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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454103/subchronic-arsenism-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-contribute-to-apoptosis-through-mitochondrial-and-death-receptor-dependent-pathways-in-chicken-immune-organs
#1
Hongjing Zhao, Ying He, Siwen Li, Xiao Sun, Yu Wang, Yizhi Shao, Zhijun Hou, Mingwei Xing
In many organ dysfunctions, arsenic and its compounds are well known to induce apoptosis by the mitochondria and death receptor apoptotic pathways in liver and airway. However, it is less reported that which signaling pathways contribute to excessive apoptosis of chicken immune organs, a major target of toxic metals biotransformation, which suffer from subchronic arsenism. In this study, we investigated whether the mitochondria or death receptor apoptotic pathways activated in the immune organs (spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius) of one-day-old male Hy-line chickens exposed to arsenic trioxide (As2O3), which were fed on diets supplemented with 0, 0...
April 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453529/effect-of-mild-hypothermia-preconditioning-against-low-temperature-4%C3%A2-c-induced-rat-liver-cell-injury-in-vitro
#2
Jiasheng Qin, Yanxing Mai, Yang Li, Zesheng Jiang, Yi Gao
Bioartificial liver holds special position in the field of regenerative medicine, and cold environment at 4℃ is widely used for the short storage of both organ and liver cell for later application. However, the disadvantages of such cold storage could influence cell viability and lead to cell apoptosis in different degrees. In this study, we mainly explore the pre-protective effect of mild hypothermia against low temperature (4℃)-induced rat liver cell injury in vitro. Our results indicated that the precondition with mild hypothermia could increase cell viability, such as cell proliferation, LDH regulation and glycogen synthesis ability of liver cell...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449117/the-lxr-ligand-t0901317-acutely-inhibits-insulin-secretion-by-affecting-mitochondrial-metabolism
#3
Jonas Maczewsky, Jelena Sikimic, Cita Bauer, Peter Krippeit-Drews, Carmen Wolke, Uwe Lendeckel, Winfried Barthlen, Gisela Drews
The role of liver X receptor (LXR) in pancreatic beta-cell physiology and pathophysiology is still unclear. It has been postulated that chronic LXR activation in beta-cells induces lipotoxicity, a key step in the development of beta-cell dysfunction which accompanies type-2 diabetes mellitus. In most of these studies, the LXR ligand T0901317 has been administered chronically in the µmolar range to study the significance of LXR activation.In the present study, we have evaluated acute effects of T0901317 on stimulus-secretion coupling of beta-cells...
April 25, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447724/effects-of-gap-junction-intercellular-communication-on-the-docetaxel-induced-cytotoxicity-in-rat-hepatocytes
#4
Nan Tang, Jinghua Liu, Bo Chen, Yuan Zhang, Meiling Yu, Ziqing Cai, Hongpeng Chen
The effect of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) on docetaxel-induced hepatotoxicity and its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The present study involved investigating the effect of downregulating GJs derived from connexin (Cx) 32 in BRL-3A cells by three different mechanisms: Using a low-density culture; suppression of Cx32 using small interfering RNA; and use of the chemical inhibitor 2‑aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2‑APB), all of which led to attenuated docetaxel hepatotoxicity. In order to investigate the relevant mechanisms involved, apoptosis and caspase activities of BRL‑3A cells were determined...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446632/dietary-methionine-restriction-regulates-liver-protein-synthesis-and-gene-expression-independently-of-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-2-phosphorylation-in-mice
#5
Ashley P Pettit, William O Jonsson, Albert R Bargoud, Emily T Mirek, Frederick F Peelor, Yongping Wang, Thomas W Gettys, Scot R Kimball, Benjamin F Miller, Karyn L Hamilton, Ronald C Wek, Tracy G Anthony
Background: The phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (p-eIF2) during dietary amino acid insufficiency reduces protein synthesis and alters gene expression via the integrated stress response (ISR).Objective: We explored whether a Met-restricted (MR) diet activates the ISR to reduce body fat and regulate protein balance.Methods: Male and female mice aged 3-6 mo with either whole-body deletion of general control nonderepressible 2 (Gcn2) or liver-specific deletion of protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (Perk) alongside wild-type or floxed control mice were fed an obesogenic diet sufficient in Met (0...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446627/silicon-alleviates-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-reducing-apoptosis-in-aged-wistar-rats-fed-a-high-saturated-fat-high-cholesterol-diet
