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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813107/climatic-characteristics-of-the-2010-2016-drought-in-the-semiarid-northeast-brazil-region
#1
José A Marengo, Lincoln M Alves, Regina C S Alvala, Ana Paula Cunha, Sheila Brito, Osvaldo L L Moraes
This study discusses the climatological aspects of the most severe drought ever recorded in the semiarid region Northeast Brazil. Droughts are recurrent in the region and while El Nino has driven some of these events others are more dependent on the tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperature fields. The drought affecting this region during the last 5 years shows an intensity and impact not seen in several decades in the regional economy and society. The analysis of this event using drought indicators as well as meteorological fields shows that since the middle 1990s to 2016, 16 out of 25 years experienced rainfall below normal...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809937/understanding-large-scale-long-term-larval-connectivity-patterns-the-case-of-the-northern-line-islands-in-the-central-pacific-ocean
#2
Lorenzo Mari, Luca Bonaventura, Andrea Storto, Paco Melià, Marino Gatto, Simona Masina, Renato Casagrandi
Protecting key hotspots of marine biodiversity is essential to maintain ecosystem services at large spatial scales. Protected areas serve not only as sources of propagules colonizing other habitats, but also as receptors, thus acting as protected nurseries. To quantify the geographical extent and the temporal persistence of ecological benefits resulting from protection, we investigate larval connectivity within a remote archipelago, characterized by a strong spatial gradient of human impact from pristine to heavily exploited: the Northern Line Islands (NLIs), including part of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRI-MNM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807999/role-of-co-occurring-competition-and-facilitation-in-plant-spacing-hydrodynamics-in-water-limited-environments
#3
Andrew C Trautz, Tissa H Illangasekare, Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe
Plant performance (i.e., fecundity, growth, survival) depends on an individual's access to space and resources. At the community level, plant performance is reflected in observable vegetation patterning (i.e., spacing distance, density) often controlled by limiting resources. Resource availability is, in turn, strongly dependent on plant patterning mediated by competitive and facilitative plant-plant interactions. Co-occurring competition and facilitation has never been specifically investigated from a hydrodynamic perspective...
August 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803203/use-of-bias-correction-techniques-to-improve-seasonal-forecasts-for-reservoirs-a-case-study-in-northwestern-mediterranean
#4
Raül Marcos, Ma Carmen Llasat, Pere Quintana-Seguí, Marco Turco
In this paper, we have compared different bias correction methodologies to assess whether they could be advantageous for improving the performance of a seasonal prediction model for volume anomalies in the Boadella reservoir (northwestern Mediterranean). The bias correction adjustments have been applied on precipitation and temperature from the European Centre for Middle-range Weather Forecasting System 4 (S4). We have used three bias correction strategies: two linear (mean bias correction, BC, and linear regression, LR) and one non-linear (Model Output Statistics analogs, MOS-analog)...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802894/doomed-to-collapse-why-algerian-steppe-rangelands-are-overgrazed-and-some-lessons-to-help-land-use-transitions
#5
Jaime Martínez-Valderrama, Javier Ibáñez, Gabriel Del Barrio, Francisco J Alcalá, Maria E Sanjuán, Alberto Ruiz, Azziz Hirche, Juan Puigdefábregas
This work illustrates the application of a simulation model to analyse how swiftly large-scale land-use changes can drive broad territories to collapse. In this sense, the economic needs of a population should not clash with the natural environment but rather be reconciled with it. Abundant literature deals with the integration of socioeconomic drivers, ecological aspects, farming management, and climatology related to Algerian rangeland degradation. The present study seeks to compare the time course of Alfa grass biomass and the livestock raised on these distinctive rangelands under two different land-use strategies...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793810/remote-sensing-tropical-coral-reefs-the-view-from-above
#6
Sam J Purkis
Carbonate precipitation has been a common life strategy for marine organisms for 3.7 billion years, as, therefore, has their construction of reefs. As favored by modern corals, reef-forming organisms have typically adopted a niche in warm, shallow, well-lit, tropical marine waters, where they are capable of building vast carbonate edifices. Because fossil reefs form water aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding their anatomy and morphology. Remote sensing has a particular role to play here...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790529/american-clinical-and-climatological-association-meeting-locations-1884-2016
#7
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790524/instructions-to-authors-transactions-of-the-american-clinical-and-climatological-association
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755836/influenza-seasonality-goes-south-in-the-yucatan-peninsula-the-case-for-a-different-influenza-vaccine-calendar-in-this-mexican-region
#9
Guadalupe Ayora-Talavera, Gerardo Montalvo-Zurbia Flores, Jesus Gómez-Carballo, Refugio González-Losa, Laura Conde-Ferraez, Marylin Puerto-Solís, Irma López-Martínez, Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, Gisela Barrera-Badillo, Rodolfo Acuna-Soto, Alicia A Livinski, Wladimir J Alonso
INTRODUCTION: While vaccination may be relatively straightforward for regions with a well-defined winter season, the situation is quite different for tropical regions. Influenza activity in tropical regions might be out of phase with the dynamics predicted for their hemispheric group thereby impacting the effectiveness of the immunization campaign. OBJECTIVE: To investigate how the climatic diversity of Mexico hinders its existing influenza immunization strategy and to suggest that the hemispheric vaccine recommendations be tailored to the regional level in order to optimize vaccine effectiveness...
