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Climatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689652/association-of-dengue-fever-with-aedes-spp-abundance-and-climatological-effects
#1
Ángel Francisco Betanzos-Reyes, Mario Henry Rodríguez, Martín Romero-Martínez, Eduardo Sesma-Medrano, Hilda Rangel-Flores, René Santos-Luna
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of dengue fever incidence with Aedes mosquito's abundance, and the effect of climatological and geographical variables, in a region in Morelos State, Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Weekly data during the period 2010 to 2014 was used. Mosquito abundance was determined using ovitraps. Confirmed dengue cases were obtained from the Epidemiological Surveillance System. Climatic variables were obtained from weather monitoringstations...
January 2018: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682151/ecohydrological-index-native-fish-and-climate-trends-and-relationships-in-the-kansas-river-basin
#2
Sumathy Sinnathamby, Kyle R Douglas-Mankin, Muluken E Muche, Stacy L Hutchinson, Aavudai Anandhi
This study quantified climatological and hydrological trends and relationships to presence and distribution of two native aquatic species in the Kansas River Basin over the past half-century. Trend analyses were applied to indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHAs) at 34 streamgages over a 50-year period (1962-2012). Results showed a significant negative trend in annual streamflow for 10 of 12 western streamgages (up to -7.65 mm/50 yr) and smaller negative trends for most other streamgages. Significant negative trends in western Basin streamflow were more widespread in summer (12 stations) than winter or spring (6 stations)...
2018: Ecohydrology: Ecosystems, Land and Water Process Interactions, Ecohydrogeomorphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677673/influence-of-water-management-and-natural-variability-on-dissolved-inorganic-carbon-dynamics-in-a-mangrove-dominated-estuary
#3
Chiara Volta, David T Ho, Gernot Friederich, Victor C Engel, Mahadev Bhat
High-resolution time series measurements of temperature, salinity, pH and pCO2 were made during the period October 2014-September 2015 at the midpoint of Shark River, a 15km tidal river that originates in the freshwater Everglades of south Florida (USA) and discharges into the Gulf of Mexico. Dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in this system vary over time, and during this study could be classified into three distinct regimes corresponding to October 2014-February 2015 (a wet to dry season transition period), March-May 2015 (dry period) and July-September 2015 (wet period)...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674791/research-design-the-methodology-for-interdisciplinary-research-framework
#4
Hilde Tobi, Jarl K Kampen
Many of today's global scientific challenges require the joint involvement of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds (social sciences, environmental sciences, climatology, medicine, etc.). Such interdisciplinary research teams face many challenges resulting from differences in training and scientific culture. Interdisciplinary education programs are required to train truly interdisciplinary scientists with respect to the critical factor skills and competences. For that purpose this paper presents the Methodology for Interdisciplinary Research (MIR) framework...
2018: Quality & Quantity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673392/geographical-information-system-gis-modeling-territory-receptivity-to-strengthen-entomological-surveillance-anopheles-nyssorhynchus-case-study-in-rio-de-janeiro-state-brazil
#5
Hermano Gomes Albuquerque, Paulo Cesar Peiter, Luciano M Toledo, Jeronimo A F Alencar, Paulo C Sabroza, Cristina G Dias, Jefferson P C Santos, Martha C Suárez-Mutis
BACKGROUND: Extra-Amazonian malaria mortality is 60 times higher than the Amazon malaria mortality. Imported cases correspond to approximately 90% of extra-Amazonian cases. Imported malaria could be a major problem if it occurs in areas with receptivity, because it can favor the occurrence of outbreaks or reintroductions of malaria in those areas. This study aimed to model territorial receptivity for malaria to serve as an entomological surveillance tool in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
April 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673142/meeting-vitamin-d-requirements-in-white-caucasians-at-uk-latitudes-providing-a-choice
#6
Ann R Webb, Andreas Kazantzidis, Richard C Kift, Mark D Farrar, Jack Wilkinson, Lesley E Rhodes
The body gains vitamin D through both oral intake (diet/supplementation) and synthesis in skin upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Sun exposure is the major source for most people even though sun exposure is complex and limited by climate and culture. We aimed to quantify the sun exposure required to meet vitamin D targets year-round and determine whether this can be safely achieved in a simply defined manner in the UK as an alternative to increasing vitamin D oral intake. Data from observation (sun exposure, diet, and vitamin D status) and UVR intervention studies performed with white Caucasian adults were combined with modeled all-weather UVR climatology...
