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Ear stem cells

Renren Bai, Qi Shi, Zhongxing Liang, Younghyoun Yoon, Yiran Han, Amber Feng, Shuangping Liu, Yoonhyeun Oum, C Chris Yun, Hyunsuk Shim
CXCR4 plays a crucial role in recruitment of inflammatory cells to inflammation sites at the beginning of the disease process. Modulating CXCR4 functions presents a new avenue for anti-inflammatory strategies. However, using CXCR4 antagonists for a long term usage presents potential serious side effect due to their stem cell mobilizing property. We have been developing partial CXCR4 antagonists without such property. A new computer-aided drug design program, the FRESH workflow, was used for anti-CXCR4 lead compound discovery and optimization, which coupled both compound library building and CXCR4 docking screens in one campaign...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
W J Zhang, J J Sun
Objective: To construct tissue engineered-epithelial patches with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSC) and extracellular matrix scaffold (ECM), and to observe their morphological characteristics and biological behaviors. Methods: The cultured and purified hADSC were co-cultured with the ECM. The adhesion of hADSC formed sheet on the ECM were observed by the scanning electron microscopy. The activity and apoptosis of hADSC cultured on the ECM were observed by laser scanning confocal microscope...
October 7, 2016: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
L Chen, D L Wang, Z R Wei, B Wang, J P Qi, G F Sun
Objective: To investigate the effects of local transplantation of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on the formation of hyperplastic scar on rabbit ears. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from inguinal fat of six New Zealand rabbits and then sub-cultured. ADSCs of the third passage of each rabbit were used in the following experiments. Six full-thickness skin defect wounds with diameter of 6 mm on the ventral surface of every rabbit ear were made. Wound healing and local-tissue proliferation were observed, and complete epithelization time of wounds and formation time of hyperplastic scar were recorded...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
C M Han
The wound healing includes non-healing and overhealing of the wounds. The results of wound healing are well known by people such as non-healing of the diabetic ulcer or hypertrophic scar after deep burn. In this issue, three papers involve in wound healing, one about autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells injected into wound or scar of rabbit ear, one about severe hypoxia and hypoalbuminemia inducing human hypertrophic scar derived fibroblast apoptosis in vitro, and another about the dysfunction of protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway contributing to the pathophysiological characteristics of diabetic skin and non-healing wound...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Poornapriya Ramamurthy, Joshua B White, Joong Yull Park, Richard I Hume, Fumi Ebisu, Flor Mendez, Shuichi Takayama, Kate F Barald
BACKGROUND: To send meaningful information to the brain, an inner ear cochlear implant (CI) must become closely coupled to as large and healthy a population of remaining Spiral Ganglion Neurons (SGN) as possible. Inner ear gangliogenesis depends on macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a directionally attractant neurotrophic cytokine made by both Schwann and supporting cells (Bank et al., 2012). MIF-induced mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived "neurons" could potentially substitute for lost or damaged SGN...
October 19, 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
S K Plontke, G Götze, T Rahne, A Liebau
Local drug application to the inner ear offers a number of advantages over systemic delivery. Local drug therapy currently encompasses extracochlear administration (intratympanic injection); intracochlear administration, particularly for gene and stem cell therapy; as well as various combinations with auditory neurosensory prostheses, either evaluated in preclinical or clinical studies, or off-label. To improve rehabilitation with cochlear implants (CI), one focus is the development of drug-releasing electrode carriers, e...
October 18, 2016: HNO
Mohamed Bassiouni, Aurélie Dos Santos, Hasan X Avci, Hubert Löwenheim, Marcus Müller
The mature mammalian organ of Corti does not regenerate spontaneously after injury, mainly due to the absence of cell proliferation and the depletion of otic progenitors with age. The polycomb gene B lymphoma Mo-MLV insertion region 1 homolog (Bmi1) promotes proliferation and cell cycle progression in several stem cell populations. The cell cycle inhibitor p16ink4a has been previously identified as a downstream target of Bmi1. In this study, we show that Bmi1 is expressed in the developing inner ear. In the organ of Corti, Bmi1 expression is temporally regulated during embryonic and postnatal development...
