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Kynurenic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338954/meta-analysis-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytokine-and-tryptophan-catabolite-alterations-in-psychiatric-patients-comparisons-between-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-and-depression
#1
Alexandre K Wang, Brian J Miller
INTRODUCTION: Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder (MDD) have all been associated with immune system dysfunction, including aberrant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines and tryptophan catabolites; however, the pattern of alterations has not been compared across disorders. We performed a meta-analysis of CSF cytokine and tryptophan catabolites in patients with these major psychiatric disorders. METHODS: Articles were identified by searching Pub Med, PsycInfo, and Web of Science, and the reference lists of these studies...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337634/topical-dura-mater-application-of-cfa-induces-enhanced-expression-of-c-fos-and-glutamate-in-rat-trigeminal-nucleus-caudalis-attenuated-by-kyna-derivate-szr72
#2
M Lukács, K Warfvinge, J Tajti, F Fülöp, J Toldi, L Vécsei, L Edvinsson
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a debilitating neurological disorder where trigeminovascular activation plays a key role. We have previously reported that local application of Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) onto the dura mater caused activation in rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) which was abolished by a systemic administration of kynurenic acid (KYNA) derivate (SZR72). Here, we hypothesize that this activation may extend to the trigeminal complex in the brainstem and is attenuated by treatment with SZR72...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314892/abnormal-kynurenine-pathway-of-tryptophan-catabolism-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Ping Song, Tharmarajan Ramprasath, Huan Wang, Ming-Hui Zou
Kynurenine pathway (KP) is the primary path of tryptophan (Trp) catabolism in most mammalian cells. The KP generates several bioactive catabolites, such as kynurenine (Kyn), kynurenic acid (KA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), xanthurenic acid (XA), and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA). Increased catabolite concentrations in serum are associated with several cardiovascular diseases (CVD), including heart disease, atherosclerosis, and endothelial dysfunction, as well as their risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and aging...
March 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290151/deficit-schizophrenia-is-characterized-by-defects-in-igm-mediated-responses-to-tryptophan-catabolites-trycats-a-paradigm-shift-towards-defects-in-natural-self-regulatory-immune-responses-coupled-with-mucosa-derived-trycat-pathway-activation
#4
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Kiat Ruxrungtham, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, George Anderson, Michael Maes
Deficit schizophrenia is accompanied by mucosa-associated activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway, as indicated by increased IgA responses to noxious (NOX) TRYCATs, but not regulatory or protective (PRO) TRYCATs, suggesting increased neurotoxic, excitotoxic, inflammatory, and oxidative potential. No previous studies examined IgM-mediated autoimmune responses to the TRYCAT pathway in deficit versus nondeficit schizophrenia. We measured IgM responses to NOX TRYCATs, namely, quinolinic acid (QA), 3-OH-kynurenine (3HK), picolinic acid (PA), and xanthurenic (XA) acid, and PRO TRYCATs, including kynurenic acid (KA) and anthranilic acid (AA), in 40 healthy controls and 40 deficit and 40 nondeficit schizophrenic patients...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285360/kynurenic-acid-downregulates-il-17-1l-23-axis-in-vitro
#5
Sanam Salimi Elizei, Malihe-Sadat Poormasjedi-Meibod, Xia Wang, Maryam Kheirandish, Aziz Ghahary
Exploring the function of interleukin (IL) 17 and related cytokine interactions have been proven useful toward understanding the role of inflammation in autoimmune diseases. Production of the inflammatory cytokine IL-23 by dendritic cells (DC's) has been shown to promote IL-17 expression by Th17 cells. It is well established that Th17 cells play an important role in several autoimmune diseases including psoriasis and alopecia. Our recent investigations have suggested that Kynurenine-rich environment can shift a pro-inflammatory response to an anti-inflammatory response, as is the case in the presence of the enzyme Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO), the rate-limiting enzyme in tryptophan degradation and Kynurenine (Kyn) production...
