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Climatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526833/grassland-restoration-reduces-water-yield-in-the-headstream-region-of-yangtze-river
#1
Jia Li, Dan Liu, Tao Wang, Yingnian Li, Shiping Wang, Yuting Yang, Xiaoyi Wang, Hui Guo, Shushi Peng, Jinzhi Ding, Miaogen Shen, Lei Wang
Large-scale ecological restoration programs are considered as one of the key strategies to enhance ecosystem services. The Headstream region of Yangtze River (HYZR), which is claimed to be China's Water Tower but witnessed the rapid grassland deterioration during 1970s-2000, has seen a series of grassland restoration programs since 2000. But few studies have thoroughly estimated the hydrological effect of this recent grassland restoration. Here we show that restoration significantly reduces growing-season water yield coefficient (WYC) from 0...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520817/heat-in-the-southeastern-united-states-characteristics-trends-and-potential-health-impact
#2
Jeremy E Diem, Christine E Stauber, Richard Rothenberg
High summer temperatures in extratropical areas have an impact on the public's health, mainly through heat stress, high air pollution concentrations, and the transmission of tropical diseases. The purpose of this study is to examine the current characteristics of heat events and future projections of summer apparent temperature (AT)-and associated health concerns-throughout the southeastern United States. Synoptic climatology was used to assess the atmospheric characteristics of extreme heat days (EHDs) from 1979-2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516029/the-power-of-vertical-geolocation-of-atmospheric-profiles-from-gnss-radio-occultation
#3
Barbara Scherllin-Pirscher, Andrea K Steiner, Gottfried Kirchengast, Marc Schwärz, Stephen S Leroy
High-resolution measurements from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) provide atmospheric profiles with independent information on altitude and pressure. This unique property is of crucial advantage when analyzing atmospheric characteristics that require joint knowledge of altitude and pressure or other thermodynamic atmospheric variables. Here we introduce and demonstrate the utility of this independent information from RO and discuss the computation, uncertainty, and use of RO atmospheric profiles on isohypsic coordinates-mean sea level altitude and geopotential height-as well as on thermodynamic coordinates (pressure and potential temperature)...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493143/differences-in-the-importance-of-weather-and-weather-based-decisions-among-campers-in-ontario-parks-canada
#4
Micah J Hewer, Daniel J Scott, William A Gough
Parks and protected areas represent an important resource for tourism in Canada, in which camping is a common recreational activity. The important relationship between weather and climate with recreation and tourism has been widely acknowledged within the academic literature. Howbeit, the need for activity-specific assessments has been identified as an on-going need for future research in the field of tourism climatology. Furthermore, very little is known about the interrelationships between personal characteristics and socio-demographics with weather preferences and behavioural thresholds...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483865/behavioural-ecological-and-evolutionary-responses-to-extreme-climatic-events-challenges-and-directions
#5
Martijn van de Pol, Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Johannes H C Cornelissen, Marcel E Visser
More extreme climatic events (ECEs) are among the most prominent consequences of climate change. Despite a long-standing recognition of the importance of ECEs by paleo-ecologists and macro-evolutionary biologists, ECEs have only recently received a strong interest in the wider ecological and evolutionary community. However, as with many rapidly expanding fields, it lacks structure and cohesiveness, which strongly limits scientific progress. Furthermore, due to the descriptive and anecdotal nature of many ECE studies it is still unclear what the most relevant questions and long-term consequences are of ECEs...
June 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475910/aerosol-characterization-and-radiative-properties-over-kavaratti-a-remote-island-in-southern-arabian-sea-from-the-period-of-observations
#6
Piyushkumar N Patel, U C Dumka, K N Babu, A K Mathur
Long-term measurements of spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) using sun/sky radiometer for a period of five years (2009-2014) from the remote island location at Kavaratti (KVT; 10.56°N, 72.64°E) in the southern Arabian sea have been analysed. Climatologically, AODs decrease from October to reach maximum of ~0.6 (at 500nm) in March, followed by a sudden fall towards May. Significant modulations of intra-seasonal timescales over this general pattern are noticed due to the changes in the relative strength of distinctively different sources...
May 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467357/a-capacitive-humidity-sensor-based-on-an-electrospun-pvdf-graphene-membrane
#7
Daniel Hernández-Rivera, Grissel Rodríguez-Roldán, Rodrigo Mora-Martínez, Ernesto Suaste-Gómez
Humidity sensors have been widely used in areas such as agriculture, environmental conservation, medicine, instrumentation and climatology. Hydrophobicity is one of the important factors in capacitive humidity sensors: recent research has shown that the inclusion of graphene (G) in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) improves its hydrophobicity. In this context, a methodology to fabricate electrospun membranes of PVDF blended with G was developed in order to improve the PVDF properties allowing the use of PVDF/G membrane as a capacitive humidity sensor...