2016: PloS One
Hamid Karimi, Seyed-Abolhassan Emami, Mohammad-Kazem Olad-Gubad
BACKGROUND: Repair of total human ear loss or congenital lack of ears is one of the challenging issues in plastic and reconstructive surgery. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was 3D reconstruction of the human ear with cadaveric ear cartilages seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells. METHOD: We used cadaveric ear cartilages with preserved perichondrium. The samples were divided into 2 groups: group A (cartilage alone) and group B (cartilage seeded with a mixture of fibrin powder and mesenchymal stem cell [1,000,000 cells/cm] used and implanted in back of 10 athymic rats)...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Qiang He, Zhanwei Jia, Ying Zhang, Xiumin Ren
We aimed to investigate the effect of morin hydrate on neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from mouse inner ear and its potential in protecting neuronal hearing loss. 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays were employed to assess the effect of morin hydrate on the viability and proliferation of in vitro NSC culture. The NSCs were then differentiated into neurons, in which neurosphere formation and differentiation were evaluated, followed by neurite outgrowth and neural excitability measurements in the subsequent in vitro neuronal network...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Kevin Rodriguez, Mariano Perales, Stephen Snipes, Ram Kishor Yadav, Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza, G Venugopala Reddy
The homeodomain transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) promotes stem cell maintenance in inflorescence meristems of Arabidopsis thaliana WUS, which is synthesized in the rib meristem, migrates and accumulates at lower levels in adjacent cells. Maintenance of WUS protein levels and spatial patterning distribution is not well-understood. Here, we show that the last 63-aa stretch of WUS is necessary for maintaining different levels of WUS protein in the rib meristem and adjacent cells. The 63-aa region contains the following transcriptional regulatory domains: the acidic region, the WUS-box, which is conserved in WUS-related HOMEOBOX family members, and the ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR-like) domain...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rachel E DeJonge, Xiao-Ping Liu, Christopher R Deig, Stefan Heller, Karl R Koehler, Eri Hashino
Stem cell-derived inner ear sensory epithelia are a promising source of tissues for treating patients with hearing loss and dizziness. We recently demonstrated how to generate inner ear sensory epithelia, designated as inner ear organoids, from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in a self-organizing 3D culture. Here we improve the efficiency of this culture system by elucidating how Wnt signaling activity can drive the induction of otic tissue. We found that a carefully timed treatment with the potent Wnt agonist CHIR99021 promotes induction of otic vesicles-a process that was previously self-organized by unknown mechanisms...
2016: PloS One
Mahdi Mirahmadi, Saeideh Nakhaei-Rad, Maryam M Matin, Mina Shahriyari, Morvarid Saeinasab, Zahra Mahmoudi, Azadeh Haghighitalab, Naser Mahdavi-Shahri, Ahmad Reza Bahrami
Cell Stemness can be achieved by various reprogramming techniques namely, somatic cell nuclear transfer, cell fusion, cell extracts, and introduction of transcription factors from which induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are obtained. iPSCs are valuable cell sources for drug screening and human disease modeling. Alternatives to virus-based introduction of transcription factors include application of DNA-free methods and introduction of chemically defined culturing conditions. However, the possibility of tumor development is still a hurdle...
October 2016: Cellular Reprogramming
Hainan Lang, Eishi Nishimoto, Yazhi Xing, LaShardai N Brown, Kenyaria V Noble, Jeremy L Barth, Amanda C LaRue, Kiyoshi Ando, Bradley A Schulte
The peripheral auditory nerve (AN) carries sound information from sensory hair cells to the brain. The present study investigated the contribution of mouse and human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to cellular diversity in the AN following the destruction of neuron cell bodies, also known as spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). Exposure of the adult mouse cochlea to ouabain selectively killed type I SGNs and disrupted the blood-labyrinth barrier. This procedure also resulted in the upregulation of genes associated with hematopoietic cell homing and differentiation, and provided an environment conducive to the tissue engraftment of circulating stem/progenitor cells into the AN...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Fumiaki Nin, Takamasa Yoshida, Seishiro Sawamura, Genki Ogata, Takeru Ota, Taiga Higuchi, Shingo Murakami, Katsumi Doi, Yoshihisa Kurachi, Hiroshi Hibino
The cochlea of the mammalian inner ear contains an endolymph that exhibits an endocochlear potential (EP) of +80 mV with a [K(+)] of 150 mM. This unusual extracellular solution is maintained by the cochlear lateral wall, a double-layered epithelial-like tissue. Acoustic stimuli allow endolymphatic K(+) to enter sensory hair cells and excite them. The positive EP accelerates this K(+) influx, thereby sensitizing hearing. K(+) exits from hair cells and circulates back to the lateral wall, which unidirectionally transports K(+) to the endolymph...
