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Robert W McNabb, Jamie N Womble, Anupma Prakash, Rudiger Gens, Christian E Haselwimmer
Tidewater glaciers are glaciers that terminate in, and calve icebergs into, the ocean. In addition to the influence that tidewater glaciers have on physical and chemical oceanography, floating icebergs serve as habitat for marine animals such as harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii). The availability and spatial distribution of glacier ice in the fjords is likely a key environmental variable that influences the abundance and distribution of selected marine mammals; however, the amount of ice and the fine-scale characteristics of ice in fjords have not been systematically quantified...
2016: PloS One
Matt Ian Daniel Carter, Kimberley A Bennett, Clare B Embling, Philip J Hosegood, Debbie J F Russell
In the last thirty years, the emergence and progression of biologging technology has led to great advances in marine predator ecology. Large databases of location and dive observations from biologging devices have been compiled for an increasing number of diving predator species (such as pinnipeds, sea turtles, seabirds and cetaceans), enabling complex questions about animal activity budgets and habitat use to be addressed. Central to answering these questions is our ability to correctly identify and quantify the frequency of essential behaviours, such as foraging...
2016: Movement Ecology
David K A Barnes
Climate-forced ice losses are increasing potential for iceberg-seabed collisions, termed ice scour. At Ryder Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) sea ice, oceanography, phytoplankton and encrusting zoobenthos have been monitored since 1998. In 2003, grids of seabed markers, covering 225 m(2) , were established, surveyed and replaced annually to measure ice scour frequency. Disturbance history has been recorded for each m(2) of seabed monitored at 5-25 m for ~13 years. Encrusting fauna, collected from impacted and nonimpacted metres each year, show coincident benthos responses in growth, mortality and mass of benthic immobilized carbon...
October 26, 2016: Global Change Biology
Ala Khazendar, Eric Rignot, Dustin M Schroeder, Helene Seroussi, Michael P Schodlok, Bernd Scheuchl, Jeremie Mouginot, Tyler C Sutterley, Isabella Velicogna
Enhanced submarine ice-shelf melting strongly controls ice loss in the Amundsen Sea embayment (ASE) of West Antarctica, but its magnitude is not well known in the critical grounding zones of the ASE's major glaciers. Here we directly quantify bottom ice losses along tens of kilometres with airborne radar sounding of the Dotson and Crosson ice shelves, which buttress the rapidly changing Smith, Pope and Kohler glaciers. Melting in the grounding zones is found to be much higher than steady-state levels, removing 300-490 m of solid ice between 2002 and 2009 beneath the retreating Smith Glacier...
October 25, 2016: Nature Communications
Boris A López, Erasmo C Macaya, Fadia Tala, Florence Tellier, Martin Thiel
Dispersal on floating seaweeds depends on availability, viability, and trajectories of the rafts. In the southern hemisphere, the bull kelp Durvillaea antarctica is one of the most common floating seaweeds, but phylogeographic studies had shown low connectivity between populations from continental Chile, which could be due to limitations in local supply and dispersal of floating kelps. To test this hypothesis, the spatiotemporal dynamics of kelp strandings were examined in four biogeographic districts along the Chilean coast (28°-42°S)...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Phycology
Peter R Teske, Jonathan Sandoval-Castillo, Erik van Sebille, Jonathan Waters, Luciano B Beheregaray
The application of high-resolution genetic data has revealed that oceanographic connectivity in marine species with planktonic larvae can be surprisingly limited, even in the absence of major barriers to dispersal. Australia's southern coast represents a particularly interesting system for studying planktonic larval dispersal, as the hydrodynamic regime of the wide continental shelf has potential to facilitate onshore retention of larvae. We used a seascape genetics approach (the joint analysis of genetic data and oceanographic connectivity simulations) to assess population genetic structure and self-recruitment in a broadcast-spawning marine gastropod that exists as a single meta-population throughout its temperate Australian range...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ango C Hsu, Andre M Boustany, Jason J Roberts, Jui-Han Chang, Patrick N Halpin
To analyze the effects of mesoscale eddies, sea surface temperature (SST), and gear configuration on the catch of Atlantic bluefin (Thunnus thynnus), yellowfin (Thunnus albacares), and bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus) and swordfish (Xiphias gladius) in the U.S. northwest Atlantic longline fishery, we constructed multivariate statistical models relating these variables to the catch of the four species in 62 121 longline hauls made between 1993 and 2005. During the same 13-year period, 103 anticyclonic eddies and 269 cyclonic eddies were detected by our algorithm in the region 30-55°N, 30-80°W...
