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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141050/differential-immunomodulation-in-human-monocytes-versus-macrophages-by-filarial-cystatin
#1
Gopinath Venugopal, Marion Mueller, Susanne Hartmann, Svenja Steinfelder
Parasitic nematodes have evolved powerful immunomodulatory molecules to enable their survival in immunocompetent hosts by subverting immune responses and minimizing pathological processes. One filarial molecule known to counteract host immune responses by inducing IL-10 and regulatory macrophages in mice is filarial cystatin. During a patent filarial infection monocytes encounter microfilariae in the blood, an event that occurs in asymptomatically infected filariasis patients that are immunologically hyporeactive...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126431/successful-long-term-maintenance-of-mansonella-perstans-in-an-in-vitro-culture-system
#2
Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Manuel Ritter, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Chi Anizette Kien, Gandjui Tchamatchoua Victor Narcisse, Fanny Fri Fombad, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Kenneth Pfarr, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf, Samuel Wanji
BACKGROUND: Approximately 114 million people are infected with Mansonella perstans in large proportions of Africa. In contrast to other filariae that infect humans, M. perstans-infected individuals show no distinct pathology or specific clinical picture, indicating a well-tuned adaptation to the host. In addition, since M. perstans adult worms reside in serous cavities which are difficult to access, research has been hindered and there is a paucity of knowledge about the biology of M...
November 10, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114130/phylogenetic-study-based-on-28s-rrna-gene-sequencing-of-wuchereria-bancrofti-isolated-from-the-filaria-endemic-areas-of-bankura-district-west-bengal-india
#3
Soumendranath Chatterjee, Swapan Kumar Rudra, Syed Afrin Azmi, Raktima Bandyopadhyay
Lymphatic filariasis is one of the major public health concern in India, and Bankura district of West Bengal is one of the main filaria prone area of the country. Wuchereria bancrofti is the causative organism and Culex quinquefasciatus is the main vector of lymphatic filariasis in India. In the present study, infection and infectivity rate of filarial vector C. quinquefasciatus were determined. The molecular characterization, DNA fingerprinting and phylogenetic analysis of W. bancrofti was done. In the study area, overall vector infection and infectivity rates were 4...
December 2017: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969836/therapeutic-trial-of-doxycyclin-plus-ivermectin-for-the-treatment-of-brugia-malayi-naturally-infected-cats
#4
Ladawan Khowawisetsut, Patsharaporn T Sarasombath, Suwich Thammapalo, Sumart Loymek, Therayot Korbarsa, Hathai Nochote, Achinya Phuakrod, Wej Choochote, Sirichit Wongkamchai
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is one of the neglected tropical diseases which causes permanent and long term disability worldwide. LF is caused by filarial nematode parasites, i.e. Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori. All available antifilarial drugs currently being used have shown a limited adulticidal activity. Discoveries of endosymbiont rickettsia-like bacterium, Wolbachia in filarial nematodes provided a novel approach for antibiotic use in eradication of filarial diseases. The earlier studies revealed the macrofilaricidal efficacy of doxycycline against filarial nematodes...
October 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859850/il-4-5-signalling-plays-an-important-role-during-litomosoides-sigmodontis-infection-influencing-both-immune-system-regulation-and-tissue-pathology-in-the-thoracic-cavity
#5
Manuel Ritter, Ruth S Tamadaho, Judith Feid, Wenzel Vogel, Katharina Wiszniewsky, Sven Perner, Achim Hoerauf, Laura E Layland
Approximately 100 million people suffer from filarial diseases including lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis), onchocerciasis (river blindness) and loiasis. These diseases are amongst the most devastating of the neglected tropical diseases in terms of social and economic impact. Moreover, many infection-induced immune mechanisms in the host, their relationship to disease-related symptoms and the development of pathology within the site of infection remain unclear. To improve on current drug therapies or vaccines, further studies are necessary to decipher the mechanisms behind filaria-driven immune responses and pathology development, and thus the rodent model of Litomosoides sigmodontis can be used to unravel host-filaria interactions...