April 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656612/counterintuitive-effects-of-global-warming-induced-wind-patterns-on-primary-production-in-the-northern-humboldt-current-system
#7
Rodrigo Mogollón, Paulo H R Calil
It has been hypothesized that global warming will strengthen upwelling-favorable winds in the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) as a consequence of the increase of the land-sea thermal gradient along the Peruvian coast. The effect of strengthened winds in this region is assessed with the use of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model forced with projected and climatological winds. Strengthened winds induce an increase in primary production of 2% per latitudinal degree from 9.5°S to 5°S. In some important coastal upwelling sites primary production is reduced...
April 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651373/using-modis-cloud-regimes-to-sort-diagnostic-signals-of-aerosol-cloud-precipitation-interactions
#8
Lazaros Oreopoulos, Nayeong Cho, Dongmin Lee
Coincident multi-year measurements of aerosol, cloud, precipitation and radiation at near-global scales are analyzed to diagnose their apparent relationships as suggestive of interactions previously proposed based on theoretical, observational, and model constructs. Specifically, we examine whether differences in aerosol loading in separate observations go along with consistently different precipitation, cloud properties, and cloud radiative effects. Our analysis uses a cloud regime (CR) framework to dissect and sort the results...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642423/colour-counts-sunlight-and-skin-type-as-drivers-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-at-uk-latitudes
#9
Ann R Webb, Andreas Kazantzidis, Richard C Kift, Mark D Farrar, Jack Wilkinson, Lesley E Rhodes
Sunlight exposure, with resulting cutaneous synthesis, is a major source of vitamin D for many, while dietary intake is low in modern diets. The constitutive pigment in skin determines skin type, observed as white, brown, or black skin. The melanin pigment absorbs ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and protects underlying skin from damage caused by UVR. It also reduces the UVR available for vitamin D synthesis in the skin. It has been shown that the white-skinned population of the UK are able to meet their vitamin D needs with short, daily lunchtime exposures to sunlight...
April 7, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619427/determination-of-environmental-factors-affecting-dengue-incidence-in-sleman-district-yogyakarta-indonesia
#10
Tri Wulandari Kesetyaningsih, Sri Andarini, Sudarto, Henny Pramoedyo
Background: Dengue is a disease related to the environment that spreads rapidly. Prevention movement is considered ineffective; therefore, a more efficient early warning system is required. It is required strongly correlated variables to as predictor in early warning system. This study aims to identify the environmental conditions associated with dengue. Materials and methods: This ecological study was conducted on five sub-districts selected based on the trend of the incidence...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594509/exertional-heat-illness-incidence-and-on-site-medical-team-preparedness-in-warm-weather
#11
Yuri Hosokawa, William M Adams, Luke N Belval, Robert J Davis, Robert A Huggins, John F Jardine, Rachel K Katch, Rebecca L Stearns, Douglas J Casa
To investigate the influence of estimated wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and the International Institute of Race Medicine (IIRM) activity modification guidelines on the incidence of exertional heat stroke (EHS) and heat exhaustion (HEx) and the ability of an on-site medical team to treat those afflicted. Medical records of EHS and HEx patients over a 17-year period from the New Balance Falmouth Road Race were examined. Climatologic data from nearby weather stations were obtained to calculate WBGT with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (WBGTA ) and Liljegren (WBGTL ) models...
March 29, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593219/two-thirds-of-global-cropland-area-impacted-by-climate-oscillations
#12
Matias Heino, Michael J Puma, Philip J Ward, Dieter Gerten, Vera Heck, Stefan Siebert, Matti Kummu
The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) peaked strongly during the boreal winter 2015-2016, leading to food insecurity in many parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Besides ENSO, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are known to impact crop yields worldwide. Here we assess for the first time in a unified framework the relationships between ENSO, IOD and NAO and simulated crop productivity at the sub-country scale. Our findings reveal that during 1961-2010, crop productivity is significantly influenced by at least one large-scale climate oscillation in two-thirds of global cropland area...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581453/extracting-quasi-steady-lagrangian-transport-patterns-from-the-ocean-circulation-an-application-to-the-gulf-of-mexico
#13
R Duran, F J Beron-Vera, M J Olascoaga
We construct a climatology of Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs)-the concealed skeleton that shapes transport-with a twelve-year-long data-assimilative simulation of the sea-surface circulation in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Computed as time-mean Cauchy-Green strain tensorlines of the climatological velocity, the climatological LCSs (cLCSs) unveil recurrent Lagrangian circulation patterns. The cLCSs strongly constrain the ensemble-mean Lagrangian circulation of the instantaneous model velocity, showing that a climatological velocity can preserve meaningful transport information...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579668/spatially-distributed-potential-evapotranspiration-modeling-and-climate-projections
#14
Salem S Gharbia, Trevor Smullen, Laurence Gill, Paul Johnston, Francesco Pilla
Evapotranspiration integrates energy and mass transfer between the Earth's surface and atmosphere and is the most active mechanism linking the atmosphere, hydrosphsophere, lithosphere and biosphere. This study focuses on the fine resolution modeling and projection of spatially distributed potential evapotranspiration on the large catchment scale as response to climate change. Six potential evapotranspiration designed algorithms, systematically selected based on a structured criteria and data availability, have been applied and then validated to long-term mean monthly data for the Shannon River catchment with a 50m2 cell size...
