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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214513/molecular-dynamics-simulation-study-of-the-effect-of-glycerol-dialkyl-glycerol-tetraether-hydroxylation-on-membrane-thermostability
#1
Carme Huguet, Susanne Fietz, Antoni Rosell-Melé, Xavier Daura, Lionel Costenaro
Archaeal tetraether membrane lipids span the whole membrane width and present two C40 isoprenoid chains bound by two glycerol groups (or one glycerol and calditol). These lipids confer stability and maintain the membrane fluidity in mesophile to extremophile environments, making them very attractive for biotechnological applications. The isoprenoid lipid composition in archaeal membranes varies with temperature, which has placed these lipids in the focus of paleo-climatological studies for about a decade. Non-hydroxylated isoprenoid archaeal lipids are typically used as paleo-thermometry proxies, but recently identified hydroxylated (OH) derivatives have also been proposed as temperature proxies...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208641/temporal-trends-in-satellite-derived-erythemal-uvb-and-implications-for-ambient-sun-exposure-assessment
#2
Marvin Langston, Leslie Dennis, Charles Lynch, Denise Roe, Heidi Brown
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) has been associated with various health outcomes, including skin cancers, vitamin D insufficiency, and multiple sclerosis. Measurement of UVR has been difficult, traditionally relying on subject recall. We investigated trends in satellite-derived UVB from 1978 to 2014 within the continental United States (US) to inform UVR exposure assessment and determine the potential magnitude of misclassification bias created by ignoring these trends. Monthly UVB data remotely sensed from various NASA satellites were used to investigate changes over time in the United States using linear regression with a harmonic function...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203645/saharan-dust-detection-using-multi-sensor-satellite-measurements
#3
Sriharsha Madhavan, John J Qu, X Hao
Contemporary scientists have vested interest in trying to understand the climatology of the North Atlantic Basin since this region is considered as the genesis for hurricane formation that eventually get shipped to the tropical Atlantic region and the Caribbean. The effects of atmospheric water cycle and the climate of West Africa and the Atlantic basin are hugely impacted by the radiative forcing of Saharan dust. The focus area in this paper would be to improve the dust detection schemes by employing the use of multi sensor measurements in the thermal emissive wavelengths using legacy sensors such as Terra (T) and Aqua (A) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), fusing with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI)...
February 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192988/accumulation-of-perfluoroalkylated-substances-in-oceanic-plankton
#4
Paulo Casal, Belén González-Gaya, Yifeng Zhang, Anthony J F Reardon, Jonathan W Martin, Begoña Jiménez, Jordi Dachs
The bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in plankton has previously been evaluated only in freshwater and regional seas, but not for the large oligotrophic global oceans. Plankton samples from the tropical and subtropical Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans were collected during the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation expedition, and analyzed for 14 ionizable PFASs, including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and their respective linear and branched isomers. PFOA and PFOS concentrations in plankton ranged from 0...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173628/designing-ecological-climate-change-impact-assessments-to-reflect-key-climatic-drivers
#5
Helen R Sofaer, Joseph J Barsugli, Catherine S Jarnevich, John T Abatzoglou, Marian K Talbert, Brian W Miller, Jeffrey T Morisette
Identifying the climatic drivers of an ecological system is a key step in assessing its vulnerability to climate change. The climatic dimensions to which a species or system is most sensitive - such as means or extremes - can guide methodological decisions for projections of ecological impacts and vulnerabilities. However, scientific workflows for combining climate projections with ecological models have received little explicit attention. We review Global Climate Model (GCM) performance along different dimensions of change and compare frameworks for integrating GCM output into ecological models...
February 7, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161043/utilising-green-and-bluespace-to-mitigate-urban-heat-island-intensity
#6
K R Gunawardena, M J Wells, T Kershaw
It has long been recognised that cities exhibit their own microclimate and are typically warmer than the surrounding rural areas. This 'mesoscale' influence is known as the urban heat island (UHI) effect and results largely from modification of surface properties leading to greater absorption of solar radiation, reduced convective cooling and lower water evaporation rates. Cities typically contain less vegetation and bodies of water than rural areas, and existing green and bluespace is often under threat from increasing population densities...
February 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147494/extremes-in-dynamic-stochastic-systems
#7
Christian L E Franzke
Extreme events capture the attention and imagination of the general public. Extreme events, especially meteorological and climatological extremes, cause significant economic damages and lead to a significant number of casualties each year. Thus, the prediction of extremes is of obvious importance. Here, I will survey the predictive skill and the predictability of extremes using dynamic-stochastic models. These dynamic-stochastic models combine deterministic nonlinear dynamics with a stochastic component, which consists potentially of both additive and multiplicative noise components...