August 30, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727765/defining-the-target-and-the-effect-of-imatinib-on-the-filarial-c-abl-homologue
#6
Elise M O'Connell, Olena Kamenyeva, Sara Lustigman, Aaron Bell, Thomas B Nutman
BACKGROUND: Previously we demonstrated the micro- and macrofilaricidal properties of imatinib in vitro. Here we use electron and multiphoton microscopy to define the target of imatinib in the adult and microfilarial stages of Brugia malayi and assess the effects of pharmacologically relevant levels of imatinib on the adult parasites. METHODS: After fixation of adult B. malayi males and females, sections were stained with polyclonal rabbit anti-c-Abl antibody (or isotype control) and imaged with multiphoton fluorescent microscopy...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654231/enhanced-adhesion-of-mosquitoes-to-rough-surfaces
#7
Leila Pashazanusi, Baraka Lwoya, Shreyas Oak, Tushar Khosla, Julie N L Albert, Yu Tian, Geetha Bansal, Nirbhay Kumar, Noshir S Pesika
Insects and small animals capable of adhering reversibly to a variety of surfaces employ the unique design of the distal part of their legs. In the case of mosquitoes, their feet are composed of thousands of micro- and nanoscale protruding structures, which impart superhydrophobic properties. Previous research has shown that the superhydrophobic nature of the feet allows mosquitoes to land on water, which is necessary for their reproduction cycle. Here, we show that van der Waals interactions are the main adhesion mechanism employed by mosquitoes to adhere to various surfaces...
July 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617666/parasitic-diseases-of-camels-in-iran-1931-2017-a-literature-review
#8
Alireza Sazmand, Anja Joachim
Parasitic diseases of camels are major causes of impaired milk and meat production, decreases in performance or even death. Some camel parasites also represent a threat to human health. About 171,500 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) and 100-300 two-humped camels (Camelus bactrianus) live in Iran. Knowledge of the biodiversity of their parasites is still limited. The present review covers all information about camel parasitic diseases in Iran published as dissertations and in both Iranian and international journals from 1931 to February 2017...
2017: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558828/eprinomectin-pour-on-eprinex%C3%A2-pour-on-merial-efficacy-against-gastrointestinal-and-pulmonary-nematodes-and-pharmacokinetics-in-sheep
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dietmar Hamel, Antonio Bosco, Laura Rinaldi, Giuseppe Cringoli, Karl-Heinz Kaulfuß, Michael Kellermann, James Fischer, Hailun Wang, Katrin Kley, Sandra Mayr, Renate Rauh, Martin Visser, Thea Wiefel, Becky Fankhauser, Steffen Rehbein
BACKGROUND: The anthelmintic efficacy of the 0.5% w/v topical formulation of eprinomectin (EPN), EPRINEX® Pour-on (Merial) when administered at 1 mg/kg body weight was evaluated in sheep in two dose confirmation laboratory studies and one multicenter field study. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of EPN when administered at that dosage to adult sheep was determined. RESULTS: In the two dose confirmation studies, which included 10 sheep each, sheep treated with topical EPN had significantly (p < 0...
May 30, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456277/corrigendum-to-cross-reactive-molecules-of-human-lymphatic-filaria-brugia-malayi-inhibit-leishmania-donovani-infection-in-hamsters-acta-trop-152-2015-103-111
#10
Richa Verma, Sujith K Joseph, Vikas Kushwaha, Vikash Kumar, M I Siddiqi, Preeti Vishwakarma, Rahul Shivahare, Suman Gupta, P K Murthy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427478/morphological-and-molecular-characteristics-of-malayfilaria-sofiani-uni-mat-udin-takaoka-n-g-n-sp-nematoda-filarioidea-from-the-common-treeshrew-tupaia-glis-diard-duvaucel-mammalia-scandentia-in-peninsular-malaysia
#11
Shigehiko Uni, Ahmad Syihan Mat Udin, Takeshi Agatsuma, Weerachai Saijuntha, Kerstin Junker, Rosli Ramli, Hasmahzaiti Omar, Yvonne Ai-Lian Lim, Sinnadurai Sivanandam, Emilie Lefoulon, Coralie Martin, Daicus Martin Belabut, Saharul Kasim, Muhammad Rasul Abdullah Halim, Nur Afiqah Zainuri, Subha Bhassu, Masako Fukuda, Makoto Matsubayashi, Masashi Harada, Van Lun Low, Chee Dhang Chen, Narifumi Suganuma, Rosli Hashim, Hiroyuki Takaoka, Mohd Sofian Azirun
BACKGROUND: The filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti (Cobbold, 1877), Brugia malayi (Brug, 1927) and B. timori Partono, Purnomo, Dennis, Atmosoedjono, Oemijati & Cross, 1977 cause lymphatic diseases in humans in the tropics, while B. pahangi (Buckley & Edeson, 1956) infects carnivores and causes zoonotic diseases in humans in Malaysia. Wuchereria bancrofti, W. kalimantani Palmieri, Pulnomo, Dennis & Marwoto, 1980 and six out of ten Brugia spp. have been described from Australia, Southeast Asia, Sri Lanka and India...
