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Andreas P Ahlstrøm, Dorthe Petersen, Peter L Langen, Michele Citterio, Jason E Box
The recent decades of accelerating mass loss of the Greenland ice sheet have arisen from an increase in both surface meltwater runoff and ice flow discharge from tidewater glaciers. Despite the role of the Greenland ice sheet as the dominant individual cryospheric contributor to sea level rise in recent decades, no observational record of its mass loss spans the 30-year period needed to assess its climatological state. We present for the first time a 40-year (1975-2014) time series of observed meltwater discharge from a >6500-km2 catchment of the southwestern Greenland ice sheet...
December 2017: Science Advances
Issoufou Ouedraogo, Pierre Defourny, Marnik Vanclooster
In this study, we assess the validity of an African-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrates. In a previous study, we identified a statistical continental-scale groundwater pollution model for nitrate. The model was identified using a pan-African meta-analysis of available nitrate groundwater pollution studies. The model was implemented in both Random Forest (RF) and multiple regression formats. For both approaches, we collected as predictors a comprehensive GIS database of 13 spatial attributes, related to land use, soil type, hydrogeology, topography, climatology, region typology, nitrogen fertiliser application rate, and population density...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Shobini Sivagnanam, Dhruba J Sengupta, Daniel Hoogestraat, Rupali Jain, Zach Stednick, David N Fredricks, Paul Hendrie, Estella Whimbey, Sara T Podczervinski, Elizabeth M Krantz, Jeffrey S Duchin, Steven A Pergam
Background: Invasive Mucorales infections (IMI) lead to significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. The role of season and climatic conditions in case clustering of IMI remain poorly understood. Methods: Following detection of a cluster of sinopulmonary IMIs in patients with hematologic malignancies, we reviewed center-based medical records of all patients with IMIs and other invasive fungal infections (IFIs) between January of 2012 and August of 2015 to assess for case clustering in relation to seasonality...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
T V S Udaya Bhaskar, R Venkat Shesu, Timothy P Boyer, E Pattabhi Rama Rao
A new method of identifying anomalous oceanic temperature and salinity (T/S) data from Argo profiling floats is proposed. The proposed method uses World Ocean Database 2013 climatology to classify good against anomalous data by using convex hulls. An n-sided polygon (convex hull) with least area encompassing all the climatological points is constructed using Jarvis March algorithm. Subsequently Points In Polygon (PIP) principle implemented using ray casting algorithm is used to classify the T/S data as within or without acceptable bounds...
2017: MethodsX
Yunquan Zhang, Minjin Peng, Lu Wang, Chuanhua Yu
BACKGROUND: Diurnal temperature range (DTR) reflects within-day temperature variability and is closely associated with climate change. In comparison to temperature extremes, up-to-date DTR-health evidence at the regional and national scales has been still very limited worldwide, especially in Europe. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to provide nationwide estimates for DTR-associated effects on mortality, and explore whether season and regional-level characteristics modify DTR-mortality relation in United Kingdom...
November 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jeffrey Shaman, Sasikiran Kandula, Wan Yang, Alicia Karspeck
Laboratory and epidemiological evidence indicate that ambient humidity modulates the survival and transmission of influenza. Here we explore whether the inclusion of humidity forcing in mathematical models describing influenza transmission improves the accuracy of forecasts generated with those models. We generate retrospective forecasts for 95 cities over 10 seasons in the United States and assess both forecast accuracy and error. Overall, we find that humidity forcing improves forecast performance (at 1-4 lead weeks, 3...