November 2015: Fisheries Oceanography
Sara Billerbeck, Bernd Wemheuer, Sonja Voget, Anja Poehlein, Helge-Ansgar Giebel, Thorsten Brinkhoff, Lone Gram, Wade H Jeffrey, Rolf Daniel, Meinhard Simon
The identification and functional characterization of microbial communities remains a prevailing topic in microbial oceanography as information on environmentally relevant pelagic prokaryotes is still limited. The Roseobacter group, an abundant lineage of marine Alphaproteobacteria, can constitute large proportions of the bacterioplankton. Roseobacters also occur associated with eukaryotic organisms and possess streamlined as well as larger genomes from 2.2 to >5 Mpb. Here, we show that one pelagic cluster of this group, CHAB-I-5, occurs globally from tropical to polar regions and accounts for up to 22% of the active North Sea bacterioplankton in the summer...
2016: Nature Microbiology
Rex Harland, Irina Polovodova Asteman, Audrey Morley, Angela Morris, Anthony Harris, John A Howe
The analyses of dinoflagellate cyst records, from the latest Quaternary sediments recovered from DSDP Core 610A taken on the Feni Ridge in the southern Rockall Trough, and part of core MD01-2461 on the continental margin of the Porcupine Seabight in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean, has provided evidence for significant oceanographic change encompassing the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and part of the Holocene. This together with other published records has led to a regional evaluation of oceanographic change in the eastern North Atlantic over the past 68 ka, based upon a distinctive dinoflagellate event ecostratigraphy...
May 2016: Heliyon
Brian W Bowen, Michelle R Gaither, Joseph D DiBattista, Matthew Iacchei, Kimberly R Andrews, W Stewart Grant, Robert J Toonen, John C Briggs
Understanding how geography, oceanography, and climate have ultimately shaped marine biodiversity requires aligning the distributions of genetic diversity across multiple taxa. Here, we examine phylogeographic partitions in the sea against a backdrop of biogeographic provinces defined by taxonomy, endemism, and species composition. The taxonomic identities used to define biogeographic provinces are routinely accompanied by diagnostic genetic differences between sister species, indicating interspecific concordance between biogeography and phylogeography...
July 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tae-Ho Yoon, Hye-Eun Kang, Chang-Keun Kang, Sang Heon Lee, Do-Hwan Ahn, Hyun Park, Hyun-Woo Kim
We developed a cost-effective metabarcoding strategy to analyze phytoplankton community structure using the Illumina MiSeq system. The amplicons (404-411 bp) obtained by end-pairing of two reads were sufficiently long to distinguish algal species and provided barcode data equivalent to those generated with the Roche 454 system, but at less than 1/20th of the cost. The original universal primer sequences targeting the 23S rDNA region and the PCR strategy were both modified, and this resulted in higher numbers of eukaryotic algal sequences by excluding non-photosynthetic proteobacterial sequences supporting effectiveness of this strategy...
