu, Lei Jin, Si-Jia Sun, Peng Liu, Xu Feng, Zhou-Li Cheng, Wei-Ren Liu, Kun-Liang Guan, Ying-Hong Shi, Hai-Xin Yuan, Yue Xiong
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK or PCK) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step in hepatic gluconeogenesis pathway to maintain blood glucose levels. Mammalian cells express two PCK genes, encoding for a cytoplasmic (PCPEK-C or PCK1) and a mitochondrial (PEPCK-M or PCK2) isoforms, respectively. Increased expressions of both PCK genes are found in cancer of several organs, including colon, lung, and skin, and linked to increased anabolic metabolism and cell proliferation. Here, we report that the expressions of both PCK1 and PCK2 genes are downregulated in primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and low PCK expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC...
January 16, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331880/preventive-effects-of-indole-3-carbinol-against-alcohol-induced-liver-injury-in-mice-via-antioxidant-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-role-of-gut-liver-adipose-tissue-axis
#9
Youngshim Choi, Mohamed A Abdelmegeed, Byoung-Joon Song
Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), found in Brassica family vegetables, exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerous properties. Here, we aimed to evaluate the preventive effects of I3C against ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury and study the protective mechanism(s) by using the well-established chronic-plus-binge alcohol exposure model. The preventive effects of I3C were evaluated by conducting various histological, biochemical, and real-time PCR analyses in mouse liver, adipose tissue, and colon, since functional alterations of adipose tissue and intestine can also participate in promoting EtOH-induced liver damage...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330372/non-estrogenic-xanthohumol-derivatives-mitigate-insulin-resistance-and-cognitive-impairment-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice
#10
Cristobal L Miranda, Lance A Johnson, Oriane de Montgolfier, Valerie D Elias, Lea S Ullrich, Joshua J Hay, Ines L Paraiso, Jaewoo Choi, Ralph L Reed, Johana S Revel, Chrissa Kioussi, Gerd Bobe, Urszula T Iwaniec, Russell T Turner, Benita S Katzenellenbogen, John A Katzenellenbogen, Paul R Blakemore, Adrian F Gombart, Claudia S Maier, Jacob Raber, Jan F Stevens
Xanthohumol (XN), a prenylated flavonoid from hops, improves dysfunctional glucose and lipid metabolism in animal models of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, its metabolic transformation into the estrogenic metabolite, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), poses a potential health concern for its use in humans. To address this concern, we evaluated two hydrogenated derivatives, α,β-dihydro-XN (DXN) and tetrahydro-XN (TXN), which showed negligible affinity for estrogen receptors α and β, and which cannot be metabolically converted into 8-PN...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328482/cytisine-induces-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-caused-by-calcium-overload-in-hepg2-cells
#11
Lei Yu, Bo Jiang, Zhifeng Chen, Xin Wang, Dongxue Shang, Xiaopo Zhang, Yongxue Sun, Jinghui Yang, Yubin Ji
Cytisine, a quinolizidine alkaloid, is one of the major bioactive components found in the small tree Sophora Alopecuraides L., and is a traditional Chinese medicine that is used for treating hepatitis and liver cancer. In the 1960s, quinolizidine alkaloids were reported to exhibit inhibitory effects on tumour cell proliferation in several types of cancer cells. However, few studies have investigated the effect of cytisine on liver cancer. Our team confirmed that cytisine induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells via a mitochondrial pathway...
January 8, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325271/-research-advances-in-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#12
W J Duan, J D Jia
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic disease with unknown pathogenesis. Positive anti-mitochondrial antibody has high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of this disease. Ursodeoxycholic acid is mainly used for the treatment of PBC, but 40% of patients have an unsatisfactory biochemical response to this drug. 6-Ethylchenodeoxycholic acid is a new drug approved for the treatment of PBC, and liver transplantation remains the only effective method for the treatment of patients with end-stage PBC...
November 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325178/modulation-of-o-glcnac-levels-in-the-liver-impacts-acetaminophen-induced-liver-injury-by-affecting-protein-adduct-formation-and-glutathione-synthesis
#13
Steven R McGreal, Bharat Bhushan, Chad Walesky, Mitchell R McGill, Margitta Lebofsky, Sylvie E Kandel, Robert D Winefield, Hartmut Jaeschke, Natasha E Zachara, Zhen Zhang, Ee Phie Tan, Chad Slawson, Udayan Apte
Overdose of acetaminophen (APAP) results in acute liver failure. We have investigated the role of a post-translational modification of proteins called O-GlcNAcylation, where the O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) adds and O-GlcNAcase (OGA) removes a single β-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety, in the pathogenesis of APAP-induced liver injury. Hepatocyte specific OGT knockout mice (OGT KO), which have reduced O-GlcNAcylation, and WT controls were treated with 300 mg/kg APAP and the development of injury was studied over a time course from 0-24 hr...