March 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280461/glutamate-and-opioid-antagonists-modulate-dopamine-levels-evoked-by-innately-attractive-male-chemosignals-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-female-rats
#6
María-José Sánchez-Catalán, Alejandro Orrico, Lucía Hipólito, Teodoro Zornoza, Ana Polache, Enrique Lanuza, Fernando Martínez-García, Luis Granero, Carmen Agustín-Pavón
Sexual chemosignals detected by vomeronasal and olfactory systems mediate intersexual attraction in rodents, and act as a natural reinforcer to them. The mesolimbic pathway processes natural rewards, and the nucleus accumbens receives olfactory information via glutamatergic projections from the amygdala. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the mesolimbic pathway in the attraction toward sexual chemosignals. Our data show that female rats with no previous experience with males or their chemosignals display an innate preference for male-soiled bedding...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275903/correlations-of-kynurenic-acid-3-hydroxykynurenine-sil-2r-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-4-with-clinical-symptoms-during-acute-relapse-of-schizophrenia
#7
Kinga Szymona, Barbara Zdzisińska, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Tomasz Kocki, Martyna Kandefer-Szerszeń, Marta Flis, Wojciech Rosa, Ewa M Urbańska
Several lines of evidence suggest that up-regulation of immune response and alterations of kynurenine pathway function are involved in pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Correlations among clinical status (using PANNS, SANS and SAPS scales) and blood levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) and levels of selected immunoactive molecules, soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R), interferon-α (IFN-α) and IL-4 were analyzed in 51 chronic schizophrenia patients during acute relapse, after four weeks of therapy and at remission...
March 8, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258445/physio-somatic-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-association-with-depression-anxiety-neurocognitive-deficits-and-the-tryptophan-catabolite-pathway
#8
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Supaksorn Thika, Kiat Ruxrungtham, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, George Anderson, Cristiano Noto, Rada Ivanova, Michael Maes
To investigate the frequency of physio-somatic symptoms (PS) symptoms in schizophrenia and their relation to positive, negative and affective symptoms; neurocognitive deficits and impairments in the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway. Eighty four patients with schizophrenia and 40 healthy controls were assessed using the 12 item Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Rating scale (FF) and scales for negative and positive symptoms, depression and anxiety. Cognitive functioning was tested using the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB)...
March 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250153/microinjection-of-kynurenic-acid-in-the-rostral-nucleus-of-the-tractus-solitarius-disrupts-spatiotemporal-aspects-of-mechanically-induced-tracheobronchial-cough
#9
Ivan Poliacek, Teresa Pitts, Melanie J Rose, Paul W Davenport, Michal Simera, Marcel Veternik, Zuzana Kotmanova, Donald C Bolser
The importance of neurons in the solitary tract nucleus (NTS) in the production of coughing was tested by microinjections of the non-specific glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (kyn; 100 mM in artificial cerebrospinal fluid) in 15 adult spontaneously breathing anesthetized cats. Repetitive coughing was elicited by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic airway. Electromyograms (EMG) were recorded from inspiratory parasternal and expiratory transversus abdominis muscles (ABD). Bilateral microinjections of kyn into the NTS rostral to obex (55±4 nl total in two locations; n=6 or 110±4 nl total in four locations; n=5), primarily the ventrolateral subnucleus, reduced cough number and expiratory cough efforts (amplitudes of ABD EMG and maxima of esophageal pressure) compared to control...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245765/kynurenines-and-pacap-in-migraine-medicinal-chemistry-and-pathogenetic-aspects
#10
János Tajti, Délia Szok, Gábor Nagy-Grócz, Bernadett Tuka, Anna Petrovics-Balog, József Toldi, László Vécsei
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a highly disabling neurovascular primary headache disorder, with its exact pathomechanism being still unrevealed. The current leading hypotheses are based on the sensitization and activation of the trigeminovascular system. OBJECTIVE: To review the literature with focus on the effects of kynurenines (L-kynurenine and kynurenic acid) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide on the regulation of the trigeminovascular system. METHOD: A literature search was conducted to identify preclinical and clinical publications (198 references) by using the keywords 'kynurenines', 'pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide', and 'migraine' in the database of MEDLINE/PubMed up to 10 September 2016for topical review...
