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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126475/development-and-application-of-mass-spectrometric-techniques-for-ultra-trace-determination-of-236-u-in-environmental-samples-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Wenting Bu, Jian Zheng, Michael E Ketterer, Sheng Hu, Shigeo Uchida, Xiaolin Wang
Measurements of the long-lived radionuclide (236)U are an important endeavor, not only in nuclear safeguards work, but also in terms of using this emerging nuclide as a tracer in chemical oceanography, hydrology, and actinide sourcing. Depending on the properties of a sample and its neutron irradiation history, (236)U/(238)U ratios from different sources vary significantly. Therefore, this ratio can be treated as an important fingerprint for radioactive source identification, and in particular, affords a definitive means of discriminating between naturally occurring U and specific types of anthropogenic U...
December 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120425/oceanography-mixed-up-at-the-sea-floor
#2
Andrew L Stewart
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096152/analysis-of-air-mass-trajectories-to-explain-observed-variability-of-tritium-in-precipitation-at-the-southern-sierra-critical-zone-observatory-california-usa
#3
Ate Visser, Melissa Thaw, Brad Esser
Understanding the behavior of tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, in the environment is important to evaluate the exposure risk of anthropogenic releases, and for its application as a tracer in hydrology and oceanography. To understand and predict the variability of tritium in precipitation, HYSPLIT air mass trajectories were analyzed for 16 aggregate precipitation samples collected over a 2 year period at irregular intervals at a research site located at 2000 m elevation in the southern Sierra Nevada (California, USA)...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057322/temporal-variation-in-pelagic-food-chain-length-in-response-to-environmental-change
#4
Rocio I Ruiz-Cooley, Tim Gerrodette, Paul C Fiedler, Susan J Chivers, Kerri Danil, Lisa T Ballance
Climate variability alters nitrogen cycling, primary productivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration in marine ecosystems. We examined the role of this variability (as measured by six variables) on food chain length (FCL) in the California Current (CC) by reconstructing a time series of amino acid-specific δ(15)N values derived from common dolphins, an apex pelagic predator, and using two FCL proxies. Strong declines in FCL were observed after the 1997-1999 El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event. Bayesian models revealed longer FCLs under intermediate conditions for surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration, multivariate ENSO index, and total plankton volume but not for hypoxic depth and nitrate concentration...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054124/historical-demography-and-colonization-pathways-of-the-widespread-intertidal-seaweed-hormosira-banksii-phaeophyceae-in-southeastern-australia
#5
Rebecca Mueller, Jeffrey T Wright, Christopher J S Bolch
The palaeoceanography of southern Australia has been characterized by fluctuating sea levels during glacial periods, changing temperature regimes and modified boundary currents. Previous studies on genetic structuring of species in southeastern Australia have focused mainly on the differentiation of eastern and western populations while the potential role of Bass Strait as a region of overlap for three biogeographic provinces (Peronia, Maugea, and Flindersia) has been largely ignored. This study aimed to explore the likely roles of historic and contemporary factors in determining divergence patterns in the habitat-forming intertidal seaweed Hormosira banksii in southeastern Australia with a special focus on postglacial dispersal into Bass Strait...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961072/a-satellite-based-lagrangian-view-on-phytoplankton-dynamics
#6
Yoav Lehahn, Francesco d'Ovidio, Ilan Koren
The well-lit upper layer of the open ocean is a dynamical environment that hosts approximately half of global primary production. In the remote parts of this environment, distant from the coast and from the seabed, there is no obvious spatially fixed reference frame for describing the dynamics of the microscopic drifting organisms responsible for this immense production of organic matter-the phytoplankton. Thus, a natural perspective for studying phytoplankton dynamics is to follow the trajectories of water parcels in which the organisms are embedded...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961071/spaceborne-lidar-in-the-study-of-marine-systems
#7
Chris A Hostetler, Michael J Behrenfeld, Yongxiang Hu, Johnathan W Hair, Jennifer A Schulien
Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898078/review-of-oceanography-and-marine-biology-oceanography-and-marine-biology-an-annual-review-volume-54-edited-by-roger-n-hughes-bangor-university-uk-david-j-hughes-scottish-association-for-marine-science-uk-i-peter-smith-university-of-aberdeen-uk-and-andrew-c
