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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445089/genetic-and-morphological-differentiation-of-the-semiterrestrial-crab-armases-angustipes-brachyura-sesarmidae-along-the-brazilian-coast
#1
Murilo Zanetti Marochi, Setuko Masunari, Christoph D Schubart
The genetic and morphometric population structures of the semiterrestrial crab Armases angustipes from along the Brazilian coast were examined. The influence of the Central South Equatorial Current on larval dispersal of A. angustipes also was evaluated. Six populations were sampled from estuarine areas in São Luis do Maranhão, Maranhão; Natal, Rio Grande do Norte; Maceió, Alagoas; Ilhéus, Bahia; Aracruz, Espírito Santo; and Guaratuba, Paraná. Patterns of genetic differentiation were assessed using DNA sequence data corresponding to parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1...
February 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431317/ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-premature-mortality-burden-in-the-holy-city-varanasi-india
#2
Vaishali Jain, Sagnik Dey, Sourangsu Chowdhury
More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414859/source-receptor-probability-of-atmospheric-long-distance-dispersal-of-viruses-to-israel-from-the-eastern-mediterranean-area
#3
Z Klausner, E Klement, E Fattal
Viruses that affect the health of humans and farm animals can spread over long distances via atmospheric mechanisms. The phenomenon of atmospheric long-distance dispersal (LDD) is associated with severe consequences because it may introduce pathogens into new areas. The introduction of new pathogens to Israel was attributed to LDD events numerous times. This provided the motivation for this study which is aimed to identify all the locations in the eastern Mediterranean that may serve as sources for pathogen incursion into Israel via LDD...
April 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402397/convergence-and-contrast-in-the-community-structure-of-bacteria-fungi-and-archaea-along-a-tropical-elevation-climate-gradient
#4
Kabir G Peay, Christian von Sperber, Emily Cardarelli, Hirokazu Toju, Christopher A Francis, Oliver A Chadwick, Peter M Vitousek
Changes in species richness along climatological gradients have been instrumental in developing theories about the general drivers of biodiversity. Previous studies on microbial communities along climate gradients on mountainsides have revealed positive, negative and neutral richness trends. We examined changes in richness and composition of Fungi, Bacteria and Archaea in soil along a 50-1000 m elevation, 280-3280 mm/yr precipitation gradient in Hawai'i. Soil properties and their drivers are exceptionally well understood along this gradient...
April 11, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367642/the-incompressibility-assumption-in-computational-simulations-of-nasal-airflow
#5
Ismael R Cal, Jose Luis Cercos-Pita, Daniel Duque
Most of the computational works on nasal airflow up to date have assumed incompressibility, given the low Mach number of these flows. However, for high temperature gradients, the incompressibility assumption could lead to a loss of accuracy, due to the temperature dependence of air density and viscosity. In this article we aim to shed some light on the influence of this assumption in a model of calm breathing in an Asian nasal cavity, by solving the fluid flow equations in compressible and incompressible formulation for different ambient air temperatures using the OpenFOAM package...
April 3, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364751/inferring-directed-climatic-interactions-with-renormalized-partial-directed-coherence-and-directed-partial-correlation
#6
Giulio Tirabassi, Linda Sommerlade, Cristina Masoller
Inferring interactions between processes promises deeper insight into mechanisms underlying network phenomena. Renormalised partial directed coherence is a frequency-domain representation of the concept of Granger causality, while directed partial correlation is an alternative approach for quantifying Granger causality in the time domain. Both methodologies have been successfully applied to neurophysiological signals for detecting directed relationships. This paper introduces their application to climatological time series...
March 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364746/small-world-bias-of-correlation-networks-from-brain-to-climate
#7
Jaroslav Hlinka, David Hartman, Nikola Jajcay, David Tomeček, Jaroslav Tintěra, Milan Paluš
Complex systems are commonly characterized by the properties of their graph representation. Dynamical complex systems are then typically represented by a graph of temporal dependencies between time series of state variables of their subunits. It has been shown recently that graphs constructed in this way tend to have relatively clustered structure, potentially leading to spurious detection of small-world properties even in the case of systems with no or randomly distributed true interactions. However, the strength of this bias depends heavily on a range of parameters and its relevance for real-world data has not yet been established...