February 27, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243208/high-kynurenine-a-tryptophan-metabolite-predicts-remission-in-patients-with-major-depression-to-add-on-treatment-with-celecoxib
#11
Daniela Krause, Aye-Mu Myint, Christine Schuett, Richard Musil, Sandra Dehning, Anja Cerovecki, Michael Riedel, Volker Arolt, Markus J Schwarz, Norbert Müller
BACKGROUND: Signs of an inflammatory process have been described in major depression. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized study of celecoxib or placebo add-on to reboxetine in 40 depressed patients, celecoxib treatment has beneficial effects. In order to evaluate the tryptophan/kynurenine metabolism and to identify predictors for remission, tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA), and quinolinic acid (QUIN) were estimated in the serum of 32 patients before and after treatment and in a group of 20 healthy controls...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241496/the-role-of-sarcosine-uracil-and-kynurenic-acid-metabolism-in-urine-for-diagnosis-and-progression-monitoring-of-prostate-cancer
#12
Georgios Gkotsos, Christina Virgiliou, Ioanna Lagoudaki, Chrysanthi Sardeli, Nikolaos Raikos, Georgios Theodoridis, Georgios Dimitriadis
The aim of this pilot study is to evaluate sarcosine, uracil, and kynurenic acid in urine as potential biomarkers in prostate cancer detection and progression monitoring. Sarcosine, uracil, and kynurenic acid were measured in urine samples of 32 prostate cancer patients prior to radical prostatectomy, 101 patients with increased prostate-specific antigen prior to ultrasonographically-guided prostatic biopsy collected before and after prostatic massage, and 15 healthy volunteers (controls). The results were related to histopathologic data, Gleason score, and PSA (Prostate Specific Antigen)...
February 23, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241062/increased-breakdown-of-kynurenine-towards-its-neurotoxic-branch-in-bipolar-disorder
#13
Armin Birner, Martina Platzer, Susanne Astrid Bengesser, Nina Dalkner, Frederike T Fellendorf, Robert Queissner, Rene Pilz, Philipp Rauch, Alexander Maget, Carlo Hamm, Simone Herzog-Eberhard, Harald Mangge, Dietmar Fuchs, Natalie Moll, Sieglinde Zelzer, Gregor Schütze, Markus Schwarz, Bernd Reininghaus, Hans-Peter Kapfhammer, Eva Z Reininghaus
INTRODUCTION: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disease which can take most different and unpredictable courses. It is accompanied by unspecific brainstructural changes and cognitive decline. The neurobiological underpinnings of these processes are still unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that tryptophan catabolites (TRYCATs), which involve all metabolites of tryptophan towards the kynurenine (KYN) branch, are involved in the etiology as well as in the course of BD. They are proposed to be mediators of immune-inflammation and neurodegeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224155/metabonomic-analysis-of-quercetin-against-the-toxicity-of-acrylamide-in-rat-urine
#14
Wei Bao, Can Cao, Siqi Li, Lu Bo, Meiyan Zhang, Xiujuan Zhao, Ying Liu, Changhao Sun
This research aims to determine whether quercetin has protective effects against the toxicity of acrylamide (AA) using metabonomic technology. Randomly, the rats were assigned into a control group, AA treatment group, quercetin treatment group and quercetin plus AA treatment group. Quercetin and AA were administered to rats daily via gavage and drinking water for 16 weeks, respectively. To detect the metabonomic profiles of urine, ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used. A total of 15 metabolites, including biomarkers of AA exposure (GAMA, AAMA, and iso-AAMA) and quercetin exposure (quercetin and isorhamnetin), were identified...