#8
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747798/microbial-planktonic-communities-in-the-red-sea-high-levels-of-spatial-and-temporal-variability-shaped-by-nutrient-availability-and-turbulence
#9
John K Pearman, Joanne Ellis, Xabier Irigoien, Y V B Sarma, Burton H Jones, Susana Carvalho
The semi-enclosed nature of the Red Sea (20.2°N-38.5°N) makes it a natural laboratory to study the influence of environmental gradients on microbial communities. This study investigates the composition and structure of microbial prokaryotes and eukaryotes using molecular methods, targeting ribosomal RNA genes across different regions and seasons. The interaction between spatial and temporal scales results in different scenarios of turbulence and nutrient conditions allowing for testing of ecological theory that categorizes the response of the plankton community to these variations...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724699/early-career-researchers-an-interview-with-jeremy-goldbogen
#10
(no author information available yet)
Jeremy Goldbogen is an Assistant Professor at the Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, USA, where he studies the integrative biology of vertebrate filter feeders from forage fish to baleen whales. He received his Bachelor's degree in Zoology from the University of Texas, Austin, USA, before moving to the Scripps Institution of Oceanography and then the University of British Columbia for his PhD, which he completed in 2010 in the laboratory of Bob Shadwick. After a short postdoc at Scripps, Goldbogen moved to continue his postdoc training at the Cascadia Research Collective in Olympia, Washington...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708148/real-time-fiber-optic-anemometer-based-on-a-laser-heated-few-layer-graphene-in-an-aligned-graded-index-fiber
#11
Ran Gao, Danfeng Lu, Jin Cheng, Zhi-Mei Qi
A real-time all-fiber anemometer based on laser-heated few-layer graphene in aligned graded-index fibers has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed fiber-optic anemometer was composed of a pair of all-fiber collimators by using aligned graded-index fibers that was coated with the few-layer graphene. The few-layer graphene was heated through a heating light from a 532-nm laser, which changed the optical transmittance of signal light with the wavelength of 1550 nm. The wind speed can be measured through the transmission power of the signal light based on the wind cooling effects on the heated few-layer graphene, acting as a "hot-wire" anemometer...
July 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663746/marine-group-ii-dominates-planktonic-archaea-in-water-column-of-the-northeastern-south-china-sea
#12
Haodong Liu, Chuanlun L Zhang, Chunyan Yang, Songze Chen, Zhiwei Cao, Zhiwei Zhang, Jiwei Tian
Temperature, nutrients, and salinity are among the important factors constraining the distribution and abundance of microorganisms in the ocean. Marine Group II (MGII) belonging to Euryarchaeota commonly dominates the planktonic archaeal community in shallow water and Marine Group I (MGI, now is called Thaumarchaeota) in deeper water in global oceans. Results of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454 sequencing in our study, however, showed the dominance of MGII in planktonic archaea throughout the water column of the northeastern South China Sea (SCS) that is characterized by strong water mixing...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599567/the-stochastic-cram%C3%A3-r-rao-bound-for-source-localization-and-medium-tomography-using-vector-sensors
#13
Arthur B Baggeroer
A direct version for the stochastic Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) for parameters of Gaussian signals with additive Gaussian noise is introduced. The formulation applies to passive and active radars/sonars/seismics/structures with vector observations from multiple sources. These sensors include pressure, vector velocity, and/or acceleration sensors for ocean and structural acoustics, seismometers, polarized receivers for electromagnetics, and vector current meters for oceanography. The observations may contain partially coherent signals such as multipath...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586678/polar-oceans-in-a-changing-climate
#14
David K A Barnes, Geraint A Tarling
Most of Earth's surface is blue or white, but how much of each would depend on the time of observation. Our planet has been through phases of snowball (all frozen), greenhouse (all liquid seas) and icehouse (frozen and liquid). Even during current icehouse conditions, the extent of ice versus water has changed considerably between ice ages and interglacial periods. Water has been vital for life on Earth and has driven and been influenced by transitions between greenhouse and icehouse. However, neither the possession of water nor having liquid and frozen seas are unique to Earth (Figure 1)...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575078/dynamic-oceanography-determines-fine-scale-foraging-behavior-of-masked-boobies-in-the-gulf-of-mexico