April 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303006/short-course-high-dose-rifampicin-achieves-wolbachia-depletion-predictive-of-curative-outcomes-in-preclinical-models-of-lymphatic-filariasis-and-onchocerciasis
#12
Ghaith Aljayyoussi, Hayley E Tyrer, Louise Ford, Hanna Sjoberg, Nicolas Pionnier, David Waterhouse, Jill Davies, Joanne Gamble, Haelly Metugene, Darren A N Cook, Andrew Steven, Raman Sharma, Ana F Guimaraes, Rachel H Clare, Andrew Cassidy, Kelly L Johnston, Laura Myhill, Laura Hayward, Samuel Wanji, Joseph D Turner, Mark J Taylor, Stephen A Ward
Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis are priority neglected tropical diseases targeted for elimination. The only safe drug treatment with substantial curative activity against the filarial nematodes responsible for LF (Brugia malayi, Wuchereria bancrofti) or onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus) is doxycycline. The target of doxycycline is the essential endosymbiont, Wolbachia. Four to six weeks doxycycline therapy achieves >90% depletion of Wolbachia in worm tissues leading to blockade of embryogenesis, adult sterility and premature death 18-24 months post-treatment...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126543/lessons-from-the-genomes-and-transcriptomes-of-filarial-nematodes
#13
Alexandra Grote, Sara Lustigman, Elodie Ghedin
Human filarial infections are a leading cause of morbidity in the developing world. While a small arsenal of drugs exists to treat these infections, there remains a tremendous need for the development of additional interventions. Recent genome sequences and transcriptome analyses of filarial nematodes have provided novel biological insight and allowed for the prediction of novel drug targets as well as potential vaccine candidates. In this review, we discuss the currently available data, insights gained into the metabolism of these organisms, and how the filaria field can move forward by leveraging these data...
July 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118850/humans-from-wuchereria-bancrofti-endemic-area-elicit-substantial-immune-response-to-proteins-of-the-filarial-parasite-brugia-malayi-and-its-endosymbiont-wolbachia
#14
Ruchi Jha, Mamta Gangwar, Dhanvantri Chahar, Anand Setty Balakrishnan, Mahendra Pal Singh Negi, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya
BACKGROUND: In the past, immune responses to several Brugia malayi immunodominant antigens have been characterized in filaria-infected populations; however, little is known regarding Wolbachia proteins. We earlier cloned and characterized few B. malayi (trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase, Bm-TPP and heavy chain myosin, BmAF-Myo) and Wolbachia (translation initiation factor-1, Wol Tl IF-1 and NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligase, wBm-LigA) proteins and investigated the immune responses, which they triggered in animal models...
January 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030352/characterization-of-immunoreactive-proteins-of-setaria-cervi-isolated-by-preparative-polyacrylamide-gel-electrophoresis
#15
Priyanka Priyadarshi, Piyush Dravid, Inayat Hussain Sheikh, Sunita Saxena, Ashish Tandon, Deep C Kaushal, Shakir Ali, Nuzhat A Kaushal
Filarial parasites are complex mixtures of antigenic proteins and characterization of these antigenic molecules is essential to identify the diagnostically important filaria-specific antigens. In the present study, we have fractionated the somatic extracts from adults of Setaria cervi (bovine filarial parasite) on preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tested the immunoreactivity of the separated gel fractions with polyclonal antibodies against filarial excretory-secretory antigens as well as filarial patients sera...