2016: PeerJ
Alastair M M Baylis, Gabriele J Kowalski, Christian C Voigt, Rachael A Orben, Fritz Trillmich, Iain J Staniland, Joseph I Hoffman
Individuals within populations often differ substantially in habitat use, the ecological consequences of which can be far reaching. Stable isotope analysis provides a convenient and often cost effective means of indirectly assessing the habitat use of individuals that can yield valuable insights into the spatiotemporal distribution of foraging specialisations within a population. Here we use the stable isotope ratios of southern sea lion (Otaria flavescens) pup vibrissae at the Falkland Islands, in the South Atlantic, as a proxy for adult female habitat use during gestation...
2016: PloS One
(no author information available yet)
If systems biology is about understanding how links between components yield emergent phenomena, this month's Cell Systems Call (Cell Systems 1, 307) contains a veritable bounty of examples, showcasing the breadth of the field from systems oceanography to molecular evolution to the influence of cellular niche microenvironments on stem cell development.
May 25, 2016: Cell Systems
Eric Hand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 13, 2016: Science
Asia O Armstrong, Amelia J Armstrong, Fabrice R A Jaine, Lydie I E Couturier, Kym Fiora, Julian Uribe-Palomino, Scarla J Weeks, Kathy A Townsend, Mike B Bennett, Anthony J Richardson
Large tropical and sub-tropical marine animals must meet their energetic requirements in a largely oligotrophic environment. Many planktivorous elasmobranchs, whose thermal ecologies prevent foraging in nutrient-rich polar waters, aggregate seasonally at predictable locations throughout tropical oceans where they are observed feeding. Here we investigate the foraging and oceanographic environment around Lady Elliot Island, a known aggregation site for reef manta rays Manta alfredi in the southern Great Barrier Reef...
2016: PloS One
Lili Zeng, Dongxiao Wang, Ju Chen, Weiqiang Wang, Rongyu Chen
In addition to the oceanographic data available for the South China Sea (SCS) from the World Ocean Database (WOD) and Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) floats, a suite of observations has been made by the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO) starting from the 1970s. Here, we assemble a SCS Physical Oceanographic Dataset (SCSPOD14) based on 51,392 validated temperature and salinity profiles collected from these three datasets for the period 1919-2014. A gridded dataset of climatological monthly mean temperature, salinity, and mixed and isothermal layer depth derived from an objective analysis of profiles is also presented...
2016: Scientific Data
Elizabeth A Ottesen
This review discusses the role of ecogenomic sensors in biological oceanography. Ecogenomic sensors are instruments that can autonomously collect biological samples and perform molecular analyses. This technology reduces logistical constraints on the length and duration of biological data collection. Autonomous, robotic performance of molecular assays shows particular promise in the field of public health. Recent applications include simultaneous detection of harmful algal species and fecal markers paired with same-day remote reporting of test results...
June 2016: Current Opinion in Microbiology
T Frede Thingstad, Gunnar Bratbak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 24, 2016: Nature
Kevin D Heaney, Richard L Campbell
The impact of mesoscale oceanography, including ocean fronts and eddies, on global scale low-frequency acoustics is examined using a fully three-dimensional parabolic equation model. The narrowband acoustic signal, for frequencies from 2 to 16 Hz, is simulated from a seismic event on the Kerguellen Plateau in the South Indian Ocean to an array of receivers south of Ascension Island in the South Atlantic, a distance of 9100 km. The path was chosen for its relevance to seismic detections from the HA10 Ascension Island station of the International Monitoring System, for its lack of bathymetric interaction, and for the dynamic oceanography encountered as the sound passes the Cape of Good Hope...
February 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
D M P Cantatore, M M Irigoitia, A S Holzer, J T Timi
Myxozoans have been successfully used as tags for fish stock identification around the world. However, few studies using myxozoan tags have been carried out in the Southern Atlantic, a region with complex oceanography that constitutes a potentially suitable scenario for testing the utility of myxozoans as indicators. Its usefulness was tested using six samples of Merluccius hubbsi in two different regions of the Argentine Sea. Generalized linear models were performed to assess the effects of fish size and sex, and year and region of capture and selected using the Information Theoretic approach...
May 2016: Parasitology
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