January 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134309/collapse-of-the-tropical-and-subtropical-north-atlantic-co2-sink-in-boreal-spring-of-2010
#8
J Severino P Ibánhez, Manuel Flores, Nathalie Lefèvre
Following the 2009 Pacific El Niño, a warm event developed in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic during boreal spring of 2010 promoted a significant increase in the CO2 fugacity of surface waters. This, together with the relaxation of the prevailing wind fields, resulted in the reversal of the atmospheric CO2 absorption capacity of the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic. In the region 0-30°N, 62-10°W, this climatic event led to the reversal of the climatological CO2 sink of -29.3 Tg C to a source of CO2 to the atmosphere of 1...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128293/improved-prediction-of-severe-thunderstorms-over-the-indian-monsoon-region-using-high-resolution-soil-moisture-and-temperature-initialization
#9
K K Osuri, R Nadimpalli, U C Mohanty, F Chen, M Rajeevan, D Niyogi
The hypothesis that realistic land conditions such as soil moisture/soil temperature (SM/ST) can significantly improve the modeling of mesoscale deep convection is tested over the Indian monsoon region (IMR). A high resolution (3 km foot print) SM/ST dataset prepared from a land data assimilation system, as part of a national monsoon mission project, showed close agreement with observations. Experiments are conducted with (LDAS) and without (CNTL) initialization of SM/ST dataset. Results highlight the significance of realistic land surface conditions on numerical prediction of initiation, movement and timing of severe thunderstorms as compared to that currently being initialized by climatological fields in CNTL run...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109664/an-anomalous-african-dust-event-and-its-impact-on-aerosol-radiative-forcing-on-the-southwest-atlantic-coast-of-europe-in-february-2016
#10
M Sorribas, J A Adame, E Andrews, M Yela
A desert dust (DD) event that had its origin in North Africa occurred on the 20th-23rd of February 2016. The dust transport phenomenon was exceptional because of its unusual intensity during the coldest season. A historical dataset (2006-2015) of February meteorological scenarios using ECMWF fields, meteorological parameters, aerosol optical properties, surface O3 and AOD retrieved from MODIS at the El Arenosillo observatory (southwestern Spain) were analysed and compared with the levels during the DD event to highlight its exceptionality...
January 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104887/regional-and-global-sea-surface-temperatures-during-the-last-interglaciation
#11
Jeremy S Hoffman, Peter U Clark, Andrew C Parnell, Feng He
The last interglaciation (LIG, 129 to 116 thousand years ago) was the most recent time in Earth's history when global mean sea level was substantially higher than it is at present. However, reconstructions of LIG global temperature remain uncertain, with estimates ranging from no significant difference to nearly 2°C warmer than present-day temperatures. Here we use a network of sea-surface temperature (SST) records to reconstruct spatiotemporal variability in regional and global SSTs during the LIG. Our results indicate that peak LIG global mean annual SSTs were 0...
January 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103912/impact-of-proximity-of-thermoelectric-power-plants-on-bronchial-obstructive-crisis-rates
#12
Tamara Ugarte-Avilés, Carlos Manterola, Ricardo Cartes-Velásquez, Tamara Otzen
BACKGROUND: Environmental pollution is a risk factor for cardiorespiratory diseases. Energy generated by thermoelectric power plants (TEPP) represents a relevant source of pollution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between living near a coal-fired TEPP and the consultation rates for bronchial obstructive crises (BOC) in the province of Concepción, Chile. METHODS: Population-based study. The epidemiological weeks from 2012 to 2014 were analyzed...
January 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070009/a-malaria-ecology-index-predicted-spatial-and-temporal-variation-of-malaria-burden-and-efficacy-of-antimalarial-interventions-based-on-african-serological-data
#13
Gordon C McCord, Jesse K Anttila-Hughes
Reducing the global health burden of malaria is complicated by weak reporting systems for infectious diseases and a paucity of vital statistics registration. This limits our ability to predict changes in malaria health burden intensity, target antimalarial resources where needed, and identify malaria impacts in retrospective data. We refined and deployed a temporally and spatially varying Malaria Ecology Index (MEI) incorporating climatological and ecological data to estimate malaria transmission strength and validate it against cross-sectional serology data from 39,875 children from seven sub-Saharan African countries...
