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Dana K Briscoe, Sabrina Fossette, Kylie L Scales, Elliott L Hazen, Steven J Bograd, Sara M Maxwell, Elizabeth A McHuron, Patrick W Robinson, Carey Kuhn, Daniel P Costa, Larry B Crowder, Rebecca L Lewison
Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) are central-place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their young. During this time, habitat selection is a function of prey availability and proximity to the rookery, which has important implications for reproductive and population success...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Filip Huyghe, Marc Kochzius
In this contribution, we determine the genetic population structure in the Skunk Clownfish (Amphiprion akallopsisos) across the Indian Ocean, and on a smaller geographic scale in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Highly restricted gene flow was discovered between populations on either side of the Indian Ocean using the control region as a mitochondrial marker (mtDNA). We verify this conclusion using 13 microsatellite markers and infer fine scale genetic structuring within the WIO. In total 387 samples from 21 sites were analysed using mtDNA and 13 microsatellite loci...
2018: PloS One
Simon E Freeman, Lloyd Emokpae, Jeffrey S Rogers, Geoffrey F Edelmann
Recently developed low-power Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks (CSACs) hold promise for underwater acoustics applications because they enable time-coherent processing, critical for estimating the directionality of the sound field, when acoustic array elements cannot share a timing reference. Controlled, tank-based experiments with a small acoustic array (N = 4) featuring CSAC-equipped elements show that optimal disciplining is important for continued array coherence. Clock drift equivalent to a 10% wavelength error at 0...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Alejandro Gallego, Rory O'Hara Murray, Barbara Berx, William R Turrell, C J Beegle-Krause, Mark Inall, Toby Sherwin, John Siddorn, Sarah Wakelin, Vasyl Vlasenko, Lars R Hole, Knut Frode Dagestad, John Rees, Lucy Short, Petter Rønningen, Charlotte E Main, Sebastien Legrand, Tony Gutierrez, Ursula Witte, Nicole Mulanaphy
As oil reserves in established basins become depleted, exploration and production moves towards relatively unexploited areas, such as deep waters off the continental shelf. The Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC, NE Atlantic) and adjacent areas have been subject to increased focus by the oil industry. In addition to extreme depths, metocean conditions in this region characterise an environment with high waves and strong winds, strong currents, complex circulation patterns, sharp density gradients, and large small- and mesoscale variability...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
R Nolasco, I Gomes, L Peteiro, R Albuquerque, T Luna, J Dubert, S E Swearer, H Queiroga
Marine larval dispersal is a complex biophysical process that depends on the effects of species biology and oceanography, leading to logistical difficulties in estimating connectivity among populations of marine animals with biphasic life cycles. To address this challenge, the application of multiple methodological approaches has been advocated, in order to increase confidence in estimates of population connectivity. However, studies seldom account for sources of uncertainty associated with each method, which undermines a direct comparative approach...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Richard C Dugdale
My evolution from electrical engineering student to limnologist and then to oceanographer was a consequence of generous mentoring, which led to my use of the 15N tracer technique to measure nitrogen fixation in aquatic systems. The concept of new and regenerated production arose when I applied this method to measure nitrate and ammonium uptake in marine ecosystems. I then showed that enzyme kinetics could be applied to algal nitrogen uptake and used a silicate pump to explain silicate limitation of diatoms in coastal and equatorial upwelling systems...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
R S Johnson
This review makes a case for describing many of the flows observed in our oceans, simply based on the Euler equation, with (piecewise) constant density and with suitable boundary conditions. The analyses start from the Euler and mass conservation equations, expressed in a rotating, spherical coordinate system (but the f -plane and β -plane approximations are also mentioned); five examples are discussed. For three of them, a suitable non-dimensionalization is introduced, and a single small parameter is identified in each case...
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jessica Lehman
The dominant practices of physical oceanography have recently shifted from being based on ship-based ocean sampling and sensing to being based on remote and robotic sensing using satellites, drifting floats and remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles. What are the implications of this change for the social relations of oceanographic science? This paper contributes to efforts to address this question, pursuing a situated view of ocean sensing technologies so as to contextualize and analyze new representations of the sea, and interactions between individual scientists, technologies and the ocean...
February 2018: Social Studies of Science
Wenting Bu, Jian Zheng, Michael E Ketterer, Sheng Hu, Shigeo Uchida, Xiaolin Wang
Measurements of the long-lived radionuclide (236)U are an important endeavor, not only in nuclear safeguards work, but also in terms of using this emerging nuclide as a tracer in chemical oceanography, hydrology, and actinide sourcing. Depending on the properties of a sample and its neutron irradiation history, (236)U/(238)U ratios from different sources vary significantly. Therefore, this ratio can be treated as an important fingerprint for radioactive source identification, and in particular, affords a definitive means of discriminating between naturally occurring U and specific types of anthropogenic U...