#6
Alba Garcimartín, M Elvira López-Oliva, Jorge A Sántos-López, Rosa A García-Fernández, Adrián Macho-González, Sara Bastida, Juana Benedí, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
Background: Lipoapoptosis has been identified as a key event in the progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and hence, antiapoptotic agents have been recommended as a possible effective treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Silicon, included in meat as a functional ingredient, improves lipoprotein profiles and liver antioxidant defenses in aged rats fed a high-saturated fat, high-cholesterol diet (HSHCD). However, to our knowledge, the antiapoptotic effect of this potential functional meat on the liver has never been tested...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446607/juvenile-hormone-and-its-receptor-methoprene-tolerant-promote-ribosomal-biogenesis-and-vitellogenesis-in-the-aedes-aegypti-mosquito
#7
Jia-Lin Wang, Tusar T Saha, Yang Zhang, Changyu Zhang, Alexander S Raikhel
Juvenile hormone (JH) controls many biological activities in insects, including development, metamorphosis and reproduction. In the Aedes aegypti mosquito, a vector of Dengue, Yellow fever, Chikungunya and Zika viruses, the metabolic tissue, the fat body, which is an analogue of the vertebrate liver, produces yolk proteins (YPs) for developing oocytes. JH is important for the fat body to acquire competence for YP production. However, the molecular mechanisms of how JH promotes mosquito reproduction are not completely understood...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445841/copper-ii-and-iron-iii-ions-inhibit-respiration-and-increase-free-radical-mediated-phospholipid-peroxidation-in-rat-liver-mitochondria-effect-of-antioxidants
#8
Christian Saporito-Magriñá, Rosario Musacco-Sebio, Juan M Acosta, Sofía Bajicoff, Paola Paredes-Fleitas, Sofia Reynoso, Alberto Boveris, Marisa G Repetto
Rat liver mitochondria (1.5-2.1mg protein·mL(-1)) supplemented with either 25 and 100μM Cu(2+) or 100 and 500μM Fe(3+) show inhibition of active respiration (O2 consumption in state 3) and increased phospholipid peroxidation . Liver mitochondria were supplemented with the antioxidants reduced glutathione, N-acetylcysteine or butylated hydroxitoluene, to evaluate their effects on the above-mentioned alterations. Although the mitochondrial dysfunction is clearly associated to phospholipid peroxidation, the different responses to antioxidant supplementation indicate that the metal ions have differences in their mechanisms of toxicity...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444922/regulation-of-organelle-function-by-metformin
#9
REVIEW
Jeongho Kim, Young-Jai You
Metformin ameliorates hyperglycemia without the side effects of lactic acidosis or hypoglycemia. Metformin lowers the blood glucose level by decreasing hepatic glucose production in the liver and by increasing glucose uptake in the muscle. Recent studies show that metformin induces cell death in certain cancer cell lines by interfering with the metabolism of the cancer cells. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of action for metformin will provide insights into how to better treat diabetes and other metabolic disorders and also into the development of new therapeutic drugs...
April 26, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444790/aloe-emodin-induces-apoptosis-in-human-liver-hl-7702-cells-through-fas-death-pathway-and-the-mitochondrial-pathway-by-generating-reactive-oxygen-species
#10
Xiaoxv Dong, Jing Fu, Xingbin Yin, Chunjing Yang, Jian Ni
Aloe-emodin (1,8-dihydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-anthraquinone) is one of the primary active compounds in total rhubarb anthraquinones isolated from some traditional medicinal plants such as Rheum palmatum L. and Cassia occidentalis, which induce hepatotoxicity in rats. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the potential cytotoxic effects and the underlying mechanism of aloe-emodin on human normal liver HL-7702 cells. The CCK-8 assays demonstrated that aloe-emodin decreased the viability of HL-7702 cells in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner...
