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Ear stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766656/microencapsulated-rabbit-adipose-stem-cells-initiate-tissue-regeneration-in-a-rabbit-ear-defect-model
#1
Shirae K Leslie, David J Cohen, Sharon L Hyzy, Christopher R Dosier, Anthony Nicolini, Janina Sedlaczek, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D Boyan
Cell-based tissue engineering can promote cartilage tissue regeneration, but cell retention in the implant site post-delivery is problematic. Alginate microbeads containing adipose stem cells (ASCs) pretreated with chondrogenic media (CM) have been used successfully to regenerate hyaline cartilage in critical size defects in rat xiphoid suggesting that they may be used to treat defects in elastic cartilages like the ear. To test this, we used microbeads made with low viscosity, high mannuronate medical grade alginate using a high electrostatic potential and a calcium cross linking solution containing glucose...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740017/atoh1-rfx1-rfx3-transcription-factors-facilitate-the-differentiation-and-characterisation-of-inner-ear-hair-cell-like-cells-from-patient-specific-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-harbouring-a8344g-mutation-of-mitochondrial-dna
#2
Yen-Chun Chen, Chia-Ling Tsai, Yau-Huei Wei, Yu-Ting Wu, Wei-Ting Hsu, Hung-Ching Lin, Yi-Chao Hsu
Degeneration or loss of inner ear hair cells (HCs) is irreversible and results in sensorineural hearing loss (SHL). Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been employed in disease modelling and cell therapy. Here, we propose a transcription factor (TF)-driven approach using ATOH1 and regulatory factor of x-box (RFX) genes to generate HC-like cells from hiPSCs. Our results suggest that ATOH1/RFX1/RFX3 could significantly increase the differentiation capacity of iPSCs into MYO7AmCherry -positive cells, upregulate the mRNA expression levels of HC-related genes and promote the differentiation of HCs with more mature stereociliary bundles...
April 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730165/impact-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-on-vep-and-abr-values-of-the-patients-with-malignant-infantile-osteopetrosis
#3
Reza Shervin Badv, S Sharareh Dehghani, Maryam Behfar, Batoul Ahadi, Abdolreza Tabasi, Amir Ali Hamidieh
OBJECTIVES: Malignant Infantile Osteopetrosis (MIOP) is a rare inherited disorder with neurological complications, notably visual impairment and decrease of hearing level. Although Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) has been approved as the only curative treatment for these patients, the exact impact of it on visual and hearing level is still unclear. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed the P2 latency and amplitude from Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP) of 10 patients (20 eyes) and the threshold of wave V from Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) of 15 patients (30 ears) with MIOP before, 6 and 12 months after HSCT...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708966/role-of-heterotrimeric-g%C3%AE-proteins-in-maize-development-and-enhancement-of-agronomic-traits
#4
Qingyu Wu, Michael Regan, Hiro Furukawa, David Jackson
Plant shoot systems derive from the shoot apical meristems (SAMs), pools of stems cells that are regulated by a feedback between the WUSCHEL (WUS) homeobox protein and CLAVATA (CLV) peptides and receptors. The maize heterotrimeric G protein α subunit COMPACT PLANT2 (CT2) functions with CLV receptors to regulate meristem development. In addition to the sole canonical Gα CT2, maize also contains three eXtra Large GTP-binding proteins (XLGs), which have a domain with homology to Gα as well as additional domains...
April 30, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688570/diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-chemotherapy-reveals-a-combined-immunodeficiency-syndrome-in-cartilage-hair-hypoplasia
#5
Alexandre Nguyen, Nicolas Martin Silva, Hubert de Boysson, Gandhi Damaj, Achille Aouba
Cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive ribosomopathy characterised by skeletal and integumentary system manifestations. It may also present with varied forms and intensities of haematopoietic and/or immune disorders. We report a 27-year-old female who presented a picture of combined immunodeficiency after receiving an adriamycin-based chemotherapy regimen followed by autologous stem cell transplantation. Her medical history indicated neonatal dwarfism, recurrent ear, nose and throat and respiratory infections, and hypogammaglobulinaemia, which were suggestive of a primary minor B-cell immune deficiency...
April 24, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670222/stem-cells-in-middle-ear-cholesteatoma-contribute-to-its-pathogenesis
#6
Julia Nagel, Saskia Wöllner, Matthias Schürmann, Viktoria Brotzmann, Janine Müller, Johannes Fw Greiner, Peter Goon, Barbara Kaltschmidt, Christian Kaltschmidt, Holger Sudhoff
Cholesteatoma is a potentially life-threatening middle ear lesion due to the formation of an inflamed ectopic mass of keratinizing squamous epithelium. Surgical removal remains the only treatment option, emphasizing the need to gain a better understanding of this severe disease. We show for the first time that stem cells residing in cholesteatoma tissue contribute to disease progression. Cells expressing the "stemness" markers Nestin and S100B were detected in middle ear cholesteatoma and auditory canal skin...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582373/isolation-and-enrichment-of-newborn-and-adult-skin-stem-cells-of-the-interfollicular-epidermis
#7
Stefano Sol, Dario Antonini, Caterina Missero
The interfollicular epidermis regenerates from a heterogeneous population of basal cells undergoing either self-renewal or terminal differentiation, thereby balancing cell loss in tissue turnover or in wound repair. In this chapter, we describe a reliable and simple method for isolating interfollicular epithelial stem cells from the skin of newborn mice or from tail and ear skin of adult mice using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). We also provide a detailed protocol for culturing interfollicular epidermal stem cells and to assess their proliferative potential and self-renewing ability...
