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Older adult

Nicolette F Sheridan, Timothy W Kenealy, Anita C Fitzgerald, Kerry Kuluski, Annette Dunham, Ann M McKillop, Allie Peckham, Ashlinder Gill
BACKGROUND: The impact of long-term conditions is the "healthcare equivalent to climate change." People with long-term conditions often feel they are a problem, a burden to themselves, their family and friends. Providers struggle to support patients to self-manage. The Practical Reviews in Self-Management Support (PRISMS) taxonomy lists what provider actions might support patient self-management. OBJECTIVE: To offer providers advice on how to support patient self-management...
September 22, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
Wouter Alexander Goudriaan, Gerrit Jan Harsevoort, Marije van Leeuwen, Antonius Adrianus Franken, Guus Johannes Maria Janus
PURPOSE: Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by increased bone fragility and susceptibility for fractures. A few studies described and compared treatment modalities for femur fractures in children with OI. However, no cohort studies on adults with OI have been published. This study on adult OI patients aims to give insight into the incidence of femur fractures and non-unions and its best treatment options to avert non-union. METHODS: In this retrospective, descriptive study of the OI expert clinic in The Netherlands, all medical charts of patients 16 years or older were analyzed for femur fracture incidence, non-union rate and treatment modality...
September 22, 2018: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
Beatrice J Edwards, Xiaotao Zhang, Ming Sun, Juhee Song, Peter Khalil, Meghan Sri Karuturi, Linda Pang, Yunlong Geng, Colin P Dinney, Vicente Valero, Richard E Champlin, Debasish Tripathy
OBJECTIVES: A growing number of patients with cancer are older adults. We sought to identify the predictors for overall survival (OS) in older adults with solid tumour and haematological malignancies between January 2013 and December 2016. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed, with a median follow-up of 12.8 months. ANALYSIS: univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis...
September 22, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Parinda A Mehta, Seth J Rotz, Navneet S Majhail
A slow but definite progress has been made in recognizing the differences in disease biology, host factors, and psychosocial issues related to management of hematologic malignancies including hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the adolescent and young adult (AYA) population. Improvement in survival rates among AYAs undergoing HCT for hematologic malignancies have paralleled those among children and older adults in the contemporary era. However, overall outcomes remain inferior compared to children largely due to higher rates of treatment related mortality and late relapses in AYA HCT recipients...
September 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Emerson Sebastião, Edward McAuley, Ryosuke Shigematsu, Brynn C Adamson, Rachel E Bollaert, Robert W Motl
There is very little known about exercise rehabilitation approaches for older adults with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet this growing segment of the MS population experiences declines in cognition and mobility associated with disease progression and aging. We conducted a RCT examining the feasibility of a 12-week, home-based Square-Stepping Exercise (SSE) program in older adults with MS. Older adults with MS (N = 26) with mild-to-moderate levels of disability were recruited and randomized into the intervention (i...
September 19, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016, provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of lower respiratory infections in 195 countries. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies spanning the past 26 years and shows how the burden of lower respiratory infection has changed in people of all ages. METHODS: We used three separate modelling strategies for lower respiratory infections in GBD 2016: a Bayesian hierarchical ensemble modelling platform (Cause of Death Ensemble model), which uses vital registration, verbal autopsy data, and surveillance system data to predict mortality due to lower respiratory infections; a compartmental meta-regression tool (DisMod-MR), which uses scientific literature, population representative surveys, and health-care data to predict incidence, prevalence, and mortality; and modelling of counterfactual estimates of the population attributable fraction of lower respiratory infection episodes due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae type b, influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus...
September 19, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 provides an up-to-date analysis of the burden of diarrhoea in 195 countries. This study assesses cases, deaths, and aetiologies in 1990-2016 and assesses how the burden of diarrhoea has changed in people of all ages. METHODS: We modelled diarrhoea mortality with a Bayesian hierarchical modelling platform that evaluates a wide range of covariates and model types on the basis of vital registration and verbal autopsy data...
September 19, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Yin Yang, Yanfei Guo, Zhengmin Min Qian, Zengliang Ruan, Yang Zheng, Alistair Woodward, Siqi Ai, Steven W Howard, Michael G Vaughn, Wenjun Ma, Fan Wu, Hualiang Lin
The linkage between ambient air pollution exposure and occurrence of diabetes mellitus is not well defined. This study examined the association between exposure to fine particles (PM2.5 ) and the prevalence of diabetes among Chinese elderly people. We surveyed 11,504 adults aged ≥50 years in China, estimated the annual concentrations of ambient PM2.5 using a satellite-based model of aerosol optical depth information. We employed a generalized mixed effects model to examine the association between PM2.5 and the prevalence of diabetes and explored potential effect modifiers...
