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Ear stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327735/acquired-sensorineural-hearing-loss-in-children-current-research-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#1
M Ralli, R Rolesi, R Anzivino, R Turchetta, A R Fetoni
The knowledge of mechanisms responsible for acquired sensorineural hearing loss in children, such as viral and bacterial infections, noise exposure, aminoglycoside and cisplatin ototoxicity, is increasing and progressively changing the clinical management of affected patients. Viral infections are by far the most relevant cause of acquired hearing loss, followed by aminoglycoside and platinum derivative ototoxicity; moreover, cochlear damage induced by noise overexposure, mainly in adolescents, is an emerging topic...
December 2017: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318324/strategies-for-a%C3%A2-regenerative-therapy-of-hearing-loss
#2
REVIEW
M Diensthuber, T Stöver
Despite impressive technical progress in the field of conventional hearing aids and implantable hearing systems, the hopes for the treatment of inner ear diseases such as hearing loss and tinnitus have become increasingly directed toward regenerative therapeutic approaches. This review discusses the currently most promising strategies for hair cell regeneration in the inner ear to treat hearing loss, including stem cell-based, gene transfer-based, and pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, previous milestones and ground-breaking work in this scientific field are identified...
January 9, 2018: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311684/a-severely-short-statured-girl-with-47-xx-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-14-46-xx-upd-14-mat-mosaicism
#3
Kikumi Ushijima, Syuichi Yatsuga, Takako Matsumoto, Akie Nakamura, Maki Fukami, Masayo Kagami
The predominant symptoms of trisomy 14 mosaicism are prenatal and postnatal growth failure, ear abnormalities, congenital heart disease, developmental delay, and genitourinary abnormalities. Maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 14 (upd(14)mat) presents discernible clinical features such as prenatal and postnatal growth failure, hypotonia, precocious puberty, and obesity. Given the small number of previously reported patients with a combination of trisomy 14 mosaicism and upd(14)mat, the detailed clinical features of these patients remain to be elucidated...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284013/creating-a-stem-cell-niche-in-the-inner-ear-using-self-assembling-peptide-amphiphiles
#4
Akihiro J Matsuoka, Zafar A Sayed, Nicholas Stephanopoulos, Eric J Berns, Anil R Wadhwani, Zachery D Morrissey, Duncan M Chadly, Shun Kobayashi, Alexandra N Edelbrock, Tomoji Mashimo, Charles A Miller, Tammy L McGuire, Samuel I Stupp, John A Kessler
The use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for regeneration of the spiral ganglion will require techniques for promoting otic neuronal progenitor (ONP) differentiation, anchoring of cells to anatomically appropriate and specific niches, and long-term cell survival after transplantation. In this study, we used self-assembling peptide amphiphile (PA) molecules that display an IKVAV epitope (IKVAV-PA) to create a niche for hESC-derived ONPs that supported neuronal differentiation and survival both in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into rodent inner ears...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272992/from-otic-induction-to-hair-cell-production-pax2-sup-egfp-sup-cell-line-illuminates-key-stages-of-development-in-mouse-inner-ear-organoid-model
#5
Stacy A Schaefer, Atsuko Y Higashi, Benjamin Loomis, Thomas Schrepfer, Guoqiang Wan, Gabriel Corfas, Gregory R Dressler, Robert Keith Duncan
Producing hair cells of the inner ear is the major goal of ongoing research that combines advances in developmental and stem cell biology. The recent advent of an inner ear organoid protocol-resulting in 3-dimensional stem cell-derived tissues resembling vestibular sensory epithelia-has sparked interest in applications such as regeneration, drug discovery, and disease modeling. In this study, we adapted this protocol for a novel mouse embryonic stem cell line with a fluorescent reporter for Pax2 expression...
December 22, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236919/evidence-of-progenitor-cells-in-the-adult-human-cochlea-sphere-formation-and-identification-of-abcg2
#6
Milene Massucci-Bissoli, Karina Lezirovitz, Jeanne Oiticica, Ricardo Ferreira Bento
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to search for evidence of stem or progenitor cells in the adult human cochlea by testing for sphere formation capacity and the presence of the stem cell marker ABCG2. METHODS: Cochleas removed from patients undergoing vestibular schwannoma resection (n=2) and from brain-dead organ donors (n=4) were dissociated for either flow cytometry analysis for the stem cell marker ABCG2 or a sphere formation assay that is widely used to test the sphere-forming capacity of cells from mouse inner ear tissue...
November 2017: Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217752/mapping-the-distribution-of-stem-progenitor-cells-across-the-middle-ear-during-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#7
Abigail S Tucker, Carlene J Dyer, Juan M Fons Romero, Tathyane H N Teshima, Jennifer C Fuchs, Hannah Thompson
The middle ear epithelium is derived from neural crest and endoderm, which line distinct regions of the middle ear cavity. Here we investigate the distribution of putative stem cell markers in the middle ear combined with an analysis of the location of label retaining cells (LRCs) to create a map of the middle ear mucosa. We show that proliferating cells and LRCs were associated with specific regions of the ear epithelium, concentrated in the hypotympanum at the base of the auditory bulla and around the ear drum...
