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Stephen E Darby, Christopher R Hackney, Julian Leyland, Matti Kummu, Hannu Lauri, Daniel R Parsons, James L Best, Andrew P Nicholas, Rolf Aalto
The world's rivers deliver 19 billion tonnes of sediment to the coastal zone annually, with a considerable fraction being sequestered in large deltas, home to over 500 million people. Most (more than 70 per cent) large deltas are under threat from a combination of rising sea levels, ground surface subsidence and anthropogenic sediment trapping, and a sustainable supply of fluvial sediment is therefore critical to prevent deltas being 'drowned' by rising relative sea levels. Here we combine suspended sediment load data from the Mekong River with hydrological model simulations to isolate the role of tropical cyclones in transmitting suspended sediment to one of the world's great deltas...
October 19, 2016: Nature
Helen R Sofaer, Susan K Skagen, Joseph J Barsugli, Benjamin S Rashford, Gordon C Reese, Jennifer A Hoeting, Andrew W Wood, Barry R Noon
Climate change poses major challenges for conservation and management because it alters the area, quality, and spatial distribution of habitat for natural populations. To assess species' vulnerability to climate change and target ongoing conservation investments, researchers and managers often consider the effects of projected changes in climate and land use on future habitat availability and quality and the uncertainty associated with these projections. Here, we draw on tools from hydrology and climate science to project the impact of climate change on the density of wetlands in the Prairie Pothole Region of the USA, a critical area for breeding waterfowl and other wetland-dependent species...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
R Orrego, R Abarca-Del-Río, A Ávila, L Morales
Climate change scenarios are computed on a large scale, not accounting for local variations presented in historical data and related to human scale. Based on historical records, we validate a baseline (1962-1990) and correct the bias of A2 and B2 regional projections for the end of twenty-first century (2070-2100) issued from a high resolution dynamical downscaled (using PRECIS mesoscale model, hereinafter DGF-PRECIS) of Hadley GCM from the IPCC 3rd Assessment Report (TAR). This is performed for the Araucanía Region (Chile; 37°-40°S and 71°-74°W) using two different bias correction methodologies...
2016: SpringerPlus
Barbara Bramanti, Nils Chr Stenseth, Lars Walløe, Xu Lei
Plague caused by Yersinia pestis is a zoonotic infection, i.e., it is maintained in wildlife by animal reservoirs and on occasion spills over into human populations, causing outbreaks of different entities. Large epidemics of plague, which have had significant demographic, social, and economic consequences, have been recorded in Western European historical documents since the sixth century. Plague has remained in Europe for over 1400 years, intermittently disappearing, yet it is not clear if there were reservoirs for Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Raül Marcos, Ma Carmen Llasat, Pere Quintana-Seguí, Marco Turco
In this study we explore the seasonal predictability of water resources in a Mediterranean environment (the Boadella reservoir, in north-eastern Spain). Its utility for end-users is assessed through the analysis of economic value curve areas (EVA). Firstly, we have built monthly multiple linear regression (MLR) models for the in-flow, out-flow and volume anomalies by identifying the underlying relationships between these predictands and their potential predictors, both meteorological and human influenced: rainfall, maximum and minimum temperatures, reservoir volume and discharge...
September 29, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Haoran Liu, Cheng Liu, Zhouqing Xie, Ying Li, Xin Huang, Shanshan Wang, Jin Xu, Pinhua Xie
A series of strict emission control measures were implemented in Beijing and surrounding regions to ensure good air quality during the 2014 Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit and 2015 Grand Military Parade (Parade), which led to blue sky days during these two events commonly referred to as "APEC Blue" and "Parade Blue". Here we calculated Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 and HCHO results based on well known DOAS trace gas fitting algorithm and WRF-Chem model (with measured climatology parameter and newest emission inventor) simulated trace gases profiles...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Blandine Fauvel, Leslie Ogorzaly, Henry-Michel Cauchie, Christophe Gantzer
The association of viruses with settling particles is certainly a major process controlling the spread of viral pollution in surface water and sediment. To better understand the viral distribution in a river system, the behavior of F-specific RNA bacteriophages (FRNAPHs) was investigated in relationship with the suspended solids and sediment. The partitioning of phage particles (free or associated with solids) in surface water and the attachment capabilities of eight distinct strains of phages to sediment were studied in lab experiments...