September 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Leisa-Maree L Toms, Andreas Sjödin, Peter Hobson, Fiona A Harden, Lesa L Aylward, Jochen F Mueller
In Australia, systematic biomonitoring of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in pooled serum samples stratified by age and sex has occurred every two years between 2002/03 and 2012/13. Multiple regression modeling on log10-transformed serum pool concentrations of BDEs 47, 99, 100 and 153 and on the sum of these (Σ4 PBDE) was conducted to examine trends by sex and time since baseline, stratified by age group. Temporal trends were age- and congener-specific, with the largest changes per year of observation in the 0-4 year old group, with β (SE) = -0...
September 19, 2018: Environment International
Linda Geerligs, Karen L Campbell
We know how age affects the brain during lab-based tasks, but what about situations truer to everyday life, such as watching movies? We measured functional magnetic resonance imaging activity while participants (N = 577) from the Cambridge Centre for Ageing and Neuroscience ( watched a movie. Watching the same movie induces significant intersubject synchronization of brain activity across participants. These cross-subject correlations suggest that viewers are processing incoming information in a similar (or shared) way...
August 4, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Wenke Möhring, Stephanie Klupp, Alexander Grob
Effects of dual tasking on motor processes such as gait have been mainly investigated with healthy adults and clinical older samples whereas studies with clinical samples of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are rare. Similarly, even though methylphenidate (MPH) is the most often prescribed medication for children with ADHD, the influence of MPH on children's gait under single-task and dual-task situations remains poorly understood. In the current study, children diagnosed with ADHD (n = 26) came twice to the laboratory, once without and once with MPH medication...
September 19, 2018: Human Movement Science
Alexandra E Wink, K Douglas Gross, Carrie A Brown, Cora E Lewis, James Torner, Michael C Nevitt, Irina Tolstykh, Leena Sharma, David T Felson
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the two-year association of varus knee thrust observed during walking to the odds of worsening WOMAC knee pain in older adults with or at risk of OA. METHODS: Video recordings of self-paced walking trials of Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) participants were assessed for the presence of varus thrust at baseline. Knee pain was assessed using the WOMAC questionnaire at baseline and at two years. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of worsening (defined as either any increase in WOMAC score or clinically-important worsening) knee pain, adjusting for age, sex, race, BMI, clinic site, gait speed, and static knee aligment...
September 22, 2018: Arthritis Care & Research
K S Tveit, A Duvetorp, M Østergaard, L Skov, K Danielsen, L Iversen, O Seifert
BACKGROUND: There are scarce data in Scandinavia about treatment satisfaction among patients with psoriasis (PsO) and/or psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The number of patients receiving systemic treatment is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To describe patients' experience of treatments for PsO/PsA in Sweden, Denmark and Norway, addressing communication with physicians, satisfaction with treatment and concerns regarding treatment options. METHODS: The NORdic PAtient survey of Psoriasis and Psoriatic arthritis (NORPAPP) asked 22,050 adults (randomly selected from the YouGov panels in Sweden, Denmark and Norway) if they had PsO/PsA...
September 22, 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Jakub Fronczek, Kamil Jurand Polok, Ilona Nowak-Kózka, Anna Włudarczyk, Jacek Górka, Mirosław Czuczwar, Paweł Krawczyk, Mirosław Ziętkiewicz, Łukasz R Nowak, Maciej Żukowski, Katarzyna Kotfis, Katarzyna Cwyl, Ryszard Gajdosz, Romuald Bohatyrewicz, Jowita Biernawska, Paweł Grudzień, Paweł Nasiłowski, Natalia Popek, Waldemar Cyrankiewicz, Katarzyna Wawrzyniak, Marek Wnuk, Dariusz Maciejewski, Dorota Studzińska, Szymon Bernas, Mariusz Piechota, Waldemar Machała, Marta Serwa, Maria Wujtewicz, Jan Stefaniak, Małgorzata Szymkowiak, Ryszard Gawda, Barbara Adamik, Natalia Kozera, Waldemar Goździk, Hans Flaatten, Wojciech Szczeklik
BACKGROUND: The increasing population of very old intensive care patients (VIPs) is a major challenge currently faced by clinicians and policymakers. Reliable indicators of VIPs' prognosis and purposefulness of their admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) are urgently needed. METHODS: This is a report from the Polish sample of the VIP1 multicentre cohort study (NCT03134807). Patients ≥ 80 years of age admitted to the ICU were included in the study. Information on the type and reason for admission, demographics, utilisation of ICU procedures, ICU length of stay, organ dysfunction and the decision to apply end-of-life care was collected...