July 26, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750344/aerosol-pollution-and-its-potential-impacts-on-outdoor-human-thermal-sensation-east-asian-perspectives
#10
Ka-Ming Wai, Edward Y Y Ng, Charles M S Wong, Tanya Z Tan, Tang-Huang Lin, Wei-Hung Lien, Peter A Tanner, Carlo S H Wang, Kevin K L Lau, Neon M H He, Jhoon Kim
Aerosols affect the insolation at ground and thus the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, a measure of aerosol pollution) plays an important role on the variation of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) at locations with different aerosol climatology. The aerosol effects upon PET were studied for the first time at four East Asian cities by coupling a radiative transfer model and a human thermal comfort model which were previously well evaluated. Evident with the MODIS and AERONET AOD observations, the aerosol pollution at Beijing and Seoul was higher than at Chiayi (Taiwan) and Hong Kong...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733617/partitioning-evapotranspiration-into-green-and-blue-water-sources-in-the-conterminous-united-states
#11
Naga Manohar Velpuri, Gabriel B Senay
In this study, we combined two 1 km actual evapotranspiration datasets (ET), one obtained from a root zone water balance model and another from an energy balance model, to partition annual ET into green (rainfall-based) and blue (surface water/groundwater) sources. Time series maps of green water ET (GWET) and blue water ET (BWET) are produced for the conterminous United States (CONUS) over 2001-2015. Our results indicate that average green and blue water for all land cover types in CONUS accounts for nearly 70% and 30% of the total ET, respectively...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725047/warming-effects-on-the-urban-hydrology-in-cold-climate-regions
#12
L Järvi, C S B Grimmond, J P McFadden, A Christen, I B Strachan, M Taka, L Warsta, M Heimann
While approximately 338 million people in the Northern hemisphere live in regions that are regularly snow covered in winter, there is little hydro-climatologic knowledge in the cities impacted by snow. Using observations and modelling we have evaluated the energy and water exchanges of four cities that are exposed to wintertime snow. We show that the presence of snow critically changes the impact that city design has on the local-scale hydrology and climate. After snow melt, the cities return to being strongly controlled by the proportion of built and vegetated surfaces...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724987/the-asymmetric-impact-of-global-warming-on-us-drought-types-and-distributions-in-a-large-ensemble-of-97-hydro-climatic-simulations
#13
Shengzhi Huang, Guoyong Leng, Qiang Huang, Yangyang Xie, Saiyan Liu, Erhao Meng, Pei Li
Projection of future drought is often involved large uncertainties from climate models, emission scenarios as well as drought definitions. In this study, we investigate changes in future droughts in the conterminous United States based on 97 1/8 degree hydro-climate model projections. Instead of focusing on a specific drought type, we investigate changes in meteorological, agricultural, and hydrological drought as well as the concurrences. Agricultural and hydrological droughts are projected to become more frequent with increase in global mean temperature, while less meteorological drought is expected...