May 3, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464494/high-arctic-summer-warming-tracked-by-increased-cassiope-tetragona-growth-in-the-world-s-northernmost-polar-desert
#8
Stef Weijers, Agata Buchwal, Daan Blok, Jörg Löffler, Bo Elberling
Rapid climate warming has resulted in shrub expansion, mainly of erect deciduous shrubs in the Low Arctic, but the more extreme, sparsely vegetated, cold and dry High Arctic, is generally considered to remain resistant to such shrub expansion in the next decades. Dwarf shrub dendrochronology may reveal climatological causes of past changes in growth, but is hindered at many High Arctic sites by short and fragmented instrumental climate records. Moreover, only few High Arctic shrub chronologies cover the recent decade of substantial warming...
May 2, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448935/analysis-of-the-synoptic-winter-mortality-climatology-in-five-regions-of-england-searching-for-evidence-of-weather-signals
#9
A K Paschalidou, P A Kassomenos, G R McGregor
Although heat-related mortality has received considerable research attention, the impact of cold weather on public health is less well-developed, probably due to the fact that physiological responses to cold weather can vary substantially among individuals, age groups, diseases etc., depending on a number of behavioral and physiological factors. In the current work we use the classification techniques provided by the COST-733 software to link synoptic circulation patterns with excess cold-related mortality in 5 regions of England...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445089/genetic-and-morphological-differentiation-of-the-semiterrestrial-crab-armases-angustipes-brachyura-sesarmidae-along-the-brazilian-coast
#10
Murilo Zanetti Marochi, Setuko Masunari, Christoph D Schubart
The genetic and morphometric population structures of the semiterrestrial crab Armases angustipes from along the Brazilian coast were examined. The influence of the Central South Equatorial Current on larval dispersal of A. angustipes also was evaluated. Six populations were sampled from estuarine areas in São Luis do Maranhão, Maranhão; Natal, Rio Grande do Norte; Maceió, Alagoas; Ilhéus, Bahia; Aracruz, Espírito Santo; and Guaratuba, Paraná. Patterns of genetic differentiation were assessed using DNA sequence data corresponding to parts of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1...
February 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431317/ambient-pm2-5-exposure-and-premature-mortality-burden-in-the-holy-city-varanasi-india
#11
Vaishali Jain, Sagnik Dey, Sourangsu Chowdhury
More than 3 million population residing in the holy city Varanasi and sub-urban areas is exposed to very high level of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from various sources. Continuous monitoring by Central Pollution Control Board started only in 2015; therefore what was the pollution level in the past and how it has changed over the years are not known. We use MODIS aerosol products to infer PM2.5 and examine 15-year climatology. Data shows a rapid (1.5-3% per year) increase in PM2.5 in the last 15 years and high (87% days in a year) persistence of PM2...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414859/source-receptor-probability-of-atmospheric-long-distance-dispersal-of-viruses-to-israel-from-the-eastern-mediterranean-area
#12
Z Klausner, E Klement, E Fattal
Viruses that affect the health of humans and farm animals can spread over long distances via atmospheric mechanisms. The phenomenon of atmospheric long-distance dispersal (LDD) is associated with severe consequences because it may introduce pathogens into new areas. The introduction of new pathogens to Israel was attributed to LDD events numerous times. This provided the motivation for this study which is aimed to identify all the locations in the eastern Mediterranean that may serve as sources for pathogen incursion into Israel via LDD...
April 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402397/convergence-and-contrast-in-the-community-structure-of-bacteria-fungi-and-archaea-along-a-tropical-elevation-climate-gradient
#13
Kabir G Peay, Christian von Sperber, Emily Cardarelli, Hirokazu Toju, Christopher A Francis, Oliver A Chadwick, Peter M Vitousek
Changes in species richness along climatological gradients have been instrumental in developing theories about the general drivers of biodiversity. Previous studies on microbial communities along climate gradients on mountainsides have revealed positive, negative and neutral richness trends. We examined changes in richness and composition of Fungi, Bacteria and Archaea in soil along a 50-1000 m elevation, 280-3280 mm/yr precipitation gradient in Hawai'i. Soil properties and their drivers are exceptionally well understood along this gradient...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367642/the-incompressibility-assumption-in-computational-simulations-of-nasal-airflow
#14
Ismael R Cal, Jose Luis Cercos-Pita, Daniel Duque
Most of the computational works on nasal airflow up to date have assumed incompressibility, given the low Mach number of these flows. However, for high temperature gradients, the incompressibility assumption could lead to a loss of accuracy, due to the temperature dependence of air density and viscosity. In this article we aim to shed some light on the influence of this assumption in a model of calm breathing in an Asian nasal cavity, by solving the fluid flow equations in compressible and incompressible formulation for different ambient air temperatures using the OpenFOAM package...
