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Cirrhosis children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089231/-mother-to-child-transmission-of-hepatitis-b-virus-despite-postexposure-prophylaxis-a-review-of-the-literature-and-description-of-11%C3%A2-observations
#1
B Biot, N Laverdure, F Lacaille, A Lachaux
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection leads to a risk of developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In France, where the prevalence of HBV is low, mother-to-child transmission is the cause of chronic infection in more than one-third of cases. After exposure, the risk of chronic infection is the highest for newborns (90 %). The World Health Organization implemented a global immunization program in 1991, applied in France in 1994. A significant number of children are infected each year, however, and failure of postexposure prophylaxis is reported in 4-10 % of newborns...
January 11, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079234/evaluation-of-endoscopic-secondary-prophylaxis-in-children-and-adolescents-with-esophageal-varices
#2
Júlio Rocha Pimenta, Alexandre Rodrigues Ferreira, Eleonora Druve Tavares Fagundes, Paulo Fernando Souto Bittencourt, Alice Mendes Moura, Simone Diniz Carvalho
BACKGROUND: - Bleeding of esophageal varices is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults with portal hypertension and there are few studies involving secondary prophylaxis in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVE: - To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic secondary prophylaxis in prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in children and adolescents with esophageal varices. METHODS: - This is a prospective analysis of 85 patients less than 18 years of age with or without cirrhosis, with portal hypertension...
January 2017: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997679/the-safety-and-effectiveness-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-adolescents-12-to-17-years-old-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-infection
#3
William F Balistreri, Karen F Murray, Philip Rosenthal, Sanjay Bansal, Lin Chuan-Hao, Kathryn Kersey, Benedetta Massetto, Yanni Zhu, Bittoo Kanwar, Polina German, Evguenia Svarovskaia, Diana M Brainard, Jessica Wen, Regino P Gonzalez-Peralta, Maureen M Jonas, Kathleen Schwarz
: No all-oral, direct-acting antiviral regimens have been approved for children with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We conducted a Phase 2, multi-center, open-label study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of ledipasvir-sofosbuvir in adolescents with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. One hundred patients ages 12 to 17 years received a combination tablet of 90 mg ledipasvir and 400 mg sofosbuvir once daily for 12 weeks. On the 10(th) day following initiation of dosing, 10 patients underwent an intensive pharmacokinetic evaluation of the concentrations of sofosbuvir, ledipasvir, and the sofosbuvir metabolite GS-331007...
December 20, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975111/an-overview-of-cirrhosis-in-children
#4
Jonathan Cordova, Hilary Jericho, Ruba K Azzam
Cirrhosis is the end result of nearly all forms of progressive liver disease. The diffuse hepatic process can be characterized as a state of inflammation progressing to fibrosis and resulting in nodular regeneration, ultimately leading to disorganized liver architecture and function. The underlying etiology of cirrhosis in children may often differ from adults owing to specific disease processes that manifest in childhood, including biliary atresia, galactosemia, and neonatal hepatitis. Although basic management strategies in children are similar to those in adults, the care given to children with cirrhosis must keep the child's growth and development of paramount importance...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975110/viral-hepatitis-in-children-a-through-e
#5
Ankur Chugh, Maryann Maximos, Meryl Perlman, Regino P Gonzalez-Peralta
Hepatitis is defined as inflammation of the liver. This inflammation can be acute and self-limited, chronic (leading to cirrhosis and an increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma), or fulminant (requiring lifesaving liver transplantation). Although there are many causes of hepatitis, this article focuses on the main childhood viral hepatidities: types A, B, C, D, and E. This review discusses the main characteristics of each virus, including salient epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention strategies...
December 1, 2016: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966327/effect-of-methylprednisolone-injection-on-interleukin-4-and-interferon-gamma-expression-following-hepatitis-b-vaccination-in-mice
#6
Peter Ughachukwu, Paul Okonkwo, Prince Unekwe, John Ogama
BACKGROUND/AIM: The prevalence of hepatitis B infection is high worldwide with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma as important complications. Immunosuppression, especially from corticosteroids, is often cited as a cause of poor immune response and there is documented evidence of irrational administration of glucocorticoids to children and adults. Decreased expression of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma is an indication of poor humoral and cellular immune responses, respectively...
