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Zhendong Wu, Niklas Boke-Olén, Rasmus Fensholt, Jonas Ardö, Lars Eklundh, Veiko Lehsten
Biogeochemical models use meteorological forcing data derived with different approaches (e.g. based on interpolation or reanalysis of observation data or a hybrid hereof) to simulate ecosystem processes such as gross primary productivity (GPP). This study assesses the impact of different widely used climate datasets on simulated gross primary productivity and evaluates the suitability of them for reproducing the global and regional carbon cycle as mapped from independent GPP data. We simulate GPP with the biogeochemical model LPJ-GUESS using six historical climate datasets (CRU, CRUNCEP, ECMWF, NCEP, PRINCETON, and WFDEI)...
2018: PloS One
Sayo A Akinwumi, Temidayo V Omotosho, Mojisola R Usikalu, Oluwole A Odetunmibi, Oluwafunmilayo O Ometan, Mustapha O Adewusi
In this data article, analysis of surface water vapour density in Southeast, Nigeria were reported. The meteorological data were obtained for the period of 39 years between 1973 and 2012 from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climatology Centre. Five stations considered in the research area includes: Enugu, Onitsha, Abakaliki, Aba and Ihiala. Descriptive statistics were used to show an increase in monthly variation of surface water vapour density (SWVD) minimum value of about 7.15 g/m3 at Enugu in January to maximum value of about 21...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Madelon F Case, A Carla Staver
Rainfall variability is a major determinant of soil moisture, but its influence on vegetation structure has been challenging to generalize. This presents a major source of uncertainty in predicting vegetation responses to potentially widespread shifts in rainfall frequency and intensity. In savannas, where trees and grasses coexist, conflicting lines of evidence have suggested, variously, that tree cover can either increase or decrease in response to less frequent, more intense rainfall. Here, we use remote sensing products and continent-wide soil maps for sub-Saharan Africa to analyze how soil texture and fire mediate the response of savanna tree cover to rainfall climatology...
June 4, 2018: New Phytologist
Margaret M Sugg, Christopher M Fuhrmann, Jennifer D Runkle
Excessive ambient temperature exposure can result in significant morbidity and mortality, especially among vulnerable occupational groups like outdoor workers. Average temperatures in the USA are projected to increase in frequency and intensity, placing future worker populations at greater risk for unhealthy levels of exposure. Unlike previous research focused on aggregate-level temperature exposures from in situ weather station data, this study will measure location-based personal ambient temperatures (PAT) at the individual-level by piloting the use of wearable sensor technology...
May 25, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Fanjing Kong, Mianping Zheng, Bin Hu, Alian Wang, Nina Ma, Pablo Sobron
Since 2008, we have been studying a saline lake, Dalangtan (DLT) Playa, and its surroundings in a hyperarid region of the Qaidam Basin on the Tibetan Plateau as a potential Mars analog site. We describe the evolution of saline deposits in the Qaidam Basin (including DLT), based on investigative findings accumulated over the course of 60 years of geological surveys. In addition, we report regional meteorological patterns recorded for the past 32 years along with meteorological station recorded data at DLT since 2012...
May 24, 2018: Astrobiology
Marcos Longo, Ryan G Knox, Naomi M Levine, Luciana F Alves, Damien Bonal, Plinio B Camargo, David R Fitzjarrald, Matthew N Hayek, Natalia Restrepo-Coupe, Scott R Saleska, Rodrigo da Silva, Scott C Stark, Raphael P Tapajós, Kenia T Wiedemann, Ke Zhang, Steven C Wofsy, Paul R Moorcroft
The impact of increases in drought frequency on the Amazon forest's composition, structure and functioning remain uncertain. We used a process- and individual-based ecosystem model (ED2) to quantify the forest's vulnerability to increased drought recurrence. We generated meteorologically realistic, drier-than-observed rainfall scenarios for two Amazon forest sites, Paracou (wetter) and Tapajós (drier), to evaluate the impacts of more frequent droughts on forest biomass, structure and composition. The wet site was insensitive to the tested scenarios, whereas at the dry site biomass declined when average rainfall reduction exceeded 15%, due to high mortality of large-sized evergreen trees...