March 27, 2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570699/microrna-194-regulates-the-development-and-differentiation-of-sensory-patches-and-statoacoustic-ganglion-of-inner-ear-by-fgf4
#8
Hui Cao, Jianbo Shi, Jintao Du, Kaitian Chen, Chang Dong, Di Jiang, Hongyan Jiang
BACKGROUND MicroRNA 194 is involved in the differentiation of various types of cells, such as adipose derived stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Previously, we found that miR-194 was highly expressed in the inner ear sensory patch and neurons in mice embryos. However, the role of miR-194 in the development of the inner ear and its underlying mechanism have not been elucidated yet. MATERIAL AND METHODS The expression level of miR-194 has been altered by using antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO) and synthesized miRNAs in zebrafish...
March 23, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568366/selenoprotein-k-deficiency-inhibits-melanoma-by-reducing-calcium-flux-required-for-tumor-growth-and-metastasis
#9
Michael P Marciel, Vedbar S Khadka, Youpeng Deng, Pascal Kilicaslan, Andrew Pham, Pietro Bertino, Katie Lee, Suzie Chen, Natalija Glibetic, FuKun W Hoffmann, Michelle L Matter, Peter R Hoffmann
Interest has emerged in the therapeutic potential of inhibiting store operated calcium (Ca2+ ) entry (SOCE) for melanoma and other cancers because malignant cells exhibit a strong dependence on Ca2+ flux for disease progression. We investigated the effects of deleting Selenoprotein K (SELENOK) in melanoma since previous work in immune cells showed SELENOK was required for efficient Ca2+ flux through the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ channel protein, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), which is due to the role SELENOK plays in palmitoylating and stabilizing the expression of IP3R...
March 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556229/respiratory-manifestations-of-the-activated-phosphoinositide-3-kinase-delta-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Alison M Condliffe, Anita Chandra
The activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS), also known as p110δ-activating mutation causing senescent T cells, lymphadenopathy, and immunodeficiency (PASLI), is a combined immunodeficiency syndrome caused by gain-of-function mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) genes PIK3CD (encoding p110δ: APDS1 or PASLI-CD) and PIK3R1 (encoding p85α: APDS2 or PASLI-R1). While the disease is clinically heterogeneous, respiratory symptoms and complications are near universal and often severe...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549594/keratinocyte-growth-factor-kgf-modulates-epidermal-progenitor-cell-kinetics-through-activation-of-p63-in-middle-ear-cholesteatoma
#11
Tomomi Yamamoto-Fukuda, Naotaro Akiyama, Masahiro Takahashi, Hiromi Kojima
The basal stem/progenitor cell maintains homeostasis of the epidermis. Progressive disturbance of this homeostasis has been implicated as a possible cause in the pathogenesis of epithelial disease, such as middle ear cholesteatoma. In many cases of stem/progenitor cell regulation, the importance of extracellular signals provided by the surrounding cells is well-recognized. Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) is a mesenchymal-cell-derived paracrine growth factor that specifically participates in skin homeostasis; however, the overexpression of KGF induces middle ear cholesteatoma...