November 16, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Dae-Geun Lee, Kyu Rang Kim, Jiyoung Kim, Baek-Jo Kim, Chun-Ho Cho, Scott C Sheridan, Laurence S Kalkstein, Ho Kim, Seung-Muk Yi
The aims of this study are to explore the "offensive" summer weather types classified under the spatial synoptic classification (SSC) system and to evaluate their impacts on excess mortality in 14 Korean cities. All-cause deaths per day for the entire population were examined over the summer months (May-September) of 1991-2010. Daily deaths were standardized to account for long-term trends of subcycles (annual, seasonal, and weekly) at the mid-latitudes. In addition, a mortality prediction model was constructed through multiple stepwise regression to develop a heat-health warning system based on synoptic climatology...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
John Rausch, Kerry Meyer, Ralf Bennartz, Steven Platnick
Differences in cloud droplet effective radius and cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) estimates inferred from the Aqua MODIS Collections 5.1 and 6 cloud products (MYD06) are examined for warm clouds over global oceans for the year 2008. Individual pixel level retrievals for both collections are aggregated to 1° × 1° and compared globally and regionally for the three main spectral channel pairs used for MODIS cloud optical property retrievals. Comparisons between both collections are performed for cases in which all three effective radii retrievals are classified by the MODIS Cloud Product as valid...
2017: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques
Pedro J Cabello-Yeves, Tamara I Zemskaya, Riccardo Rosselli, Felipe H Coutinho, Alexandra S Zakharenko, Vadim V Blinov, Francisco Rodriguez-Valera
We present a metagenomic study of Lake Baikal (East Siberia). Two samples obtained from the water column under the ice cover (5 and 20 m deep) in March have been deep sequenced and the reads assembled to generate metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) that are representative of the microbes living in this special environment. Compared with freshwater bodies studied around the world, Lake Baikal had an unusually high fraction of Verrucomicrobia Other groups such as Actinobacteria or Proteobacteria were in similar proportions as those found in other lakes...
October 27, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Martin S Singh, Zhiming Kuang, Eric D Maloney, Walter M Hannah, Brandon O Wolding
Intense thunderstorms produce rapid cloud updrafts and may be associated with a range of destructive weather events. An important ingredient in measures of the potential for intense thunderstorms is the convective available potential energy (CAPE). Climate models project increases in summertime mean CAPE in the tropics and subtropics in response to global warming, but the physical mechanisms responsible for such increases and the implications for future thunderstorm activity remain uncertain. Here, we show that high percentiles of the CAPE distribution (CAPE extremes) also increase robustly with warming across the tropics and subtropics in an ensemble of state-of-the-art climate models, implying strong increases in the frequency of occurrence of environments conducive to intense thunderstorms in future climate projections...
October 31, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sebastián Muñoz-Leal, José M Venzal, Santiago Nava, Mercedes Reyes, Thiago F Martins, Romário C Leite, Vinicius L R Vilela, Hector R Benatti, Daniela Ríos-Rosas, Darci M Barros-Battesti, Daniel González-Acuña, Marcelo B Labruna
High similarity of morphological traits has historically overshadowed the identities and distributions of poultry-associated soft ticks Argas (Persicargas) miniatus and Argas (Persicargas) persicus in America. In order to model the occurrence of both parasites in the continent, in the current study we performed morphological and molecular analyses to identify ticks collected in hen houses from Brazil and northern Chile. Combining these results with literature data, and the examination of Argas allotments deposited in the tick collections "Coleção Nacional de Carrapatos Danilo Gonçalves Saraiva" (Brazil), the "Coleção Acarológica do Instituto Butantan São Paulo" (Brazil), and the "Colección Zoológica de la Academia de Ciencia de Cuba" (Cuba), we present a critical list with the localities where A...
October 16, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Michael A Battaglia, Sarah Douglas, Christopher J Hennigan
The urban heat island (UHI) is a widely observed phenomenon whereby urban environments have higher temperatures and different relative humidities than surrounding suburban and rural areas. Temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH) strongly affect the partitioning of semivolatile species found in the atmosphere, such as nitric acid, ammonia, and water. These species are inherently tied to aerosol pH, which is a key parameter driving some atmospheric chemical processes and environmental effects of aerosols. In this study, we characterized the effect of the UHI on aerosol pH in Baltimore, MD, and Chicago, IL...
November 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Sara I Montemayor, María Cecilia Melo, María Celeste Scattolini, Martina E Pocco, María Guadalupe Del Río, Gimena Dellapé, Erica E Scheibler, Sergio A Roig, Carla G Cazorla, Pablo M Dellapé
Three independent but complementary lines of research have provided evidence for the recognition of refugia: paleontology, phylogeography and species distributional modelling (SDM). SDM assesses the ecological requirements of a species based on its known occurrences and enables its distribution to be projected on past climatological reconstructions. One advantage over the other two approaches is that it provides an explicit link to environment and geography, thereby enabling the analysis of a large number of taxa in the search for more general refugia patterns...