May 22, 2018: New Phytologist
Glenn Suter
Nations that develop water quality benchmark values have relied primarily on standard data and methods. However, experience with chemicals such as Se, ammonia, and tributyltin has shown that standard methods do not adequately address some taxa, modes of exposure and effects. Development of benchmark values that are protective requires an explicit description of the issues, a problem formulation. In particular, the assessment endpoints and other dimensions should be specified for each chemical so that the necessary data will be obtained and appropriate analyses will be performed...
May 14, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
Jacqueline Stefels, Maria A van Leeuwe, Elizabeth M Jones, Michael P Meredith, Hugh J Venables, Alison L Webb, Sian F Henley
The Southern Ocean is a hotspot of the climate-relevant organic sulfur compound dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Spatial and temporal variability in DMS concentration is higher than in any other oceanic region, especially in the marginal ice zone. During a one-week expedition across the continental shelf of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), from the shelf break into Marguerite Bay, in January 2015, spatial heterogeneity of DMS and its precursor dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was studied and linked with environmental conditions, including sea-ice melt events...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Santiago Beguería, Roberto Serrano-Notivoli, Miquel Tomas-Burguera
Rainfall erosivity is an important parameter in many erosion models, and the EI30 defined by the Universal Soil Loss Equation is one of the best known erosivity indices. One issue with this and other erosivity indices is that they require continuous breakpoint, or high frequency time interval, precipitation data. These data are rare, in comparison to more common medium-frequency data, such as daily precipitation data commonly recorded by many national and regional weather services. Devising methods for computing estimates of rainfall erosivity from daily precipitation data that are comparable to those obtained by using high-frequency data is, therefore, highly desired...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Pedro Sánchez, Francisco J Pallares, Miguel A Gómez, Antonio Bernabé, Serafin Gómez, Juan Seva
Objective: The objective of this work was to determine the prevalence of the pathologies that caused the condemnation of pig carcasses in an area of intensive pig farming and Mediterranean climatology and to evaluate their influence in a risk-based inspection procedure for slaughterhouses. Material and Methods: A retrospective observational investigation was carried out from 2002 to 2016 into the pathological processes that caused the condemnation of pig carcasses in a slaughterhouse from South-eastern Spain...
April 25, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Tamara Cibic, Federica Cerino, Ana Karuza, Daniela Fornasaro, Cinzia Comici, Marina Cabrini
We studied the influence of anomalous meteorological and hydrological conditions that occurred in the Gulf of Trieste from March 2006 to February 2007 on phytoplankton structure and function. We computed monthly mean (or median) air temperature, total precipitation, wind speed, river discharge, seawater temperature, salinity, photosynthetic available radiation (PAR), cyanobacteria, nano- and microphytoplankton abundances during the study year and compared them to climatological (1999-2014 for PAR; 1999-2007 for nanophytoplankton; 1998-2015 for the other variables) mean/median data...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Meetpal S Kukal, Suat Irmak
Significant air temperature changes have occurred globally during the 20th century, which are spatially variable to a considerable degree and these changes can have substantial implications in agroecosystem productivity. The agroclimate indicators that are responsible in these contexts are first fall frost (FFF), last spring frost (LSF), climatological growing season (CGS) length, and heat accumulation (growing degree days, GDD). We explore spatial and temporal trends associated with these indices across the continental U...
May 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ángel Francisco Betanzos-Reyes, Mario Henry Rodríguez, Martín Romero-Martínez, Eduardo Sesma-Medrano, Hilda Rangel-Flores, René Santos-Luna
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of dengue fever incidence with Aedes mosquito's abundance, and the effect of climatological and geographical variables, in a region in Morelos State, Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Weekly data during the period 2010 to 2014 was used. Mosquito abundance was determined using ovitraps. Confirmed dengue cases were obtained from the Epidemiological Surveillance System. Climatic variables were obtained from weather monitoringstations...