March 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004792/nod2-dependent-neutrophil-recruitment-is-required-for-early-protective-immune-responses-against-infectious-litomosoides-sigmodontis-l3-larvae
#16
Jesuthas Ajendra, Sabine Specht, Sebastian Ziewer, Andrea Schiefer, Kenneth Pfarr, Marijo Parčina, Thomas A Kufer, Achim Hoerauf, Marc P Hübner
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) recognizes muramyl dipeptide (MDP) of bacterial cell walls, triggering NFκB-induced pro-inflammation. As most human pathogenic filariae contain Wolbachia endobacteria that synthesize the MDP-containing cell wall precursor lipid II, NOD2's role during infection with the rodent filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis was investigated. In NFκB reporter-cells, worm-extract containing Wolbachia induced NOD2 and NOD1. NOD2-deficient mice infected with L...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923052/filariae-retrovirus-co-infection-in-mice-is-associated-with-suppressed-virus-specific-igg-immune-response-and-higher-viral-loads
#17
Kirsten Katrin Dietze, Ulf Dittmer, Daniel Karim Koudaimi, Simone Schimmer, Martina Reitz, Minka Breloer, Wiebke Hartmann
Worldwide more than 2 billion people are infected with helminths, predominantly in developing countries. Co-infections with viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common due to the geographical overlap of these pathogens. Helminth and viral infections induce antagonistic cytokine responses in their hosts. Helminths shift the immune system to a type 2-dominated immune response, while viral infections skew the cytokine response towards a type 1 immune response. Moreover, chronic helminth infections are often associated with a generalized suppression of the immune system leading to prolonged parasite survival, and also to a reduced defence against unrelated pathogens...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828973/immunization-with-brugia-malayi-myosin-as-heterologous-dna-prime-protein-boost-induces-protective-immunity-against-b-malayi-infection-in-mastomys-coucha
#18
Jyoti Gupta, Sweta Misra, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya
The current control strategies employing chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole have reduced transmission in some filaria-endemic areas, there is growing interest for complementary approaches, such as vaccines especially in light of threat of parasite developing resistance to mainstay drugs. We earlier demonstrated recombinant heavy chain myosin of B. malayi (Bm-Myo) as a potent vaccine candidate whose efficacy was enhanced by heterologous DNA prime/protein boost (Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo) vaccination in BALB/c mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790964/increased-igg-antibody-responses-to-excretory-secretory-antigens-in-neonates-born-from-mothers-infected-with-filarial-nematodes
#19
K G Achary, M S Bal, N N Mandal, A K Satapathy
The present investigation aimed to evaluate the extent to which maternal filarial infection influences IgG subclass immune responses in the cord blood of neonates. Prevalence of antigenaemia was detected using an Og4C3 assay. Filaria-specific IgG subclasses against excretory/secretory antigens were measured by ELISA. Transplacental transfer of circulating filarial antigen (CFA) was observed from 34.8% of CFA-positive mothers to their respective cord bloods. Filaria-specific IgG1, IgG2 and IgG4 responses were significantly higher among cord bloods of infected mothers compared to cord bloods of uninfected mothers...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529747/the-effects-of-ivermectin-on-brugia-malayi-females-in-vitro-a-transcriptomic-approach
#20
Cristina Ballesteros, Lucienne Tritten, Maeghan O'Neill, Erica Burkman, Weam I Zaky, Jianguo Xia, Andrew Moorhead, Steven A Williams, Timothy G Geary
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are disabling and disfiguring neglected tropical diseases of major importance in developing countries. Ivermectin is the drug of choice for mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis in areas where the diseases are co-endemic. Although ivermectin paralyzes somatic and pharyngeal muscles in many nematodes, these actions are poorly characterized in adult filariae. We hypothesize that paralysis of pharyngeal pumping by ivermectin in filariae could result in deprivation of essential nutrients, especially iron, inducing a wide range of responses evidenced by altered gene expression, changes in metabolic pathways, and altered developmental states in embryos...
August 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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