October 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Na-Ra Han, Phil-Dong Moon, Sun-Young Nam, Ka-Jung Ryu, Myoung-Schook Yoou, Jung-Hye Choi, Sung-Yeoun Hwang, Hyung-Min Kim, Hyun-Ja Jeong
This study investigated a salutary effect of atractylone (Atr) which is an active constituent of Pyeongwee-San (KMP6) on mast cell-mediated allergic reactions. Our previous report indicated that KMP6 regulated allergic reactions. Thus, this study sought to determine the potential of Atr in vitro models, compound 48/80-stimulated rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus A23187-stimulated human mast cell line (HMC-1) cells, and stem cell factor (SCF)-stimulated RPMCs as well as in vivo models, IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA), compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylaxis, and compound 48/80-induced ear swelling...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Yang Zhou, Zhengqing Hu
The DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-aza) causes genomic demethylation to regulate gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether 5-aza affects gene expression and cell fate determination of stem cells. In this study, 5-aza was applied to mouse utricle sensory epithelia-derived progenitor cells (MUCs) to investigate whether 5-aza stimulated MUCs to become sensory hair cells. After treatment, MUCs increased expression of hair cell genes and proteins. The DNA methylation level (indicated by percentage of 5-methylcytosine) showed a 28...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Yanhan Wang, Lingjuan Zhang, Jinghua Yu, Stephen Huang, Zhenping Wang, Kimberly Ann Chun, Tammy Ling Lee, Ying-Tung Chen, Richard L Gallo, Chun-Ming Huang
Here we demonstrate that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis), a commensal bacterium in the human skin microbiome, produces short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by glycerol fermentation that can induce adipogenesis. Although the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of SCFAs have been previously well characterized, little is known about the contribution of SCFAs to the adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). We show that ADSCs differentiated into adipocytes and accumulated lipids in the cytoplasm when cultured with butyric acid, a principal SCFA in the fermentation metabolites of S...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Clarissa M L Schrekker, Yuri C A Sokolovicz, Maria G Raucci, Balaji S Selukar, Joice S Klitzke, William Lopes, Claudio A M Leal, Igor O P de Souza, Griselda B Galland, João Henrique Z Dos Santos, Raquel S Mauler, Moshe Kol, Samuel Dagorne, Luigi Ambrosio, Mário L Teixeira, Jonder Morais, Richard Landers, Alexandre M Fuentefria, Henri S Schrekker
Candida species have great ability to colonize and form biofilms on medical devices, causing infections in human hosts. In this study, poly(l-lactide) films with different imidazolium salt (1-n-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (C16MImCl) and 1-n-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium methanesulfonate (C16MImMeS)) contents were prepared, using the solvent casting process. Poly(l-lactide)-imidazolium salt films were obtained with different surface morphologies (spherical and directional), and the presence of the imidazolium salt in the surface was confirmed...
August 24, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pei Li, Yuming Zhao, Lihong Ge
BACKGROUND: The immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of human gingiva-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (GMSCs) have been demonstrated in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) models; however, their therapeutic effect during the late phase of CHS has been poor. METHODS: The murine CHS model was induced by applying oxazolone to the ears of mice. Mesenchymal stromal cells were applied via two methods (intravenous or local injection) at three time points: 1 day before sensitization, 1 day before challenge, or 1 h after challenge...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Cynthia L Chow, Parul Trivedi, Madeline P Pyle, Jacob T Matulle, Robert Fettiplace, Samuel P Gubbels
Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells with the capacity to proliferate and form mature tissue-specific cell types. Nestin is an intermediate filament protein used to identify cells with stem cell characteristics. Its expression has been observed in a population of cells in developing and adult cochleae. In vitro studies using rodent cochlear tissue have documented the potential of nestin-expressing cells to proliferate and form hair and supporting cells. In this study, nestin coupled to green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice were used to provide a more complete characterization of the spatial and temporal expression of nestin in the inner ear, from organogenesis to adulthood...
October 1, 2016: Stem Cells and Development
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