September 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
A K N'gattia, D Coulibaly, N Talla Nzussouo, H A Kadjo, D Chérif, Y Traoré, B K Kouakou, P D Kouassi, K D Ekra, N S Dagnan, T Williams, I Tiembré
BACKGROUND: In temperate regions, influenza epidemics occur in the winter and correlate with certain climatological parameters. In African tropical regions, the effects of climatological parameters on influenza epidemics are not well defined. This study aims to identify and model the effects of climatological parameters on seasonal influenza activity in Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire. METHODS: We studied the effects of weekly rainfall, humidity, and temperature on laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Abidjan from 2007 to 2010...
2016: BMC Public Health
Farshid Daryabor, See Hai Ooi, Azizan Abu Samah, Abolghasem Akbari
A three-dimensional Regional Ocean Modelling System is used to study the tidal characteristics and their dynamics in the Sunda Shelf of the southern South China Sea. In this model, the outer domain is set with a 25 km resolution and the inner one, with a 9 km resolution. Calculations are performed on the inner domain. The model is forced at the sea surface by climatological monthly mean wind stress, freshwater (evaporation minus precipitation), and heat fluxes. Momentum and tracers (such as temperature and salinity) are prescribed in addition to the tidal heights and currents extracted from the Oregon State University TOPEX/Poseidon Global Inverse Solution (TPXO7...
2016: PloS One
Brian D Dushaw, Hanne Sagen, Agnieszka Beszczynska-Möller
Acoustic tomography systems have been deployed in Fram Strait over the past decade to complement existing observing systems there. The observed acoustic arrival patterns are unusual, however, consisting of a single, broad arrival pulse, with no discernible repeating patterns or individual ray arrivals. The nature of these arrivals is caused by vigorous acoustic scattering from the small-scale processes that dominate ocean variability in Fram Strait. Simple models for internal wave and mesoscale variability were constructed and tailored to match the variability observed by moored thermisters in Fram Strait...
August 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Verónica Fernández-Arteaga, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zárate, Ana Fresán, Thelma Beatriz González-Castro, Isela E Juárez-Rojop, Lilia López-Narváez, Yazmín Hernández-Díaz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Suicide is a worldwide health problem and climatological characteristics have been associated with suicide behavior. However, approaches such as the Knowledge Discovery in Database are not frequently used to search for an association between climatological characteristics and suicide. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between weather data and suicide in a Mexican population. METHODS: We used the information of 1357 patients who completed suicide from 2005 to 2012...
October 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Muheet Alam Saifi, Mohamed Saleh Alyousif, Mikky A Amoudi
Malaria is a global issue and India contributes substantially to global malaria incidence. Information related to malaria vectors is very limited in Aligarh. The environmental and climatological situations permit the continual breeding of vectors in permanent breeding sites. This study was designed with the aim to screen all the anophelines species and possible malaria vectors in three different localities of Aligarh. Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three different localities (Fort, Jalali and Tappal) during peak malaria transmission season (July to November) by using mouth aspirator and CDC light traps...