December 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214897/ss-31-peptide-enables-mitochondrial-targeting-drug-delivery-a-promising-therapeutic-alteration-to-prevent-hair-cell-damage-from-aminoglycosides
#8
Xiao Kuang, Shuang Zhou, Weiling Guo, Zhenjie Wang, Yanhui Sun, Hongzhuo Liu
Aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss stems from damage or loss of mechanosensory hair cells in the inner ear. Intrinsic mitochondrial cell death pathway plays a key role in that cellular dysfunction for which no proven effective therapies against oto-toxicities exist. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop a new mitochondrial targeting drug delivery system (DDS) that provided improved protection from gentamicin. Particularly, SS-31 peptide-conjugated geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles were constructed successfully via emulsion-solvent evaporation method...
November 2017: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191249/tracing-gfp-labeled-wjmscs-in-vivo-using-a-chronic-salpingitis-model-an-animal-experiment
#9
Zhe Li, Zhao Zhang, Wai-Kit Ming, Xin Chen, Xiao-Min Xiao
BACKGROUND: The present study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJMSCs) and their repairing function on the oviduct. METHODS: WJMSCs were transfected with the LV3-GFP-PURO lentivirus. Female New Zealand rabbits (n = 24) were divided randomly into control A and B groups and experimental C and D groups to establish inflammation models. Sterile saline solution or WJMSCs were injected into rabbits via ear veins and/or genital tract perfusion once weekly for 3 weeks...
December 1, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107558/esrp1-mutations-cause-hearing-loss-due-to-defects-in-alternative-splicing-that-disrupt-cochlear-development
#10
Alex M Rohacek, Thomas W Bebee, Richard K Tilton, Caleb M Radens, Chris McDermott-Roe, Natoya Peart, Maninder Kaur, Michael Zaykaner, Benjamin Cieply, Kiran Musunuru, Yoseph Barash, John A Germiller, Ian D Krantz, Russ P Carstens, Douglas J Epstein
Alternative splicing contributes to gene expression dynamics in many tissues, yet its role in auditory development remains unclear. We performed whole-exome sequencing in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and identified pathogenic mutations in Epithelial Splicing-Regulatory Protein 1 (ESRP1). Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells showed alternative splicing defects that were restored upon repair of an ESRP1 mutant allele. To determine how ESRP1 mutations cause hearing loss, we evaluated Esrp1(-/-) mouse embryos and uncovered alterations in cochlear morphogenesis, auditory hair cell differentiation, and cell fate specification...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069444/grain-yield-and-quality-responses-of-wheat-expressing-a-barley-sucrose-transporter-to-combined-climate-change-factors
#11
Heiko Weichert, Petra Högy, Isabel Mora-Ramirez, Jörg Fuchs, Kai Eggert, Peter Koehler, Winfriede Weschke, Andreas Fangmeier, Hans Weber
Crop yield stability must be ensured under future climate conditions such as elevated CO 2 and high temperatures. We tested 'HOSUT', a winter wheat line expressing a grain-targeted sucrose transporter of barley in response to combinations of CO 2 enrichment, a heat wave, and high nitrogen fertilization. Compared with wild-type Certo, HOSUT had a superior performance for grain yield, aboveground biomass, and ears per plant, obviously due to transgene activity in developing grains and young vegetative sinks. HOSUT grains were larger and contained more endosperm cells...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058774/mesoderm-specific-transcript-localization-in-the-er-and-er-lipid-droplet-interface-supports-a-role-in-adipocyte-hypertrophy
#12
Igor Prudovsky, Rea P Anunciado-Koza, Chester G Jacobs, Doreen Kacer, Matthew E Siviski, Robert A Koza
Highly variable expression of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest) in adipose tissue among genetically homogeneous mice fed an obesogenic diet, and its positive association with fat mass expansion, suggests that Mest is an epigenetic determinant for the development of obesity. Although the mechanisms by which MEST augments fat accumulation in adipocytes have not been elucidated, it has sequence homology and catalytic peptide motifs which suggests that it functions as an epoxide hydrolase or as a glycerol- or acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055244/a-pilot-study-comparing-mechanical-properties-of-tissue-engineered-cartilages-and-various-endogenous-cartilages
#13
Andrew K Pappa, Sajjad Soleimani, Montserrat Caballero, Alexandra E Halevi, John A van Aalst
BACKGROUND: Mechanical properties of tissue-engineered cartilage and a variety of endogenous cartilage were measured. The main goal was to evaluate if the tissue-engineered cartilage have similar mechanical characteristics to be replaced with rib cartilage in microtia reconstruction. Such study lays the foundation for future human clinical trials for microtia reconstruction. METHOD: Atomic force microscopy and compression testing were used to measure the viscoelasticity of tissue-engineered cartilage (stem cell seeded on Poly lactic co-glycolytic acid nanofibers and Pellet) and endogenous cartilage: conchal bowl, microtic ears, preauricular remnants, and rib...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049142/13-93b3-bioactive-glass-a-new-scaffold-for-transplantation-of-stem-cell-derived-chondrocytes