December 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Andrew L Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Nature
Ate Visser, Melissa Thaw, Brad Esser
Understanding the behavior of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, in the environment is important to evaluate the exposure risk of anthropogenic releases, and for its application as a tracer in hydrology and oceanography. To understand and predict the variability of tritium in precipitation, HYSPLIT air mass trajectories were analyzed for 16 aggregate precipitation samples collected over a 2 year period at irregular intervals at a research site located at 2000 m elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada (California, USA)...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Rocio I Ruiz-Cooley, Tim Gerrodette, Paul C Fiedler, Susan J Chivers, Kerri Danil, Lisa T Ballance
Climate variability alters nitrogen cycling, primary productivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration in marine ecosystems. We examined the role of this variability (as measured by six variables) on food chain length (FCL) in the California Current (CC) by reconstructing a time series of amino acid-specific δ(15)N values derived from common dolphins, an apex pelagic predator, and using two FCL proxies. Strong declines in FCL were observed after the 1997-1999 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. Bayesian models revealed longer FCLs under intermediate conditions for surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration, multivariate ENSO index, and total plankton volume but not for hypoxic depth and nitrate concentration...
October 2017: Science Advances
Rebecca Mueller, Jeffrey T Wright, Christopher J S Bolch
The palaeoceanography of southern Australia has been characterized by fluctuating sea levels during glacial periods, changing temperature regimes and modified boundary currents. Previous studies on genetic structuring of species in southeastern Australia have focused mainly on the differentiation of eastern and western populations while the potential role of Bass Strait as a region of overlap for three biogeographic provinces (Peronia, Maugea, and Flindersia) has been largely ignored. This study aimed to explore the likely roles of historic and contemporary factors in determining divergence patterns in the habitat-forming intertidal seaweed Hormosira banksii in southeastern Australia with a special focus on postglacial dispersal into Bass Strait...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
Yoav Lehahn, Francesco d'Ovidio, Ilan Koren
The well-lit upper layer of the open ocean is a dynamical environment that hosts approximately half of global primary production. In the remote parts of this environment, distant from the coast and from the seabed, there is no obvious spatially fixed reference frame for describing the dynamics of the microscopic drifting organisms responsible for this immense production of organic matter-the phytoplankton. Thus, a natural perspective for studying phytoplankton dynamics is to follow the trajectories of water parcels in which the organisms are embedded...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
Chris A Hostetler, Michael J Behrenfeld, Yongxiang Hu, Johnathan W Hair, Jennifer A Schulien
Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
John K Pearman, Joanne Ellis, Xabier Irigoien, Y V B Sarma, Burton H Jones, Susana Carvalho
The semi-enclosed nature of the Red Sea (20.2°N-38.5°N) makes it a natural laboratory to study the influence of environmental gradients on microbial communities. This study investigates the composition and structure of microbial prokaryotes and eukaryotes using molecular methods, targeting ribosomal RNA genes across different regions and seasons. The interaction between spatial and temporal scales results in different scenarios of turbulence and nutrient conditions allowing for testing of ecological theory that categorizes the response of the plankton community to these variations...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
(no author information available yet)
Jeremy Goldbogen is an Assistant Professor at the Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, USA, where he studies the integrative biology of vertebrate filter feeders from forage fish to baleen whales. He received his Bachelor's degree in Zoology from the University of Texas, Austin, USA, before moving to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and then the University of British Columbia for his PhD, which he completed in 2010 in the laboratory of Bob Shadwick. After a short postdoc at Scripps, Goldbogen moved to continue his postdoc training at the Cascadia Research Collective in Olympia, Washington...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
Ran Gao, Danfeng Lu, Jin Cheng, Zhi-Mei Qi
A real-time all-fiber anemometer based on laser-heated few-layer graphene in aligned graded-index fibers has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed fiber-optic anemometer was composed of a pair of all-fiber collimators by using aligned graded-index fibers that was coated with the few-layer graphene. The few-layer graphene was heated through a heating light from a 532-nm laser, which changed the optical transmittance of signal light with the wavelength of 1550 nm. The wind speed can be measured through the transmission power of the signal light based on the wind cooling effects on the heated few-layer graphene, acting as a "hot-wire" anemometer...
July 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Haodong Liu, Chuanlun L Zhang, Chunyan Yang, Songze Chen, Zhiwei Cao, Zhiwei Zhang, Jiwei Tian
Temperature, nutrients, and salinity are among the important factors constraining the distribution and abundance of microorganisms in the ocean. Marine Group II (MGII) belonging to Euryarchaeota commonly dominates the planktonic archaeal community in shallow water and Marine Group I (MGI, now is called Thaumarchaeota) in deeper water in global oceans. Results of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454 sequencing in our study, however, showed the dominance of MGII in planktonic archaea throughout the water column of the northeastern South China Sea (SCS) that is characterized by strong water mixing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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