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Walter Munk, Carl Wunsch
In this interview, Carl Wunsch talks with Walter Munk about his career in oceanography; his relationships with scientists such as Harald Sverdrup, Roger Revelle, Walfrid Ekman, Carl Rossby, Carl Ekart, Henry Stommel, and G.I. Taylor; technological advances over the decades; and his thoughts on the future of the field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 11 is January 3, 2019. Please see for revised estimates...
May 11, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Damiano Baldan, Erika Maria Diletta Porporato, Roberto Pastres, Daniele Brigolin
A new R software package, RAC, is presented. RAC allows to simulate the rearing cycle of 4 species, finfish and shellfish, highly important in terms of production in the Mediterranean Sea. The package works both at the scale of the individual and of the farmed population. Mathematical models included in RAC were all validated in previous works, and account for growth and metabolism, based on input data characterizing the forcing functions-water temperature, and food quality/quantity. The package provides a demo dataset of forcings for each species, as well as a typical set of husbandry parameters for Mediterranean conditions...
2018: PloS One
Francisco Javier García-De León, Carolina Galván-Tirado, Laura Sánchez Velasco, Claudia A Silva-Segundo, Rafael Hernández-Guzmán, Irene de Los Angeles Barriga-Sosa, Píndaro Díaz Jaimes, Michael Canino, Pedro Cruz-Hernández
Determining the relative influence of biotic and abiotic factors on genetic connectivity among populations remains a major challenge in evolutionary biology and in the management and conservation of species. North Pacific hake (Merluccius productus) inhabits upwelling regions in the California Current ecosystem from the Gulf of California to the Gulf of Alaska. In this study, we examined mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite variation to estimate levels of genetic differentiation of M. productus in relation to the role of oceanographic features as potential barriers to gene flow...
2018: PloS One
I Nyoman Giri Putra, Yuliana Fitri Syamsuni, Beginer Subhan, Made Pharmawati, Hawis Madduppa
The Indo-Malay Archipelago is regarded as a barrier that separates organisms of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Previous studies of marine biota from this region have found a variety of biogeographic barriers, seemingly dependent on taxon and methodology. Several hypotheses, such as emergence of the Sunda Shelf and recent physical oceanography, have been proposed to account for the genetic structuring of marine organisms in this region. Here, we used six microsatellite loci to infer genetic diversity, population differentiation and phylogeographic patterns of Enhalus acoroides across the Indo-Malay Archipelago...
2018: PeerJ
Dana K Briscoe, Sabrina Fossette, Kylie L Scales, Elliott L Hazen, Steven J Bograd, Sara M Maxwell, Elizabeth A McHuron, Patrick W Robinson, Carey Kuhn, Daniel P Costa, Larry B Crowder, Rebecca L Lewison
Characterizing habitat suitability for a marine predator requires an understanding of the environmental heterogeneity and variability over the range in which a population moves during a particular life cycle. Female California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus ) are central-place foragers and are particularly constrained while provisioning their young. During this time, habitat selection is a function of prey availability and proximity to the rookery, which has important implications for reproductive and population success...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Filip Huyghe, Marc Kochzius
In this contribution, we determine the genetic population structure in the Skunk Clownfish (Amphiprion akallopsisos) across the Indian Ocean, and on a smaller geographic scale in the Western Indian Ocean (WIO). Highly restricted gene flow was discovered between populations on either side of the Indian Ocean using the control region as a mitochondrial marker (mtDNA). We verify this conclusion using 13 microsatellite markers and infer fine scale genetic structuring within the WIO. In total 387 samples from 21 sites were analysed using mtDNA and 13 microsatellite loci...
2018: PloS One
Simon E Freeman, Lloyd Emokpae, Jeffrey S Rogers, Geoffrey F Edelmann
Recently developed low-power Chip-Scale Atomic Clocks (CSACs) hold promise for underwater acoustics applications because they enable time-coherent processing, critical for estimating the directionality of the sound field, when acoustic array elements cannot share a timing reference. Controlled, tank-based experiments with a small acoustic array (N = 4) featuring CSAC-equipped elements show that optimal disciplining is important for continued array coherence. Clock drift equivalent to a 10% wavelength error at 0...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Alejandro Gallego, Rory O'Hara Murray, Barbara Berx, William R Turrell, C J Beegle-Krause, Mark Inall, Toby Sherwin, John Siddorn, Sarah Wakelin, Vasyl Vlasenko, Lars R Hole, Knut Frode Dagestad, John Rees, Lucy Short, Petter Rønningen, Charlotte E Main, Sebastien Legrand, Tony Gutierrez, Ursula Witte, Nicole Mulanaphy
As oil reserves in established basins become depleted, exploration and production moves towards relatively unexploited areas, such as deep waters off the continental shelf. The Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC, NE Atlantic) and adjacent areas have been subject to increased focus by the oil industry. In addition to extreme depths, metocean conditions in this region characterise an environment with high waves and strong winds, strong currents, complex circulation patterns, sharp density gradients, and large small- and mesoscale variability...