November 17, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957245/can-platelet-count-spleen-diameter-ratio-be-used-for-cirrhotic-children-to-predict-esophageal-varices
#7
Oya Balci Sezer, Deniz Çelik, Nihal Tutar, Figen Özçay
AIM: To determine the laboratory and radiologic parameters, including the platelet count (PC)-to-spleen diameter (SD) ratio as a non-invasive marker that may predict the presence of esophageal varices (EV) in children with cirrhosis. METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with cirrhosis, but without a history of variceal bleeding were prospectively included. The children were grouped into 6-12 and 12-18 years of age groups. These groups were also divided into 2 sub-groups (presence and absence of EV)...
November 28, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941191/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-management-of-children-with-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-lal-d-review-of-the-literature-and-own-experience
#8
Aldona Wierzbicka-Rucińska, Wojciech Jańczyk, Agnieszka Ługowska, Dariusz Lebensztejn, Piotr Socha
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency may present at any age (in infants, children and adults). Its presenting features commonly include elevated serum transaminase activity levels, hypercholesterolemia, fatty liver, progressive liver fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Nonspecific clinical manifestations can lead to a delay in the diagnosis of both children and adults. The early development of fibrosis and cirrhosis suggests that the lysosomal accumulation of cholesterol esters and triglycerides in the liver is a potent inducer of fibrosis...
2016: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938558/-a-retrospective-study-on-hbsag-clearance-rate-after-antiviral-therapy-in-children-with-hbeag-positive-chronic-hepatitis-b-aged-1-7-years
#9
S S Zhu, Y Dong, Z Q Xu, L M Wang, D W Chen, Y Gan, F C Wang, J G Yan, L L Cao, P Wang, H F Zhang
Objective: To investigate the HBsAg clearance rate after antiviral therapy in children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) aged 1-7 years. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed for the HBsAg clearance rate in 293 children who were hospitalized in 302 Hospital of PLA from June 2006 to December 2013, met the inclusion criteria, received antiviral therapy, and were followed up for at least 6 months after the withdrawal of antiviral therapy. The t-test or the rank sum test was applied according to the distribution of continuous data, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935710/quantification-of-atp7b-protein-in-dried-blood-spots-by-peptide-immuno-srm-as-a-potential-screen-for-wilson-s-disease
#10
Sunhee Jung, Jeffrey R Whiteaker, Lei Zhao, Han-Wook Yoo, Amanda G Paulovich, Si Houn Hahn
Wilson's Disease (WD), a copper transport disorder caused by a genetic defect in the ATP7B gene, has been a long time strong candidate for newborn screening (NBS), since early interventions can give better results by preventing irreversible neurological disability or liver cirrhosis. Several previous pilot studies measuring ceruloplasmin (CP) in infants or children showed that this marker alone was insufficient to meet the universal screening for WD. WD results from mutations that cause absent or markedly diminished levels of ATP7B...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931582/liver-transplantation-for-hepatitis-b-in-early-adulthood-analysis-of-the-united-network-for-organ-sharing-database
#11
G Rifai, A Anani, I A Hanouneh, B Mohamad, A Matloob, R Lopez, N N Zein, N Alkhouri
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has a mild course in most children that may delay initiation of treatment even when indicated. Unfortunately, a small number of cases can progress rapidly to cirrhosis, which may require liver transplantation (LT) in early adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of HBV-positive young adults who received LT and to evaluate post-transplant outcomes including patient and graft survival and differences between pre- and post-implementation of Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) prioritization...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931577/liver-transplantation-in-polish-children-with-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-deficiency-a-single-center-experience
#12
A Bakula, J Pawlowska, O Niewiadomska, I Jankowska, M Teisseyre, P Kaliciński, P Socha
BACKGROUND: α1-Antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) is the most common genetic cause of liver injury in young children. Asymptomatic hepatitis is observed in most patients. However, the course of liver disease due to ATD is unpredictable, and some children develop liver cirrhosis. Liver transplantation (Ltx) dramatically improves their outcome and in some cases is required in the first years of life. The aim of the study was to evaluate the course of the disease in children with ATD treated with Ltx in a single center...