January 2018: Salud Pública de México
Sumathy Sinnathamby, Kyle R Douglas-Mankin, Muluken E Muche, Stacy L Hutchinson, Aavudai Anandhi
This study quantified climatological and hydrological trends and relationships to presence and distribution of two native aquatic species in the Kansas River Basin over the past half-century. Trend analyses were applied to indicators of hydrologic alteration (IHAs) at 34 streamgages over a 50-year period (1962-2012). Results showed a significant negative trend in annual streamflow for 10 of 12 western streamgages (up to -7.65 mm/50 yr) and smaller negative trends for most other streamgages. Significant negative trends in western Basin streamflow were more widespread in summer (12 stations) than winter or spring (6 stations)...
2018: Ecohydrology: Ecosystems, Land and Water Process Interactions, Ecohydrogeomorphology
Chiara Volta, David T Ho, Gernot Friederich, Victor C Engel, Mahadev Bhat
High-resolution time series measurements of temperature, salinity, pH and pCO2 were made during the period October 2014-September 2015 at the midpoint of Shark River, a 15km tidal river that originates in the freshwater Everglades of south Florida (USA) and discharges into the Gulf of Mexico. Dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in this system vary over time, and during this study could be classified into three distinct regimes corresponding to October 2014-February 2015 (a wet to dry season transition period), March-May 2015 (dry period) and July-September 2015 (wet period)...
September 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Hilde Tobi, Jarl K Kampen
Many of today's global scientific challenges require the joint involvement of researchers from different disciplinary backgrounds (social sciences, environmental sciences, climatology, medicine, etc.). Such interdisciplinary research teams face many challenges resulting from differences in training and scientific culture. Interdisciplinary education programs are required to train truly interdisciplinary scientists with respect to the critical factor skills and competences. For that purpose this paper presents the Methodology for Interdisciplinary Research (MIR) framework...
2018: Quality & Quantity
Hermano Gomes Albuquerque, Paulo Cesar Peiter, Luciano M Toledo, Jeronimo A F Alencar, Paulo C Sabroza, Cristina G Dias, Jefferson P C Santos, Martha C Suárez-Mutis
BACKGROUND: Extra-Amazonian malaria mortality is 60 times higher than the Amazon malaria mortality. Imported cases correspond to approximately 90% of extra-Amazonian cases. Imported malaria could be a major problem if it occurs in areas with receptivity, because it can favor the occurrence of outbreaks or reintroductions of malaria in those areas. This study aimed to model territorial receptivity for malaria to serve as an entomological surveillance tool in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
April 19, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Ann R Webb, Andreas Kazantzidis, Richard C Kift, Mark D Farrar, Jack Wilkinson, Lesley E Rhodes
The body gains vitamin D through both oral intake (diet/supplementation) and synthesis in skin upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Sun exposure is the major source for most people even though sun exposure is complex and limited by climate and culture. We aimed to quantify the sun exposure required to meet vitamin D targets year-round and determine whether this can be safely achieved in a simply defined manner in the UK as an alternative to increasing vitamin D oral intake. Data from observation (sun exposure, diet, and vitamin D status) and UVR intervention studies performed with white Caucasian adults were combined with modeled all-weather UVR climatology...
April 17, 2018: Nutrients
Rodrigo Mogollón, Paulo H R Calil
It has been hypothesized that global warming will strengthen upwelling-favorable winds in the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) as a consequence of the increase of the land-sea thermal gradient along the Peruvian coast. The effect of strengthened winds in this region is assessed with the use of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model forced with projected and climatological winds. Strengthened winds induce an increase in primary production of 2% per latitudinal degree from 9.5°S to 5°S. In some important coastal upwelling sites primary production is reduced...
July 2018: Global Change Biology
Lazaros Oreopoulos, Nayeong Cho, Dongmin Lee
Coincident multi-year measurements of aerosol, cloud, precipitation and radiation at near-global scales are analyzed to diagnose their apparent relationships as suggestive of interactions previously proposed based on theoretical, observational, and model constructs. Specifically, we examine whether differences in aerosol loading in separate observations go along with consistently different precipitation, cloud properties, and cloud radiative effects. Our analysis uses a cloud regime (CR) framework to dissect and sort the results...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
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