January 9, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323715/alleviation-of-palmitic-acid-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-by-augmenter-of-liver-regeneration-through-ip3r-controlled-ca2-release
#14
Wei-Chun Xiao, Zhang Jing, Si-Li Chen, Yi-Jun Shi, Fan Xiao, Wei An
The aberrant release of Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contributes to the onset of ER stress, which is closely related to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We previously reported that augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) alleviates ER stress and protects hepatocytes from lipotoxicity. However, the link between ALR protection and the suppression of ER stress remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether the protection against liver steatosis afforded by ALR is related to its inhibition of calcium overflow from the ER to the mitochondria...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318988/morphometric-and-molecular-study-of-fasciola-isolates-from-ruminants-in-iran
#15
Elham Akhlaghi, Mohammad Ali Mohammadi, Naser Ziaali, Mohammad Reza Baneshi, Saeid Nasibi, Hossein Kamyabi, Sima Rostami, Majid Fasihi Harandi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was morphometric and molecular characterization of Fasciola isolates from ruminants in Iran. METHODS: Flukes were collected from the livers of 54 naturally infected sheep and cattle. The proportion of body length to width (L/W) of each fresh fluke was measured using a digital caliper. We employed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to explore the reliability of L/W for differentiating the two species...
December 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318723/endothelium-specific-cyp2j2-overexpression-attenuates-age-related-insulin-resistance
#16
Yan Yang, Ruolan Dong, Zhihui Chen, Danli Hu, Menglu Fu, Ying Tang, Dao Wen Wang, Xizhen Xu, Ling Tu
Ample evidences demonstrate that cytochrome P450 epoxygenase-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) exert diverse biological activities, which include potent vasodilatory, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of endothelium-specific CYP2J2 overexpression on age-related insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Endothelium-specific targeting of the human CYP epoxygenase, CYP2J2, transgenic mice (Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr mice) was utilized. The effects of endothelium-specific CYP2J2 overexpression on aging-associated obesity, inflammation, and peripheral insulin resistance were evaluated by assessing metabolic parameters in young (3 months old) and aged (16 months old) adult male Tie2-CYP2J2-Tr mice...
January 10, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316934/physiological-mitochondrial-and-oxidative-stress-differences-in-the-presence-or-absence-of-lactation-in-rats
#17
Hayden W Hyatt, Yufeng Zhang, Wendy R Hood, Andreas N Kavazis
BACKGROUND: Human epidemiological data show that breastfeeding reduces the mother's probability of developing several disease conditions, including obesity and type II diabetes compared to mothers that give birth but do not breastfeed. The goal of this investigation was to characterize how lactation changes a rat's body composition, metabolism, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress. METHODS: Ten-week old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group): 1) non-reproductive (NR), 2) those that were allowed to mate and give birth, but were not allowed to suckle their pups (PP), and 3) those that were allowed to mate and give birth, and suckled their young until weaning at 21 days (PL)...
January 9, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316632/excessive-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-correlates-with-impaired-mitochondrial-dynamics-mitophagy-and-apoptosis-in-liver-and-adipose-tissue-but-not-in-muscles-in-ems-horses
#18
Krzysztof Marycz, Katarzyna Kornicka, Jolanta Szlapka-Kosarzewska, Christine Weiss
Nowadays, endocrine disorders have become more frequent in both human and veterinary medicine. In horses, reduced physical activity combined with carbohydrate and sugar overload may result in the development of the so-called equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). EMS is characterized by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, elevated blood triglyceride concentrations and usually obesity. Although the phenotypic features of EMS individuals are well known, the molecular mechanism underlying disease development remains elusive...
January 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314217/direct-assessment-of-renal-mitochondrial-redox-state-using-hyperpolarized-13-c-acetoacetate
#19
Cornelius von Morze, Michael A Ohliger, Irene Marco-Rius, David M Wilson, Robert R Flavell, David Pearce, Daniel B Vigneron, John Kurhanewicz, Zhen J Wang
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the hyperpolarized ketone body 13 C-acetoacetate (AcAc) and its conversion to 13 C-β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB) in vivo, catalyzed by β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH), as a novel direct marker of mitochondrial redox state. METHODS: [1,3-13 C2 ]AcAc was synthesized by hydrolysis of the ethyl ester, and hyperpolarized via dissolution DNP. Cold storage under basic conditions resulted in sufficient chemical stability for use in hyperpolarized (HP) MRI studies...
January 3, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312593/shikonin-induces-ros-based-mitochondria-mediated-apoptosis-in-colon-cancer
#20
Wenquan Liang, Jianxin Cui, Kecheng Zhang, Hongqing Xi, Aizhen Cai, Jiyang Li, Yunhe Gao, Chong Hu, Yi Liu, Yixun Lu, Ning Wang, Xiaosong Wu, Bo Wei, Lin Chen
Colon cancer is the third most common malignancy worldwide, and chemotherapy is a widely used strategy in clinical therapy. Chemotherapy-resistant of colon cancer is the main cause of recurrence and progression. Novel drugs with efficacy and safety in treating colon cancer are urgently needed. Shikonin, a naphthoquinone derived from the roots of the herbal plant Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been determined to be a potent anti-tumor agent. The aim of the present study was to detect the underlying anti-tumor mechanism of shikonin in colon cancer...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
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