September 22, 2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Amel Dhaoui, Mohamed Chniter, Moufida Atigui, Mohamed Dbara, Mabrouk-Mouldi Seddik, Mohamed Hammadi
This work aimed to investigate milk potentiality and the influence of some non-genetic factors both on milk yield production and composition in prolific D'man sheep. Observations were performed in eighty lactating D'man ewes maintained under an intensive oases system in Southern Tunisia. Daily milk yield was determined at 7-day intervals using oxytocin + hand milking method. Chemical milk composition was determined by Lactoscan. Total productions over lactation (milk, fat, and protein) were estimated using the Fleischmann method...
September 21, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Kazuhiro Harada, Kouhei Masumoto, Narihiko Kondo
This study examined the associations of time spent out of home with physical activity and sedentary behavior among middle-aged and older adults. A diary survey was conducted for 7 days with 157 adults to measure out-of-home time and working status. Time spent in sedentary behavior and levels of physical activity were measured using an accelerometer. After a year, 137 individuals from the original sample participated in a follow-up survey. From the daily analyses of 535 non-working days and 347 working days, multilevel models revealed that on non-working days, more out-of-home time was associated with less sedentary time and higher levels of physical activity at both within- and between-person levels...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
Yee-Ling Wong, Charumathi Sabanayagam, Yang Ding, Chee-Wai Wong, Anna Chwee-Hong Yeo, Yin-Bun Cheung, Gemmy Cheung, Audrey Chia, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Tien-Yin Wong, Jie Jin Wang, Ching-Yu Cheng, Quan V Hoang, Ecosse Lamoureux, Seang-Mei Saw
Purpose: To determine the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of myopic macular degeneration (MMD) on visual impairment and functioning among adults in Singapore. Methods: A comprehensive eye examination, including subjective refraction, axial length, and visual acuity (VA) measurements, was performed in adults aged ≥40 years in the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study. From fundus photographs, MMD was graded using the International META-PM classification...
September 4, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Melissa T Merrick, Derek C Ford, Katie A Ports, Angie S Guinn
Importance: Early adversity is associated with leading causes of adult morbidity and mortality and effects on life opportunities. Objective: To provide an updated prevalence estimate of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in the United States using a large, diverse, and representative sample of adults in 23 states. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were collected through the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), an annual, nationally representative telephone survey on health-related behaviors, health conditions, and use of preventive services, from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014...
September 17, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Adam J Paulsen, Carla R Schubert, Lauren J Johnson, Yanjun Chen, Dayna S Dalton, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Alex Pinto, Karen J Cruickshanks
Importance: Contrast sensitivity (CS) is an important indicator of visual function that affects daily life, including mobility, visually intensive tasks, safety, and autonomy. Understanding the risk factors for CS impairment could prevent decreases in visual function. Objective: To determine the incidence of and factors associated with CS impairment in a large cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Beaver Dam Offspring Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study of aging involving adults in Beaver Dam, Wisconsin...
September 13, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Kelvin Yen, Junxiang Wan, Hemal H Mehta, Brendan Miller, Amy Christensen, Morgan E Levine, Matthew P Salomon, Sebastian Brandhorst, Jialin Xiao, Su-Jeong Kim, Gerardo Navarrete, Daniel Campo, G Jean Harry, Valter Longo, Christian J Pike, Wendy J Mack, Howard N Hodis, Eileen M Crimmins, Pinchas Cohen
Advanced age is associated with a decline in cognitive function, likely caused by a combination of modifiable and non-modifiable factors such as genetics and lifestyle choices. Mounting evidence suggests that humanin and other mitochondrial derived peptides play a role in several age-related conditions including neurodegenerative disease. Here we demonstrate that humanin administration has neuroprotective effects in vitro in human cell culture models and is sufficient to improve cognition in vivo in aged mice...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
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