February 22, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214871/restraint-stress-during-pregnancy-rapidly-raises-kynurenic-acid-levels-in-mouse-placenta-and-fetal-brain
#15
Francesca M Notarangelo, Robert Schwarcz
Stressful events during pregnancy adversely affect brain development and may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders later in life. Early changes in the kynurenine (KYN) pathway (KP) of tryptophan (TRP) degradation, which contains several neuroactive metabolites, including kynurenic acid (KYNA), 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK), and quinolinic acid (QUIN), may constitute a molecular link between prenatal stress and delayed pathological consequences. To begin testing this hypothesis experimentally, we examined the effects of a 2-h restraint stress on KP metabolism in pregnant FVB/N mice on gestational day 17...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195169/untargeted-metabolomics-of-colonic-digests-reveals-kynurenine-pathway-metabolites-dityrosine-and-3-dehydroxycarnitine-as-red-versus-white-meat-discriminating-metabolites
#16
Caroline Rombouts, Lieselot Y Hemeryck, Thomas Van Hecke, Stefaan De Smet, Winnok H De Vos, Lynn Vanhaecke
Epidemiological research has demonstrated that the consumption of red meat is an important risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC), diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. However, there is no holistic insight in the (by-) products of meat digestion that may contribute to disease development. To address this hiatus, an untargeted mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was used to create red versus white meat associated metabolic fingerprints following in vitro colonic digestion using the fecal inocula of ten healthy volunteers...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187857/adaptive-and-behavioral-changes-in-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-knockout-mice-relevance-to-psychotic-disorders
#17
Sophie Erhardt, Ana Pocivavsek, Mariaelena Repici, Xi-Cong Liu, Sophie Imbeault, Daniel C Maddison, Marian A R Thomas, Joshua L Smalley, Markus K Larsson, Paul J Muchowski, Flaviano Giorgini, Robert Schwarcz
BACKGROUND: Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase converts kynurenine to 3-hydroxykynurenine, and its inhibition shunts the kynurenine pathway-which is implicated as dysfunctional in various psychiatric disorders-toward enhanced synthesis of kynurenic acid, an antagonist of both α7 nicotinic acetylcholine and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Possibly as a result of reduced kynurenine 3-monooxygenase activity, elevated central nervous system levels of kynurenic acid have been found in patients with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia...
December 16, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187219/kynurenic-acid-in-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Eric Plitman, Yusuke Iwata, Fernando Caravaggio, Shinichiro Nakajima, Jun Ku Chung, Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Hiroyoshi Takeuchi, M Mallar Chakravarty, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181189/deficit-but-not-nondeficit-schizophrenia-is-characterized-by-mucosa-associated-activation-of-the-tryptophan-catabolite-trycat-pathway-with-highly-specific-increases-in-iga-responses-directed-to-picolinic-xanthurenic-and-quinolinic-acid
#19
Buranee Kanchanatawan, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Kiat Ruxrungtham, André F Carvalho, Michel Geffard, Heidi Ormstad, George Anderson, Michael Maes
Evidence suggests that activation of the tryptophan catabolite (TRYCAT) pathway is involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. However, no previous study examined whether TRYCAT pathway activation is associated with deficit schizophrenia. We measured IgA responses to TRYCATs, namely quinolinic acid, picolinic acid, kynurenic acid, xanthurenic acid, and anthranilic acid and 3-OH-kynurenine, in 40 healthy controls and in schizophrenic patients with (n = 40) and without (n = 40) deficit, defined according to the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS)...
February 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179491/increases-in-plasma-tryptophan-are-inversely-associated-with-incident-cardiovascular-disease-in-the-prevenci%C3%A3-n-con-dieta-mediterr%C3%A3-nea-predimed-study
#20
Edward Yu, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Marta Guasch-Ferré, Yan Zheng, Estefania Toledo, Clary B Clish, Jordi Salas-Salvadó, Liming Liang, Dong D Wang, Dolores Corella, Montse Fitó, Enrique Gómez-Gracia, José Lapetra, Ramón Estruch, Emilio Ros, Montserrat Cofán, Fernando Arós, Dora Romaguera, Lluis Serra-Majem, Jose V Sorlí, Frank B Hu, Miguel A Martinez-Gonzalez
Background: During development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), interferon-γ-mediated inflammation accelerates degradation of tryptophan into downstream metabolites. A Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) consisting of a high intake of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), nuts, fruits, vegetables, and cereals has been demonstrated to lower the risk of CVD. The longitudinal relation between tryptophan and its downstream metabolites and CVD in the context of a MedDiet is unstudied.Objective: We sought to investigate the relation between metabolites in the tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and CVD in the context of a MedDiet pattern...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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