February 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
R Nolasco, I Gomes, L Peteiro, R Albuquerque, T Luna, J Dubert, S E Swearer, H Queiroga
Marine larval dispersal is a complex biophysical process that depends on the effects of species biology and oceanography, leading to logistical difficulties in estimating connectivity among populations of marine animals with biphasic life cycles. To address this challenge, the application of multiple methodological approaches has been advocated, in order to increase confidence in estimates of population connectivity. However, studies seldom account for sources of uncertainty associated with each method, which undermines a direct comparative approach...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Richard C Dugdale
My evolution from electrical engineering student to limnologist and then to oceanographer was a consequence of generous mentoring, which led to my use of the15 N tracer technique to measure nitrogen fixation in aquatic systems. The concept of new and regenerated production arose when I applied this method to measure nitrate and ammonium uptake in marine ecosystems. I then showed that enzyme kinetics could be applied to algal nitrogen uptake and used a silicate pump to explain silicate limitation of diatoms in coastal and equatorial upwelling systems...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
R S Johnson
This review makes a case for describing many of the flows observed in our oceans, simply based on the Euler equation, with (piecewise) constant density and with suitable boundary conditions. The analyses start from the Euler and mass conservation equations, expressed in a rotating, spherical coordinate system (but the f -plane and β -plane approximations are also mentioned); five examples are discussed. For three of them, a suitable non-dimensionalization is introduced, and a single small parameter is identified in each case...
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Jessica Lehman
The dominant practices of physical oceanography have recently shifted from being based on ship-based ocean sampling and sensing to being based on remote and robotic sensing using satellites, drifting floats and remotely operated and autonomous underwater vehicles. What are the implications of this change for the social relations of oceanographic science? This paper contributes to efforts to address this question, pursuing a situated view of ocean sensing technologies so as to contextualize and analyze new representations of the sea, and interactions between individual scientists, technologies and the ocean...
February 2018: Social Studies of Science
Wenting Bu, Jian Zheng, Michael E Ketterer, Sheng Hu, Shigeo Uchida, Xiaolin Wang
Measurements of the long-lived radionuclide236 U are an important endeavor, not only in nuclear safeguards work, but also in terms of using this emerging nuclide as a tracer in chemical oceanography, hydrology, and actinide sourcing. Depending on the properties of a sample and its neutron irradiation history,236 U/238 U ratios from different sources vary significantly. Therefore, this ratio can be treated as an important fingerprint for radioactive source identification, and in particular, affords a definitive means of discriminating between naturally occurring U and specific types of anthropogenic U...
December 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Andrew L Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Nature
Ate Visser, Melissa Thaw, Brad Esser
Understanding the behavior of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, in the environment is important to evaluate the exposure risk of anthropogenic releases, and for its application as a tracer in hydrology and oceanography. To understand and predict the variability of tritium in precipitation, HYSPLIT air mass trajectories were analyzed for 16 aggregate precipitation samples collected over a 2 year period at irregular intervals at a research site located at 2000 m elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada (California, USA)...
January 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Rocio I Ruiz-Cooley, Tim Gerrodette, Paul C Fiedler, Susan J Chivers, Kerri Danil, Lisa T Ballance
Climate variability alters nitrogen cycling, primary productivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration in marine ecosystems. We examined the role of this variability (as measured by six variables) on food chain length (FCL) in the California Current (CC) by reconstructing a time series of amino acid-specific δ15 N values derived from common dolphins, an apex pelagic predator, and using two FCL proxies. Strong declines in FCL were observed after the 1997-1999 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. Bayesian models revealed longer FCLs under intermediate conditions for surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration, multivariate ENSO index, and total plankton volume but not for hypoxic depth and nitrate concentration...
October 2017: Science Advances
Rebecca Mueller, Jeffrey T Wright, Christopher J S Bolch
The palaeoceanography of southern Australia has been characterized by fluctuating sea levels during glacial periods, changing temperature regimes and modified boundary currents. Previous studies on genetic structuring of species in southeastern Australia have focused mainly on the differentiation of eastern and western populations while the potential role of Bass Strait as a region of overlap for three biogeographic provinces (Peronia, Maugea, and Flindersia) has been largely ignored. This study aimed to explore the likely roles of historic and contemporary factors in determining divergence patterns in the habitat-forming intertidal seaweed Hormosira banksii in southeastern Australia with a special focus on postglacial dispersal into Bass Strait...
February 2018: Journal of Phycology
Yoav Lehahn, Francesco d'Ovidio, Ilan Koren
The well-lit upper layer of the open ocean is a dynamical environment that hosts approximately half of global primary production. In the remote parts of this environment, distant from the coast and from the seabed, there is no obvious spatially fixed reference frame for describing the dynamics of the microscopic drifting organisms responsible for this immense production of organic matter-the phytoplankton. Thus, a natural perspective for studying phytoplankton dynamics is to follow the trajectories of water parcels in which the organisms are embedded...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
Chris A Hostetler, Michael J Behrenfeld, Yongxiang Hu, Johnathan W Hair, Jennifer A Schulien
Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
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