April 3, 2017: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364751/inferring-directed-climatic-interactions-with-renormalized-partial-directed-coherence-and-directed-partial-correlation
#15
Giulio Tirabassi, Linda Sommerlade, Cristina Masoller
Inferring interactions between processes promises deeper insight into mechanisms underlying network phenomena. Renormalised partial directed coherence is a frequency-domain representation of the concept of Granger causality, while directed partial correlation is an alternative approach for quantifying Granger causality in the time domain. Both methodologies have been successfully applied to neurophysiological signals for detecting directed relationships. This paper introduces their application to climatological time series...
March 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364746/small-world-bias-of-correlation-networks-from-brain-to-climate
#16
Jaroslav Hlinka, David Hartman, Nikola Jajcay, David Tomeček, Jaroslav Tintěra, Milan Paluš
Complex systems are commonly characterized by the properties of their graph representation. Dynamical complex systems are then typically represented by a graph of temporal dependencies between time series of state variables of their subunits. It has been shown recently that graphs constructed in this way tend to have relatively clustered structure, potentially leading to spurious detection of small-world properties even in the case of systems with no or randomly distributed true interactions. However, the strength of this bias depends heavily on a range of parameters and its relevance for real-world data has not yet been established...
March 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358355/identifying-large-scale-patterns-of-unpredictability-and-response-to-insolation-in-atmospheric-data
#17
Fernando Arizmendi, Marcelo Barreiro, Cristina Masoller
Understanding the complex dynamics of the atmosphere is of paramount interest due to its impact in the entire climate system and in human society. Here we focus on identifying, from data, the geographical regions which have similar atmospheric properties. We study surface air temperature (SAT) time series with monthly resolution, recorded at a regular grid covering the Earth surface. We consider two datasets: NCEP CDAS1 and ERA Interim reanalysis. We show that two surprisingly simple measures are able to extract meaningful information: i) the distance between the lagged SAT and the incoming solar radiation and ii) the Shannon entropy of SAT and SAT anomalies...
March 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357507/examination-of-climatological-wind-patterns-and-simulated-pollen-dispersion-in-a-complex-island-environment
#18
Brian J Viner, Raymond W Arritt, Mark E Westgate
Complex terrain creates small-scale circulations which affect pollen dispersion but may be missed by meteorological observing networks and coarse-grid meteorological models. On volcanic islands, these circulations result from differing rates of surface heating between land and sea as well as rugged terrain. We simulated the transport of bentgrass, ryegrass, and maize pollen from 30 sources within the agricultural regions of the Hawaiian island Kaua'i during climatological conditions spanning season conditions and the La Niña, El Niño, and neutral phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation...
March 29, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303992/predicting-dengue-outbreak-in-the-metropolitan-city-lahore-pakistan-using-dengue-vector-indices-and-selected-climatological-variables-as-predictors
#19
Ejaz Mahmood Ahmad Qureshi, Amtul Bari Tabinda, Seemal Vehra
OBJECTIVE: Dengue viruses have rapidly spread in Southeast Asia, particularly in Pakistan, during the last few years, so the present study was undertaken to formulate a model for predicting dengue outbreak. METHODOLOGY: A panel data using STRATA statistical software was employed to determine the effects of entomological indices, Per Man Hour Density (PMHD), Minimum Infection Rate (MIR) and selected climatic variables on dengue patients by using Fixed Effects (FE) and Random Effects (RE) models...
March 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301603/drought-risk-assessment-under-climate-change-is-sensitive-to-methodological-choices-for-the-estimation-of-evaporative-demand
#20
Candida F Dewes, Imtiaz Rangwala, Joseph J Barsugli, Michael T Hobbins, Sanjiv Kumar
Several studies have projected increases in drought severity, extent and duration in many parts of the world under climate change. We examine sources of uncertainty arising from the methodological choices for the assessment of future drought risk in the continental US (CONUS). One such uncertainty is in the climate models' expression of evaporative demand (E0), which is not a direct climate model output but has been traditionally estimated using several different formulations. Here we analyze daily output from two CMIP5 GCMs to evaluate how differences in E0 formulation, treatment of meteorological driving data, choice of GCM, and standardization of time series influence the estimation of E0...
2017: PloS One
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