January 9, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039634/elemental-content-of-mosses-and-lichens-from-livingston-island-antarctica-as-determined-by-instrumental-neutron-activation-analysis-inaa
#14
Otilia A Culicov, Liliana Yurukova, Octavian G Duliu, Inga Zinicovscaia
The total content of 8 major and 32 trace elements in four species of mosses and two of lichens as well as neighboring soil and rocks collected from different places of the Livingston Island Antarctica was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The main goals of the project consisted of evidencing the possible trace of anthropogenic contamination as well as the influence of altitude on the distribution of considered elements. In the absence of a unanimously accepted descriptor, enrichment factor, geo-accumulation, and pollution load indices with respect to soil and rocks were used...
December 30, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008213/the-surface-climatology-of-the-ross-ice-shelf-antarctica
#15
Carol A Costanza, Matthew A Lazzara, Linda M Keller, John J Cassano
The University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS) project has been making meteorological surface observations on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) for approximately 30 years. This network offers the most continuous set of routine measurements of surface meteorological variables in this region. The Ross Island area is excluded from this study. The surface climate of the RIS is described using the AWS measurements. Temperature, pressure, and wind data are analysed on daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual time periods for 13 AWS across the RIS...
December 2016: International Journal of Climatology: a Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005955/vegetation-productivity-in-natural-vs-cultivated-systems-along-water-availability-gradients-in-the-dry-subtropics
#16
Germán Baldi, Marcos Texeira, Francisco Murray, Esteban G Jobbágy
The dry subtropics are subject to a rapid expansion of crops and pastures over vast areas of natural woodlands and savannas. In this paper, we explored the effect of this transformation on vegetation productivity (magnitude, and seasonal and long-term variability) along aridity gradients which span from semiarid to subhumid conditions, considering exclusively those areas with summer rains (>66%). Vegetation productivity was characterized with the proxy metric "Enhanced Vegetation Index" (EVI) (2000 to 2012 period), on 6186 natural and cultivated sampling points on five continents, and combined with a global climatology database by means of additive models for quantile regressions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000967/decrease-in-bovine-in-vitro-embryo-production-efficiency-during-winter-season-in-a-warm-summer-mediterranean-climate
#17
C Cheuquemán, P Loren, M Arias, J Risopatrón, R Felmer, J Álvarez, T Mogas, R Sánchez
Retrospective analysis of monthly embryo production from December 2011 to May 2015 and its correlation with meteorological data in our geographic zone was made. We had observed that in certain time of the year, in vitro blastocyst production decreases. Accordingly, was examined the association between blastocyst production and climatological parameters. Cleavage rates correlate positively with blastocyst rates (p < .05). Significant differences in cleavage rates between autumn and summer (79.8%; 71.5%), and between winter and autumn (71...
December 21, 2016: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965394/perspectives-on-the-role-of-mobility-behavior-and-time-scales-in-the-spread-of-diseases
#18
Carlos Castillo-Chavez, Derdei Bichara, Benjamin R Morin
The dynamics, control, and evolution of communicable and vector-borne diseases are intimately connected to the joint dynamics of epidemiological, behavioral, and mobility processes that operate across multiple spatial, temporal, and organizational scales. The identification of a theoretical explanatory framework that accounts for the pattern regularity exhibited by a large number of host-parasite systems, including those sustained by host-vector epidemiological dynamics, is but one of the challenges facing the coevolving fields of computational, evolutionary, and theoretical epidemiology...
December 20, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940643/marine-heatwaves-and-optimal-temperatures-for-microbial-assemblage-activity
#19
Ian Joint, Dan A Smale
The response of microbial assemblages to instantaneous temperature change was measured in a seasonal study of the coastal waters of the western English Channel. On 18 occasions between November 1999 and December 2000, bacterial abundance was assessed and temperature responses determined from the incorporation of (3)H leucine, measured in a temperature gradient from 5-38°C. Q10 values varied, being close to 2 in spring and summer but were >3 in autumn. There was a seasonal pattern in the assemblage optimum temperature (Topt), which was out of phase with sea surface temperature...
December 8, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903266/environmental-determinants-of-malaria-transmission-in-african-villages
#20
Noriko Endo, Elfatih A B Eltahir
BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission is complex, involving a range of hydroclimatological, biological, and environmental processes. The high degree of non-linearity in these processes makes it difficult to predict and intervene against malaria. This study seeks both to define a minimal number of malaria transmission determinants, and to provide a theoretical basis for sustainable environmental manipulation to prevent malaria transmission. METHODS: Using a field-tested mechanistic malaria model, HYDREMATS, a theoretical study was conducted under hypothetical conditions...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
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