2017: PloS One
Davide Zanchettin, Carlo Gaetan, Maeregu Woldeyes Arisido, Kameswarrao Modali, Thomas Toniazzo, Noel Keenlyside, Angelo Rubino
Decadal climate predictions use initialized coupled model simulations that are typically affected by a drift toward a biased climatology determined by systematic model errors. Model drifts thus reflect a fundamental source of uncertainty in decadal climate predictions. However, their analysis has so far relied on ad-hoc assessments of empirical and subjective character. Here, we define the climate model drift as a dynamical process rather than a descriptive diagnostic. A unified statistical Bayesian framework is proposed where a state-space model is used to decompose systematic decadal climate prediction errors into an initial drift, seasonally varying climatological biases and additional effects of co-varying climate processes...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
S Miladinova, A Stips, E Garcia-Gorriz, D Macias Moy
The current knowledge about spatial and temporal dynamics of the Black Sea's thermohaline structure is incomplete because of missing data and sparse distribution of existing measurements in space and time. This study presents 56 year continuous simulations of the Black Sea's hydrodynamics using the 3D General Estuarine Transport Model (GETM), without incorporating any relaxation toward climatological or observational data fields. This property of the model allows us to estimate independent temporal trends, in addition to resolving the spatial structure...
July 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Oceans
Dana E Goin, Kara E Rudolph, Jennifer Ahern
Climate and weather have been linked to criminal activity. The connection between climatological conditions and crime is of growing importance as we seek to understand the societal implications of climate change. This study describes the mechanisms theorized to link annual variations in climate to crime in California and examines the effect of drought on statewide crime rates from 2011-2015. California has suffered severe drought since 2011, resulting in intensely dry winters and several of the hottest days on record...
2017: PloS One
Aaron S Kaulfus, Udaysankar Nair, Daniel Jaffe, Sundar A Christopher, Scott Goodrick
We utilize the NOAA Hazard Mapping System smoke product for the period of 2005 to 2016 to develop climatology of smoke occurrence over the Continental United States (CONUS) region and to study the impact of wildland fires on particulate matter air quality at the surface. Our results indicate that smoke is most frequently found over the Great Plains and western states during the summer months. Other hotspots of smoke occurrence are found over state and national parks in the southeast during winter and spring, in the Gulf of Mexico southwards of the Texas and Louisiana coastline during spring season and along the Mississippi River Delta during the fall season...
September 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Franziska Hupfer
In the second half of the nineteenth century, most European countries began to finance weather observation networks. As a result, climatological data practices changed fundamentally. Using the example of Switzerland, this paper examines the political, institutional and methodological dimensions of national data archives. The institutionalization of data collection within the national framework meant, on the one hand, that more observations were systematically made and published. On the other hand, it also meant that the monitoring was connected to state boundaries...
December 2017: NTM
Kok Leng Yeo, Sami K Solanki, Charlotte M Norris, Benjamin Beeck, Yvonne C Unruh, Natalie A Krivova
The variation in the radiative output of the Sun, described in terms of solar irradiance, is important to climatology. A common assumption is that solar irradiance variability is driven by its surface magnetism. Verifying this assumption has, however, been hampered by the fact that models of solar irradiance variability based on solar surface magnetism have to be calibrated to observed variability. Making use of realistic three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the solar atmosphere and state-of-the-art solar magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we present a model of total solar irradiance (TSI) that does not require any such calibration...
September 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Bindumol G P, Harilal C C
Leaching potential of pesticides, apart from climatological factors, depends on soil physical properties, soil-pesticide interaction and chemical nature of the molecule. Recent investigations have revealed the presence of various organophosphate pesticides in various agroecosystems. The present study investigated the soil transport mechanism of commonly used organophosphate pesticides in acidic sandy clay loam soils of Kerala State, India. Packed soil column experiment was undertaken under laboratory condition for 30 days...
September 15, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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