June 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491041/cerebral-organoids-ethical-issues-and-consciousness-assessment
#12
Andrea Lavazza, Marcello Massimini
Organoids are three-dimensional biological structures grown in vitro from different kinds of stem cells that self-organise mimicking real organs with organ-specific cell types. Recently, researchers have managed to produce human organoids which have structural and functional properties very similar to those of different organs, such as the retina, the intestines, the kidneys, the pancreas, the liver and the inner ear. Organoids are considered a great resource for biomedical research, as they allow for a detailed study of the development and pathologies of human cells; they also make it possible to test new molecules on human tissue...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487598/macrophages-in-the-human-cochlea-saviors-or-predators-a-study-using-super-resolution-immunohistochemistry
#13
Wei Liu, Matyas Molnar, Carolyn Garnham, Heval Benav, Helge Rask-Andersen
The human inner ear, which is segregated by a blood/labyrinth barrier, contains resident macrophages [CD163, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1)-, and CD68-positive cells] within the connective tissue, neurons, and supporting cells. In the lateral wall of the cochlea, these cells frequently lie close to blood vessels as perivascular macrophages. Macrophages are also shown to be recruited from blood-borne monocytes to damaged and dying hair cells induced by noise, ototoxic drugs, aging, and diphtheria toxin-induced hair cell degeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477628/corrigendum-to-barhl1-is-required-for-the-differentiation-of-inner-ear-hair-cell-like-cells-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-int-j-biochem-cell-biol-96-2018-79-89
#14
Chao Zhong, Zhenhuang Chen, Xiaocui Luo, Cuicui Wang, Hui Jiang, Jianzhong Shao, Minxin Guan, Liquan Huang, Xiao Huang, Jinfu Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453974/genetically-modified-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-tgf-%C3%AE-3-improve-wound-healing-and-reduce-scar-tissue-formation-in-a-rabbit-model
#15
Mingyong Li, Lin Qiu, Wei Hu, Xiang Deng, Hanfeng Xu, Youhan Cao, Zijian Xiao, Liangyu Peng, Shawn Johnson, Lyundup Alexey, Paul A Kingston, Qing Li, Yuanyuan Zhang
Extensive scar tissue formation often occurs after severe burn injury, trauma, or as one of complications after surgical intervention. Despite significant therapeutic advances, it is still a significant challenge to manage massive scar tissue formation while also promoting normal wound healing. The goal of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) that were genetically modified to overexpress transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β3 ), an inhibitor of myofibroblast proliferation and collagen type I deposition, on full-thickness cutaneous wound healing in a rabbit model...
June 1, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450596/-strategies-for-a-regenerative-therapy-of-hearing-loss-german-version
#16
REVIEW
M Diensthuber, T Stöver
Despite impressive technical progress in the field of conventional hearing aids and implantable hearing systems, the hopes for the treatment of inner ear diseases such as hearing loss and tinnitus have become increasingly directed toward regenerative therapeutic approaches. This review discusses the currently most promising strategies for hair cell regeneration in the inner ear to treat hearing loss, including stem cell-based, gene transfer-based, and pharmacological interventions. Furthermore, previous milestones and ground-breaking work in this scientific field are identified...
March 2018: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449572/optimising-the-decellularization-of-human-elastic-cartilage-with-trypsin-for-future-use-in-ear-reconstruction
#17
Shafiq Rahman, Michelle Griffin, Anish Naik, Matthew Szarko, Peter E M Butler
Decellularized scaffolds can induce chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. This study compares different methods to optimise the decellularization of auricular cartilage. The process consisted of an initial 12 hour dry freeze thaw which froze the cartilage specimens in an empty tube at -20 °C. Samples were allowed to thaw at room temperature followed by submersion in phosphate buffer solution in which they were frozen at -20 °C for a 12 hour period. They were then allowed to thaw at room temperature as before...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433734/foxo-in-neural-cells-and-diseases-of-the-nervous-system
#18
Evan E Santo, Jihye Paik
The evolutionarily conserved FOXO family of transcription factors has emerged as a significant arbiter of neural cell fate and function in mammals. From the neural stem cell (NSC) state through mature neurons under both physiological and pathological conditions, they have been found to modulate neural cell survival, stress responses, lineage commitment, and neuronal signaling. Lineage-specific FOXO knockout mice have provided an invaluable tool for the dissection of FOXO biology in the nervous system. Within the NSC compartments of the brain, FOXOs are required for the maintenance of NSC quiescence and for the clearance of reactive oxygen species...
2018: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413750/barhl1-is-required-for-the-differentiation-of-inner-ear-hair-cell-like-cells-from-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#19
Chao Zhong, Zhenhuang Chen, Xiaocui Luo, Cuicui Wang, Hui Jiang, Jianzhong Shao, Minxin Guan, Liquan Huang, Xiao Huang, Jinfu Wang
Inner ear hair cells are mechanoreceptors responsible for hearing. Pathogenic defects of hair cell-specific genes are one of the major causes of deafness. The BarH class homeobox gene Barhl1 is a deafness gene expressed in developing hair cells, yet the role of Barhl1 during hair cell development remains poorly understood. In the present study, we first established an in vitro differentiation system to efficiently obtain mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived hair cell-like cells. Subsequently, a mESC line carrying a targeted disruption of Barhl1 was generated using CRISPR/Cas9 technology and subjected to the established in vitro hair cell differentiation protocol...
March 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386634/engraftment-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-progenitors-in-the-inner-ear-of-prenatal-mice
#20
Hiroki Takeda, Makoto Hosoya, Masato Fujioka, Chika Saegusa, Tsubasa Saeki, Toru Miwa, Hideyuki Okano, Ryosei Minoda
There is, at present, no curative treatment for genetic hearing loss. We have previously reported that transuterine gene transfer of wild type CONNEXIN30 (CX30) genes into otocysts in CX30-deleted mice could restore hearing. Cell transplantation therapy might be another therapeutic option, although it is still unknown whether stem cell-derived progenitor cells could migrate into mouse otocysts. Here, we show successful cell transplantation of progenitors of outer sulcus cell-like cells derived from human-derived induced pluripotent stem cells into mouse otocysts on embryonic day 11...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
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