July 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713200/spatio-temporal-precipitation-climatology-over-complex-terrain-using-a-censored-additive-regression-model
#14
Reto Stauffer, Georg J Mayr, Jakob W Messner, Nikolaus Umlauf, Achim Zeileis
Flexible spatio-temporal models are widely used to create reliable and accurate estimates for precipitation climatologies. Most models are based on square root transformed monthly or annual means, where a normal distribution seems to be appropriate. This assumption becomes invalid on a daily time scale as the observations involve large fractions of zero observations and are limited to non-negative values. We develop a novel spatio-temporal model to estimate the full climatological distribution of precipitation on a daily time scale over complex terrain using a left-censored normal distribution...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Climatology: a Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710418/the-best-alternative-for-estimating-reference-crop-evapotranspiration-in-different-sub-regions-of-mainland-china
#15
Lingling Peng, Yi Li, Hao Feng
Reference crop evapotranspiration (ET o) is a critically important parameter for climatological, hydrological and agricultural management. The FAO56 Penman-Monteith (PM) equation has been recommended as the standardized ET o (ET o,s) equation, but it has a high requirements of climatic data. There is a practical need for finding a best alternative method to estimate ET o in the regions where full climatic data are lacking. A comprehensive comparison for the spatiotemporal variations, relative errors, standard deviations and Nash-Sutcliffe efficacy coefficients of monthly or annual ET o,s and ET o,i (i = 1, 2, …, 10) values estimated by 10 selected methods (i...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706247/the-unprecedented-2015-16-tasman-sea-marine-heatwave
#16
Eric C J Oliver, Jessica A Benthuysen, Nathaniel L Bindoff, Alistair J Hobday, Neil J Holbrook, Craig N Mundy, Sarah E Perkins-Kirkpatrick
The Tasman Sea off southeast Australia exhibited its longest and most intense marine heatwave ever recorded in 2015/16. Here we report on several inter-related aspects of this event: observed characteristics, physical drivers, ecological impacts and the role of climate change. This marine heatwave lasted for 251 days reaching a maximum intensity of 2.9 °C above climatology. The anomalous warming is dominated by anomalous convergence of heat linked to the southward flowing East Australian Current. Ecosystem impacts range from new disease outbreaks in farmed shellfish, mortality of wild molluscs and out-of-range species observations...
July 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694449/future-changes-in-the-climatology-of-the-great-plains-low-level-jet-derived-from-fine-resolution-multi-model-simulations
#17
Ying Tang, Julie Winkler, Shiyuan Zhong, Xindi Bian, Dana Doubler, Lejiang Yu, Claudia Walters
The southerly Great Plains low-level jet (GPLLJ) is one of the most significant circulation features of the central U.S. linking large-scale atmospheric circulation with the regional climate. GPLLJs transport heat and moisture, contribute to thunderstorm and severe weather formation, provide a corridor for the springtime migration of birds and insects, enhance wind energy availability, and disperse air pollution. We assess future changes in GPLLJ frequency using an eight member ensemble of dynamically-downscaled climate simulations for the mid-21st century...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685164/competition-induced-starvation-drives-large-scale-population-cycles-in-antarctic-krill
#18
Alexey B Ryabov, André M de Roos, Bettina Meyer, So Kawaguchi, Bernd Blasius
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) - one of the most abundant animal species on Earth - exhibits a 5-6 year population cycle, with oscillations in biomass exceeding one order of magnitude. Previous studies have postulated that the krill cycle is induced by periodic climatological factors, but these postulated drivers neither show consistent agreement, nor are they supported by quantitative models. Here, using data analysis complemented with modeling of krill ontogeny and population dynamics, we identify intraspecific competition for food as the main driver of the krill cycle, while external climatological factors possibly modulate its phase and synchronization over large scales...
July 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663701/determining-spatio-temporal-distribution-of-bee-forage-species-of-al-baha-region-based-on-ground-inventorying-supported-with-gis-applications-and-remote-sensed-satellite-image-analysis
#19
Nuru Adgaba, Ahmed Alghamdi, Rachid Sammoud, Awraris Shenkute, Yilma Tadesse, Mahammad J Ansari, Deepak Sharma, Colleen Hepburn
In arid zones, the shortage of bee forage is critical and usually compels beekeepers to move their colonies in search of better forages. Identifying and mapping the spatiotemporal distribution of the bee forages over given area is important for better management of bee colonies. In this study honey bee plants in the target areas were inventoried following, ground inventory work supported with GIS applications. The study was conducted on 85 large plots of 50 × 50 m each. At each plot, data on species name, height, base diameter, crown height, crown diameter has been taken for each plant with their respective geographical positions...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654877/highlighting-the-complexities-of-a-groundwater-pilot-study-during-an-avian-influenza-outbreak-methods-lessons-learned-and-select-contaminant-results
#20
Laura E Hubbard, Dana W Kolpin, Chad L Fields, Michelle L Hladik, Luke R Iwanowicz
The highly pathogenic avian influenza (H5N2) outbreak in the Midwestern United States (US) in 2015 was historic due to the number of birds and poultry operations impacted and the corresponding economic loss to the poultry industry and was the largest animal health emergency in US history. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), with the assistance of several state and federal agencies, aided the response to the outbreak by developing a study to determine the extent of virus transport in the environment. The study goals were to: develop the appropriate sampling methods and protocols for measuring avian influenza virus (AIV) in groundwater, provide the first baseline data on AIV and outbreak- and poultry-related contaminant occurrence and movement into groundwater, and document climatological factors that may have affected both survival and transport of AIV to groundwater during the months of the 2015 outbreak...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Research
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