September 2016: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Xinlei Wang, Bo Yang, Jing Huang, Hechang Chen, Xiao Gu, Yuan Bai, Zhanwei Du
Malaria, a life-threatening infectious disease, spreads rapidly via parasites. Malaria prevention is more effective and efficient than treatment. However, the existing surveillance systems used to prevent malaria are inadequate, especially in areas with limited or no access to medical resources. In this paper, in order to monitor the spreading of malaria, we develop an intelligent surveillance system based on our existing algorithms. First, a visualization function and active surveillance were implemented in order to predict and categorize areas at high risk of infection...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Brian D Dushaw, Hanne Sagen, Agnieszka Beszczynska-Möller
The application of ocean acoustic tomography in Fram Strait requires a careful assessment of the accuracy to which estimates of sound speed from tomography can be converted to estimates of temperature. The Fram Strait environment is turbulent, with warm, salty, northward-flowing North Atlantic water interacting with cold, fresh, southward-flowing Arctic water. The nature of this environment suggests that salinity could play an important role with respect to sound speed. The properties of sound speed with respect to temperature and salinity in this environment were examined using climatological and in situ glider data...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
R Ray, M Shahraki
In this study, we have selected two different mangroves based on their geological, hydrological and climatological variations to investigate the origin (terrestrial, phytobenthos derived, and phytoplankton derived) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) in the water column and the sedimentary OC using elemental ratios and stable isotopes. Qeshm Island, representing the Iranian mangroves received no attention before this study in terms of DOC, POC biogeochemistry and their sources unlike the Sundarbans (Indian side), the world's largest mangrove system...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Qinjian Jin, Zong-Liang Yang, Jiangfeng Wei
The absorptive properties of dust aerosols largely determine the magnitude of their radiative impacts on the climate system. Currently, climate models use globally constant values of dust imaginary refractive index (IRI), a parameter describing the dust absorption efficiency of solar radiation, although it is highly variable. Here we show with model experiments that the dust-induced Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall differences (with dust minus without dust) change from -9% to 23% of long-term climatology as the dust IRI is changed from zero to the highest values used in the current literature...
2016: Scientific Reports
Stefanie R Lutz, Stefano Mallucci, Elena Diamantini, Bruno Majone, Alberto Bellin, Ralf Merz
Water resources are under pressure from multiple anthropogenic stressors such as changing climate, agriculture and water abstraction. This holds, in particular, for the Mediterranean region, where substantial changes in climate are expected throughout the 21st century. Nonetheless, little attention has been paid to linkages between long-term trends in climate, streamflow and water quality in Mediterranean river basins. In the present study, we perform a comparative analysis of recent trends in hydroclimatic parameters and nitrate pollution in three climatologically different Mediterranean watersheds (i...
November 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Yongliang Duan, Lin Liu, Guoqing Han, Hongwei Liu, Weidong Yu, Guang Yang, Huiwu Wang, Haiyuan Wang, Yanliang Liu, Zahid, Hussain Waheed
In-situ measurement of the upper ocean velocity discloses significant abnormal behaviors of two Wyrtki Jets (WJs) respectively in boreal spring and fall, over the tropical Indian Ocean in 2013. The two WJs both occurred within upper 130 m depth and persisted more than one month. The exceptional spring jet in May was unusually stronger than its counterpart in fall, which is clearly against the previous understanding. Furthermore, the fall WJ in 2013 unexpectedly peaked in December, one month later than its climatology...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anne D Yoder, C Ryan Campbell, Marina B Blanco, Mario Dos Reis, Jörg U Ganzhorn, Steven M Goodman, Kelsie E Hunnicutt, Peter A Larsen, Peter M Kappeler, Rodin M Rasoloarison, José M Ralison, David L Swofford, David W Weisrock
Phylogeographic analysis can be described as the study of the geological and climatological processes that have produced contemporary geographic distributions of populations and species. Here, we attempt to understand how the dynamic process of landscape change on Madagascar has shaped the distribution of a targeted clade of mouse lemurs (genus Microcebus) and, conversely, how phylogenetic and population genetic patterns in these small primates can reciprocally advance our understanding of Madagascar's prehuman environment...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Stephan Woodborne, Patience Gandiwa, Grant Hall, Adrian Patrut, Jemma Finch
Carbon isotope analysis of four baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) trees from the Pafuri region of South Africa yielded a 1000-year proxy rainfall record. The Pafuri record age model was based on 17 radiocarbon dates, cross correlation of the climate record, and ring structures that were presumed to be annual for two of the trees. Here we present the analysis of five additional baobabs from the Mapungubwe region, approximately 200km west of Pafuri. The Mapungubwe chronology demonstrates that ring structures are not necessarily annually formed, and accordingly the Pafuri chronology is revised...
2016: PloS One
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