March 23, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576735/functional-inverted-wishart-for-bayesian-multivariate-spatial-modeling-with-application-to-regional-climatology-model-data
#15
L L Duan, R D Szczesniak, X Wang
Modern environmental and climatological studies produce multiple outcomes at high spatial resolutions. Multivariate spatial modeling is an established means to quantify cross-correlation among outcomes. However, existing models typically suffer from poor computational efficiency and lack the flexibility to simultaneously estimate auto- and cross-covariance structures. In this article, we undertake a novel construction of covariance by utilizing spectral convolution and by imposing an inverted Wishart prior on the cross-correlation structure...
November 2017: Environmetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557978/a-suite-of-global-cross-scale-topographic-variables-for-environmental-and-biodiversity-modeling
#16
Giuseppe Amatulli, Sami Domisch, Mao-Ning Tuanmu, Benoit Parmentier, Ajay Ranipeta, Jeremy Malczyk, Walter Jetz
Topographic variation underpins a myriad of patterns and processes in hydrology, climatology, geography and ecology and is key to understanding the variation of life on the planet. A fully standardized and global multivariate product of different terrain features has the potential to support many large-scale research applications, however to date, such datasets are unavailable. Here we used the digital elevation model products of global 250 m GMTED2010 and near-global 90 m SRTM4.1dev to derive a suite of topographic variables: elevation, slope, aspect, eastness, northness, roughness, terrain roughness index, topographic position index, vector ruggedness measure, profile/tangential curvature, first/second order partial derivative, and 10 geomorphological landform classes...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549613/climate-variability-and-dengue-hemorrhagic-fever-in-southeast-sulawesi-province-indonesia
#17
Ramadhan Tosepu, Kraichat Tantrakarnapa, Kanchana Nakhapakorn, Suwalee Worakhunpiset
To determine the association of climatic factors and dengue hemorrhagic fever and to develop the prediction approach of future dengue transmission. The study used totally monthly dengue hemorrhagic fever cases at Health Office Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Monthly meteorological data, consisting of temperature, rainfall, and humidity, was obtained from the Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Agency in Kendari district. All data analysis, including Spearman and Poisson distribution, was carried out in R Studio (version 3...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548219/nonthermal-ice-nucleation-observed-at-distorted-contact-lines-of-supercooled-water-drops
#18
Fan Yang, Owen Cruikshank, Weilue He, Alex Kostinski, Raymond A Shaw
Ice nucleation is the crucial step for ice formation in atmospheric clouds and therefore underlies climatologically relevant precipitation and radiative properties. Progress has been made in understanding the roles of temperature, supersaturation, and material properties, but an explanation for the efficient ice nucleation occurring when a particle contacts a supercooled water drop has been elusive for over half a century. Here, we explore ice nucleation initiated at constant temperature and observe that mechanical agitation induces freezing of supercooled water drops at distorted contact lines...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527427/using-long-term-satellite-observations-to-identify-sensitive-regimes-and-active-regions-of-aerosol-indirect-effects-for-liquid-clouds-over-global-oceans
#19
Xuepeng Zhao, Yangang Liu, Fangquan Yu, Andrew K Heidinger
Long-term (1981-2011) satellite climate data records of clouds and aerosols are used to investigate the aerosol-cloud interaction of marine water cloud from a climatology perspective. Our focus is on identifying the regimes and regions where the aerosol indirect effects (AIEs) are evident in long-term averages over the global oceans through analyzing the correlation features between aerosol loading and the key cloud variables including cloud droplet effective radius (CDER), cloud optical depth (COD), cloud water path (CWP), cloud top height (CTH), and cloud top temperature (CTT)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507517/equal-area-criterion-in-power-systems-revisited
#20
Yong Sun, Jinpeng Ma, Jürgen Kurths, Meng Zhan
The classic equal-area criterion (EAC) is of key importance in power system analysis, and provides a powerful, pictorial and quantitative means of analysing transient stability (i.e. the system's ability to maintain stable operation when subjected to a large disturbance). Based on the traditional EAC, it is common sense in engineering that there is a critical cleaning time (CCT); namely, a power system is stable (unstable) if a fault is cleared before (after) this CCT. We regard this form of CCT as bipartite...
February 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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