#15
Caroline L Poli, Autumn-Lynn Harrison, Adriana Vallarino, Patrick D Gerard, Patrick G R Jodice
During breeding, foraging marine birds are under biological, geographic, and temporal constraints. These contraints require foraging birds to efficiently process environmental cues derived from physical habitat features that occur at nested spatial scales. Mesoscale oceanography in particular may change rapidly within and between breeding seasons, and findings from well-studied systems that relate oceanography to seabird foraging may transfer poorly to regions with substantially different oceanographic conditions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573024/does-behaviour-affect-the-dispersal-of-flatback-post-hatchlings-in-the-great-barrier-reef
#16
Natalie Wildermann, Kay Critchell, Mariana M P B Fuentes, Colin J Limpus, Eric Wolanski, Mark Hamann
The ability of individuals to actively control their movements, especially during the early life stages, can significantly influence the distribution of their population. Most marine turtle species develop oceanic foraging habitats during different life stages. However, flatback turtles (Natator depressus) are endemic to Australia and are the only marine turtle species with an exclusive neritic development. To explain the lack of oceanic dispersal of this species, we predicted the dispersal of post-hatchlings in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia, using oceanographic advection-dispersal models...
May 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536570/the-importance-of-h-in-particulate-organic-matter-stoichiometry-export-and-energy-flow
#17
REVIEW
David M Karl, Eric Grabowski
The discipline of marine ecological stoichiometry has progressed rapidly over the past two decades, and continues to be at the forefront of microbial oceanography. Most of this effort has been focused on the elements carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and to a lesser extent phosphorus (P), with little consideration of hydrogen (H), or the redox state of the organic matter pools despite the fact that H is the most abundant, and possibly the most important, element in biogeochemistry. Obtaining accurate estimates of the H content of organic matter, either in suspended or sinking particles, is a major analytical challenge...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505714/interactions-of-localized-wave-structures-and-dynamics-in-the-defocusing-coupled-nonlinear-schr%C3%A3-dinger-equations
#18
Guoqiang Zhang, Zhenya Yan, Xiao-Yong Wen, Yong Chen
We investigate the defocusing coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations from a 3×3 Lax pair. The Darboux transformations with the nonzero plane-wave solutions are presented to derive the newly localized wave solutions including dark-dark and bright-dark solitons, breather-breather solutions, and different types of new vector rogue wave solutions, as well as interactions between distinct types of localized wave solutions. Moreover, we analyze these solutions by means of parameters modulation. Finally, the perturbed wave propagations of some obtained solutions are explored by means of systematic simulations, which demonstrates that nearly stable and strongly unstable solutions...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479280/pelagic-and-benthic-communities-of-the-antarctic-ecosystem-of-potter-cove-genomics-and-ecological-implications
#19
REVIEW
D Abele, S Vazquez, A G J Buma, E Hernandez, C Quiroga, C Held, S Frickenhaus, L Harms, J L Lopez, E Helmke, W P Mac Cormack
Molecular technologies are more frequently applied in Antarctic ecosystem research and the growing amount of sequence-based information available in databases adds a new dimension to understanding the response of Antarctic organisms and communities to environmental change. We apply molecular techniques, including fingerprinting, and amplicon and metagenome sequencing, to understand biodiversity and phylogeography to resolve adaptive processes in an Antarctic coastal ecosystem from microbial to macrobenthic organisms and communities...
June 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451711/human-hair-baltic-grey-seal-halichoerus-grypus-fur-and-herring-gull-larus-argentatus-feathers-as-accumulators-of-bisphenol-a-and-alkylphenols
#20
Iga Nehring, Marta Staniszewska, Lucyna Falkowska
The purpose of the study was to determine the concentration of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), and 4-nonylphenol (NP), in human hair, the fur of Baltic grey seals and the feathers of herring gulls. Hair was collected from 42 volunteers, while grey seal fur (n = 17) came from the seal centre in Hel (Marine Station of Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdansk) and gull covert feathers (n = 26) were collected from dead herring gulls along the Southern Baltic coast. Assays of phenol derivatives were conducted using the high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection technique...
May 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
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