#14
Kivanc Gunhan, Serkan Bariskan, Uzdan Uz, Seda Vatansever, Mujde Kivanc
Research using animal models gives human trials hope for recovery in many fields of regenerative medicine, although they are sometimes poor predictors for human experiences. Our goal was to investigate whether rat chondrocytes, differentiated from adipose-derived stem cells, could be transplanted using a new, easily shaped, bioactive glass scaffold, and to show the immunohistochemical results. Intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue was extracted from 6 male Wistar albino type rats. The fatty tissue samples were fragmented and incubated...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038460/a-novel-immunohistochemical-score-to-predict-early-mortality-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-based-on-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-expression
#15
Abhishek Mangaonkar, Ashis Kumar Mondal, Sadanand Fulzule, Chetan Pundkar, Eun Jeong Park, Anand Jillella, Vamsi Kota, Hongyan Xu, Natasha M Savage, Huidong Shi, David Munn, Ravindra Kolhe
Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase-1 (IDO-1) is an enzyme in the kynurenine pathway which augments tumor-induced immune tolerance. Previous studies in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have shown a negative correlation of IDO-1 mRNA expression with outcomes. The aim of our study was to develop a practical and objective immunohistochemical technique to quantify IDO-1 expression on diagnostic bone marrow biopsies of AML patients in order to facilitate its use in routine clinical practice. IDO-1 mRNA was extracted from diagnostic bone marrow specimens from 29 AML patients...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037987/rna-methylation-regulates-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-development
#16
Jason Ear, Shuo Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988244/evolution-of-sound-source-localization-circuits-in-the-nonmammalian-vertebrate-brainstem
#17
Peggy L Walton, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Catherine E Carr
The earliest vertebrate ears likely subserved a gravistatic function for orientation in the aquatic environment. However, in addition to detecting acceleration created by the animal's own movements, the otolithic end organs that detect linear acceleration would have responded to particle movement created by external sources. The potential to identify and localize these external sources may have been a major selection force in the evolution of the early vertebrate ear and in the processing of sound in the central nervous system...
2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973660/high-susceptibility-of-lrig1-sebaceous-stem-cells-to-tcdd-in-mice
#18
F Fontao, L Barnes, G Kaya, J H Saurat, O Sorg
We have previously shown that CYP1A1 was highly induced for a long period of time in a patient who had been poisoned by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a compound known to activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). During that period of time no sebaceous glands could be observed in the skin of this patient. In the present study, starting from observations in the patient exposed to TCDD, we analysed the seboatrophy induced by dioxins in mice. We observed a very different pattern of AhR and CYP1A1 immunostaining in skin biopsies of the patient...
August 30, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971562/aging-adult-porcine-fibroblasts-can-support-nuclear-transfer-and-transcription-factor-mediated-reprogramming
#19
Xia Li, Pengfei Zhang, Shaoshuai Jiang, Biao Ding, Xiaoyuan Zuo, Yunsheng Li, Zubing Cao, Yunhai Zhang
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) technology are two classical reprogramming methods. Donor cell types can affect the reprogramming results in the above two methods. We here used porcine embryonic fibroblasts (PEFs) and adult porcine ear skin fibroblasts (APEFs) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) as donor cells for SCNT and source cells for iPSCs to study their in vitro developmental capability and colony-formation efficiency, respectively. For SCNT, fusion and cleavage rate has no significant difference among PEFs, ADSCs and APEFs...
October 3, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952134/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-gliomas-and-glioblastoma-pathogenesis-revealed-by-bioinformatics-analysis-of-microarray-data
#20
Basavaraj Vastrad, Chanabasayya Vastrad, Ashok Godavarthi, Raghu Chandrashekar
The aim of this study was to identify key genes associated with gliomas and glioblastoma and to explore the related signaling pathways. Gene expression profiles of three glioma stem cell line samples, three normal astrocyte samples, three astrocyte overexpressing 4 iPSC-inducing and oncogenic factors (myc(T58A), OCT-4, p53DD, and H-Ras(G12V)) samples, three astrocyte overexpressing 7 iPSC-inducing and oncogenic factors (OCT4, H-Ras(G12V), myc(T58A), p53DD, cyclin D1, CDK4(RC24) and hTERT) samples and three glioblastoma cell line samples were downloaded from the ArrayExpress database (accession: E-MTAB-4771)...
September 26, 2017: Medical Oncology
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