March 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358355/identifying-large-scale-patterns-of-unpredictability-and-response-to-insolation-in-atmospheric-data
#8
Fernando Arizmendi, Marcelo Barreiro, Cristina Masoller
Understanding the complex dynamics of the atmosphere is of paramount interest due to its impact in the entire climate system and in human society. Here we focus on identifying, from data, the geographical regions which have similar atmospheric properties. We study surface air temperature (SAT) time series with monthly resolution, recorded at a regular grid covering the Earth surface. We consider two datasets: NCEP CDAS1 and ERA Interim reanalysis. We show that two surprisingly simple measures are able to extract meaningful information: i) the distance between the lagged SAT and the incoming solar radiation and ii) the Shannon entropy of SAT and SAT anomalies...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357507/examination-of-climatological-wind-patterns-and-simulated-pollen-dispersion-in-a-complex-island-environment
#9
Brian J Viner, Raymond W Arritt, Mark E Westgate
Complex terrain creates small-scale circulations which affect pollen dispersion but may be missed by meteorological observing networks and coarse-grid meteorological models. On volcanic islands, these circulations result from differing rates of surface heating between land and sea as well as rugged terrain. We simulated the transport of bentgrass, ryegrass, and maize pollen from 30 sources within the agricultural regions of the Hawaiian island Kaua'i during climatological conditions spanning season conditions and the La Niña, El Niño, and neutral phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303992/predicting-dengue-outbreak-in-the-metropolitan-city-lahore-pakistan-using-dengue-vector-indices-and-selected-climatological-variables-as-predictors
#10
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi, Amtul Bari Tabinda, Seemal Vehra
OBJECTIVE: Dengue viruses have rapidly spread in Southeast Asia, particularly in Pakistan, during the last few years, so the present study was undertaken to formulate a model for predicting dengue outbreak. METHODOLOGY: A panel data using STRATA statistical software was employed to determine the effects of entomological indices, Per Man Hour Density (PMHD), Minimum Infection Rate (MIR) and selected climatic variables on dengue patients by using Fixed Effects (FE) and Random Effects (RE) models...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301603/drought-risk-assessment-under-climate-change-is-sensitive-to-methodological-choices-for-the-estimation-of-evaporative-demand
#11
Candida F Dewes, Imtiaz Rangwala, Joseph J Barsugli, Michael T Hobbins, Sanjiv Kumar
Several studies have projected increases in drought severity, extent and duration in many parts of the world under climate change. We examine sources of uncertainty arising from the methodological choices for the assessment of future drought risk in the continental US (CONUS). One such uncertainty is in the climate models' expression of evaporative demand (E0), which is not a direct climate model output but has been traditionally estimated using several different formulations. Here we analyze daily output from two CMIP5 GCMs to evaluate how differences in E0 formulation, treatment of meteorological driving data, choice of GCM, and standardization of time series influence the estimation of E0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298724/variability-of-chlorophyll-a-concentration-in-the-gulf-of-guinea-and-its-relation-to-physical-oceanographic-variables
#12
Karen Nieto, Frédéric Mélin
The Gulf of Guinea represents a wide tract of the African coast with complex and rich coastal ecosystems undergoing various pressures. The seasonal variations of chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) along the Gulf of Guinea (GoG) and their relations with physical oceanographic variables were analyzed using satellite observations covering the period 2002-2012. The effects of sea surface temperature (SST), sea level anomalies (SLA), winds, geostrophic currents, eddy kinetic energy (EKE), mesoscale eddies and fronts were considered on a monthly time scale...
February 2017: Progress in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297929/flexible-dynamics-of-two-quorum-sensing-coupled-repressilators
#13
Edward H Hellen, Evgeny Volkov
Genetic oscillators play important roles in cell life regulation. The regulatory efficiency usually depends strongly on the emergence of stable collective dynamic modes, which requires designing the interactions between genetic networks. We investigate the dynamics of two identical synthetic genetic repressilators coupled by an additional plasmid which implements quorum sensing (QS) in each network thereby supporting global coupling. In a basic genetic ring oscillator network in which three genes inhibit each other in unidirectional manner, QS stimulates the transcriptional activity of chosen genes providing for competition between inhibitory and stimulatory activities localized in those genes...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287128/a-unified-nonlinear-stochastic-time-series-analysis-for-climate-science
#14
Woosok Moon, John S Wettlaufer
Earth's orbit and axial tilt imprint a strong seasonal cycle on climatological data. Climate variability is typically viewed in terms of fluctuations in the seasonal cycle induced by higher frequency processes. We can interpret this as a competition between the orbitally enforced monthly stability and the fluctuations/noise induced by weather. Here we introduce a new time-series method that determines these contributions from monthly-averaged data. We find that the spatio-temporal distribution of the monthly stability and the magnitude of the noise reveal key fingerprints of several important climate phenomena, including the evolution of the Arctic sea ice cover, the El Nio Southern Oscillation (ENSO), the Atlantic Nio and the Indian Dipole Mode...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264781/quantification-and-mapping-of-urban-fluxes-under-climate-change-application-of-wrf-suews-model-to-greater-porto-area-portugal
#15
S Rafael, H Martins, M Marta-Almeida, E Sá, S Coelho, A Rocha, C Borrego, M Lopes
Climate change and the growth of urban populations are two of the main challenges facing Europe today. These issues are linked as climate change results in serious challenges for cities. Recent attention has focused on how urban surface-atmosphere exchanges of heat and water will be affected by climate change and the implications for urban planning and sustainability. In this study energy fluxes for Greater Porto area, Portugal, were estimated and the influence of the projected climate change evaluated. To accomplish this, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) and the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme (SUEWS) were applied for two climatological scenarios: a present (or reference, 1986-2005) scenario and a future scenario (2046-2065), in this case the Representative Concentration Pathway RCP8...