April 26, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444733/hybridization-increases-mitochondrial-production-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-sunfish
#11
Sherry N N Du, Fariborz Khajali, Neal J Dawson, Graham R Scott
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been suggested to be possible mechanisms underlying hybrid breakdown, as a result of mito-nuclear incompatibilities in respiratory complexes of the electron transport system. However, it remains unclear whether hybridization increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. We used high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry on isolated liver mitochondria to examine mitochondrial physiology and ROS emission in naturally occurring hybrids of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) and bluegill (L...
April 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442922/inhibition-of-pcsk9-protects-against-radiation-induced-damage-of-prostate-cancer-cells
#12
Si-Shun Gan, Jian-Qing Ye, Lei Wang, Fa-Jun Qu, Chuan-Min Chu, Yi-Jun Tian, Wei Yang, Xin-Gang Cui
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a protein expressed primarily in the liver, formerly known to maintain plasma lipid homeostasis by regulating low-density lipoprotein receptor levels, and its exact role in the radioresistance of prostate cancer (PCa) remains unclear. We aim to investigate the function of PCSK9 in the radioresistance of PCa cells. METHODS: PCSK9 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was introduced into the PCa cells by transient transfection...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441753/coq10-deficiency-may-indicate-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cr-vi-toxicity
#13
Xiali Zhong, Xing Yi, Rita de Cássia da Silveira E Sá, Yujing Zhang, Kaihua Liu, Fang Xiao, Caigao Zhong
To investigate the toxic mechanism of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) and search for an antidote for Cr(VI)-induced cytotoxicity, a study of mitochondrial dysfunction induced by Cr(VI) and cell survival by recovering mitochondrial function was performed. In the present study, we found that the gene expression of electron transfer flavoprotein dehydrogenase (ETFDH) was strongly downregulated by Cr(VI) exposure. The levels of coenzyme 10 (CoQ10) and mitochondrial biogenesis presented by mitochondrial mass and mitochondrial DNA copy number were also significantly reduced after Cr(VI) exposure...
April 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440738/restricted-feeding-modulates-the-daily-variations-of-liver-glutamate-dehydrogenase-activity-expression-and-histological-location
#14
Olivia Vázquez-Martínez, Isabel Méndez, Isaías Turrubiate, Héctor Valente-Godínez, Moisés Pérez-Mendoza, Paola García-Tejada, Mauricio Díaz-Muñoz
Glutamate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in the hepatic regulation of nitrogen and energy metabolism. It catalyzes one of the most relevant anaplerotic reactions. Although its relevance in liver homeostasis has been widely described, its daily pattern and responsiveness to restricted feeding protocols has not been studied. We explored the daily variations of liver glutamate dehydrogenase transcription, protein, activity, and histochemical and subcellular location in a protocol of daytime food synchronization in rats...
May 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440491/txnip-overexpression-suppresses-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-in-smmc7221-cells-through-ros-generation-and-mapk-pathway-activation
#15
Jian Li, Zhongyi Yue, Wancheng Xiong, Peisheng Sun, Kun You, Jianguo Wang
Thioredoxin binding protein (thioredoxin-interacting protein, TXNIP), known as vitamin D3 increase protein 1, has been identified as a tumor suppressor in various cancers such as pancreatic, breast, lung and thyroid cancer. However, the role of TXNIP in hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and apoptosis remains unknown. In this study, we first used qRT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry to compare the expression of TXNIP between hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and tumor-adjacent normal liver tissues...