December 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906797/non-cirrhotic-portal-fibrosis-in-pediatric-population
#13
Vikrant Sood, Bikrant Bihari Lal, Rajeev Khanna, Dinesh Rawat, Chhagan Bihari Sharma, Seema Alam
BACKGROUND: Non-cirrhotic portal fibrosis (NCPF) has been classically described as a disease of young to middle age with limited literature regarding its occurrence, onset or clinical presentation in children. We hereby present a series of 19 patients diagnosed and managed as NCPF in pediatric age group. METHODS: A retrospective review of all the patients presenting to the pediatric hepatology department (age < 18 years) and diagnosed as NCPF was done and data was evaluated...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898593/coinfection-with-hiv-and-hepatitis-c-virus-in-229-children-and-young-adults-living-in-europe
#14
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVE: To characterize children, adolescents and young adults infected with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) vertically or before age of 18 years and living in Europe regarding mode of acquisition, HCV genotype, clinical status and treatment. DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using pooled data from 11 European paediatric HIV cohorts. METHODS: Patients aged more than 18 months and less than 25 years, with HIV/HCV acquired vertically or in childhood, were included...
January 2, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896406/evaluation-of-rex-shunt-on-cavernous-transformation-of-the-portal-vein-in-children
#15
Ruo-Yi Wang, Jun-Feng Wang, Xiao-Gang Sun, Qian Liu, Jia-Long Xu, Qi-Gang Lv, Wei-Xiu Chen, Jin-Liang Li
BACKGROUND: Children with cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) develop severe complications from prehepatic portal hypertension, such as recurrent variceal bleeding and thrombocytopenia. In this study, we reported the results of 30 children with symptomatic CTPV that were treated by a Rex shunt. The effectiveness of this surgical approach was evaluated. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 30 children aged between 3 and 18 years with CTPV, who underwent a Rex shunt between 2008 and 2015...
November 28, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822768/pediatric-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-the-rise-of-a-lethal-disease-among-mexican-american-hispanic-children
#16
REVIEW
Monica M Betancourt-Garcia, Armando Arguelles, Jorge Montes, Ambrosio Hernandez, Manish Singh, R Armour Forse
Hispanic children of Mexican origin have a high incidence of NAFLD. Susceptibility has been linked to a combination of factors including an increasing epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents, an allele substitution in the PNPLA3 gene that reduces hepatic lipid catabolism, and an altered microbiome that may increase hepatic endotoxins. The combination of NAFLD and portal vein toxins secondary to an indigenous gut microbiome appear to lead to the early occurrence of NASH, which progresses to cirrhosis and early hepatocellular carcinoma...
January 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822476/pathogenesis-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-interactions-between-liver-parenchymal-and-nonparenchymal-cells
#17
REVIEW
Nancy Magee, An Zou, Yuxia Zhang
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common type of chronic liver disease in the Western countries, affecting up to 25% of the general population and becoming a major health concern in both adults and children. NAFLD encompasses the entire spectrum of fatty liver disease in individuals without significant alcohol consumption, ranging from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NASH is a manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and hepatic disorders with the presence of steatosis, hepatocyte injury (ballooning), inflammation, and, in some patients, progressive fibrosis leading to cirrhosis...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818588/update-on-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#18
REVIEW
Manoochehr Makvandi
The event of mutations in the surface antigen gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen with positive/negative anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody status in serum and this phenomenon is named occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The presence of anti-HBc antibody in serum is an important key for OBI tracking, although about 20% of OBI cases are negative for anti-HBc antibody. The diagnosis of OBI is mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays...
October 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799810/novel-treatment-options-for-lysosomal-acid-lipase-deficiency-critical-appraisal-of-sebelipase-alfa
#19
REVIEW
Kim Su, Emma Donaldson, Reena Sharma
Lysosomal acid lipase deficiency (LAL-D) is a rare disorder of cholesterol metabolism with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The absence or deficiency of the LAL enzyme gives rise to pathological accumulation of cholesterol esters in various tissues. A severe LAL-D phenotype manifesting in infancy is associated with adrenal calcification and liver and gastrointestinal involvement with characteristic early mortality. LAL-D presenting in childhood and adulthood is associated with hepatomegaly, liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and premature atherosclerosis...
2016: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796468/giant-hepatic-regenerative-nodules-in-alagille-syndrome
#20
Jordan B Rapp, Richard D Bellah, Carolina Maya, Bruce R Pawel, Sudha A Anupindi
BACKGROUND: Children with Alagille syndrome undergo surveillance radiologic examinations as they are at risk for developing cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. There is limited literature on the imaging of liver masses in Alagille syndrome. We report the ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of incidental benign giant hepatic regenerative nodules in this population. OBJECTIVE: To describe the imaging findings of giant regenerative nodules in patients with Alagille syndrome...
October 28, 2016: Pediatric Radiology
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