May 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242682/co-occurrence-of-extremes-in-surface-ozone-particulate-matter-and-temperature-over-eastern-north-america
#16
Jordan L Schnell, Michael J Prather
Heat waves and air pollution episodes pose a serious threat to human health and may worsen under future climate change. In this paper, we use 15 years (1999-2013) of commensurately gridded (1° x 1°) surface observations of extended summer (April-September) surface ozone (O3), fine particulate matter (PM2.5), and maximum temperature (TX) over the eastern United States and Canada to construct a climatology of the coincidence, overlap, and lag in space and time of their extremes. Extremes of each quantity are defined climatologically at each grid cell as the 50 d with the highest values in three 5-y windows (∼95th percentile)...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239235/quality-control-of-an-hourly-rainfall-dataset-and-climatology-of-extremes-for-the-uk
#17
Stephen Blenkinsop, Elizabeth Lewis, Steven C Chan, Hayley J Fowler
Sub-daily rainfall extremes may be associated with flash flooding, particularly in urban areas but, compared with extremes on daily timescales, have been relatively little studied in many regions. This paper describes a new, hourly rainfall dataset for the UK based on ∼1600 rain gauges from three different data sources. This includes tipping bucket rain gauge data from the UK Environment Agency (EA), which has been collected for operational purposes, principally flood forecasting. Significant problems in the use of such data for the analysis of extreme events include the recording of accumulated totals, high frequency bucket tips, rain gauge recording errors and the non-operation of gauges...
February 2017: International Journal of Climatology: a Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214513/molecular-dynamics-simulation-study-of-the-effect-of-glycerol-dialkyl-glycerol-tetraether-hydroxylation-on-membrane-thermostability
#18
Carme Huguet, Susanne Fietz, Antoni Rosell-Melé, Xavier Daura, Lionel Costenaro
Archaeal tetraether membrane lipids span the whole membrane width and present two C40 isoprenoid chains bound by two glycerol groups (or one glycerol and calditol). These lipids confer stability and maintain the membrane fluidity in mesophile to extremophile environments, making them very attractive for biotechnological applications. The isoprenoid lipid composition in archaeal membranes varies with temperature, which has placed these lipids in the focus of paleo-climatological studies for over a decade. Non-hydroxylated isoprenoid archaeal lipids are typically used as paleo-thermometry proxies, but recently identified hydroxylated (OH) derivatives have also been proposed as temperature proxies...
February 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208641/temporal-trends-in-satellite-derived-erythemal-uvb-and-implications-for-ambient-sun-exposure-assessment
#19
Marvin Langston, Leslie Dennis, Charles Lynch, Denise Roe, Heidi Brown
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been associated with various health outcomes, including skin cancers, vitamin D insufficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Measurement of UVR has been difficult, traditionally relying on subject recall. We investigated trends in satellite-derived UVB from 1978 to 2014 within the continental United States (US) to inform UVR exposure assessment and determine the potential magnitude of misclassification bias created by ignoring these trends. Monthly UVB data remotely sensed from various NASA satellites were used to investigate changes over time in the United States using linear regression with a harmonic function...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203645/saharan-dust-detection-using-multi-sensor-satellite-measurements
#20
Sriharsha Madhavan, John J Qu, X Hao
Contemporary scientists have vested interest in trying to understand the climatology of the North Atlantic Basin since this region is considered as the genesis for hurricane formation that eventually get shipped to the tropical Atlantic region and the Caribbean. The effects of atmospheric water cycle and the climate of West Africa and the Atlantic basin are hugely impacted by the radiative forcing of Saharan dust. The focus area in this paper would be to improve the dust detection schemes by employing the use of multi sensor measurements in the thermal emissive wavelengths using legacy sensors such as Terra (T) and Aqua (A) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), fusing with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)...
February 2017: Heliyon
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