April 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440465/5-furan-2-yl-4-3-4-5-trimethoxyphenyl-3h-1-2-dithiol-3-one-oxime-6f-a-new-synthetic-compound-causes-human-%C3%AF-brosarcoma-ht-1080-cell-apoptosis-by-disrupting-tubulin-polymerisation-and-inducing-g2-m-arrest
#16
Daiying Zuo, Lili Pang, Jiwei Shen, Qi Guan, Zhaoshi Bai, Huijuan Zhang, Yao Li, Guodong Lu, Weige Zhang, Yingliang Wu
In the current study, we synthesized a series of new compounds targeting tubulin and tested their anti-proliferative activities. Among these new synthetic com-pounds, 5-(furan-2-yl)-4-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3H-1,2-dithiol-3-one oxime (6f) exhibited significant anti-proliferative activity against different human cancer cell lines including human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901, human non-small cell lung cancer A549, and human fibrosarcoma HT-1080. As a result, 6f was selected to further test the sensitivity to different cancer cell lines including human cervical cancer cell line HeLa, human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, non-small cell lung cancer cell line A549, human liver carcinoma cell line HepG-2, human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines KB, SGC-7901 and HT-1080...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440458/role-of-the-cystathionine-%C3%AE-synthase-h2s-system-in-liver-cancer-cells-and-the-inhibitory-effect-of-quinolone-indolone-conjugate-qic2-on-the-system
#17
Huina Jia, Juan Ye, Jing You, Xiaoyan Shi, Wenyi Kang, Tianxiao Wang
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gasotransmitter, plays important roles in cancer biological processes. As endogenous H2S exerts pro-cancer functions, inhibition of its production in cancer cells may provide a new cancer treatment strategy and be achieved via regulation of the function of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), one of the main metabolic enzymes synthesizing H2S. This enzyme plays important roles in the development and progression of colon and ovarian cancer, primarily regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics and accelerating cell cycle progression...
May 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438763/the-performing-animal-causes-and-consequences-of-body-remodelling-and-metabolic-adjustments-in-red-knots-facing-contrasting-thermal-environments
#18
François Vézina, Alexander R Gerson, Christopher G Guglielmo, Theunis Piersma
Using red knots (Calidris canutus) as a model, we determined how changes in mass and metabolic activity of organs relate to temperature-induced variation in metabolic performance. In cold-acclimated birds, we expected large muscles and heart, improved oxidative capacity and lipid transport, and we predicted that this would explain variation in maximal thermogenic capacity (Msum). We also expected larger digestive and excretory organs in these birds and predicted that this would explain variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR)...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438511/nitric-oxide-inhibits-the-mitochondrial-carnitine-acylcarnitine-carrier-through-reversible-s-nitrosylation-of-cysteine-136
#19
Annamaria Tonazzi, Nicola Giangregorio, Lara Console, Annalisa De Palma, Cesare Indiveri
S-nitrosylation of the mitochondrial Carnitine/Acylcarnitine transporter (CACT) has been investigated on the native and the recombinant proteins reconstituted in proteoliposomes, and on intact mitochondria. The widely-used NO-releasing compound, GSNO, strongly inhibited the antiport measured in proteoliposomes reconstituted with the native CACT from rat liver mitochondria or the recombinant rat CACT over-expressed in E. coli. Inhibition was reversed by the reducing agent dithioerithritol, indicating a reaction mechanism based on nitrosylation of Cys residues of the CACT...
April 21, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437736/murine-diet-induced-obesity-remodels-cardiac-and-liver-mitochondrial-phospholipid-acyl-chains-with-differential-effects-on-respiratory-enzyme-activity
#20
E Madison Sullivan, Amy Fix, Miranda J Crouch, Genevieve C Sparagna, Tonya N Zeczycki, David A Brown, Saame Raza Shaikh
Cardiac phospholipids, notably cardiolipin, undergo acyl chain remodeling and/or loss of content in aging and cardiovascular diseases, which is postulated to mechanistically impair mitochondrial function. Less is known about how diet-induced obesity influences cardiac phospholipid acyl chain composition and thus mitochondrial responses. Here we first tested if a high fat diet remodeled murine cardiac mitochondrial phospholipid acyl chain composition and consequently disrupted membrane packing, supercomplex formation and respiratory enzyme activity...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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