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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914322/association-between-pigs-with-high-caecal-salmonella-loads-and-carcass-contamination
#1
M Pesciaroli, L Cucco, S De Luca, F R Massacci, C Maresca, L Medici, M Paniccià, E Scoccia, M Staffolani, G Pezzotti, C F Magistrali
Contaminated pork is a significant source of foodborne Salmonella infections. Pork is contaminated at the slaughterhouse; however, the mechanisms driving Salmonella contamination of carcasses are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the amount of Salmonella carried by slaughtered pigs in their guts has an influence on carcass contamination. On that account, we tested whether the number of carcasses contaminated during a slaughter day was associated with the prevalence of highly contaminated pigs (HCP: Salmonella caecal loads ≥3log/g), or with the prevalence of pigs that simply carry Salmonella spp...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914279/identification-and-quantification-of-4-methylethcathinone-4-mec-and-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-hair-by-lc-ms-ms-after-chronic-administration
#2
Jean Claude Alvarez, Isabelle Etting, Emuri Abe, Antoine Villa, Nicolas Fabresse
4-Methylethcathinone (4-MEC) and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) are synthetic cathinones. The objective of this study was to develop a method in order to measure these compounds in hair of a patient. After decontamination, 20mg of hair were grinded and incubated in phosphate buffer pH 5.0 in presence of 100ng of MDMA-d5 used as internal standard. Double basic liquid-liquid extraction was performed. Samples were separated on a 1.9μm Hypersil GOLD PFP column (100×2.1mm) using gradient elution. Compounds were detected by a LCQ TSQ Vantage XP triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer...
November 24, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#3
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914058/osprey-predicts-resistance-mutations-using-positive-and-negative-computational-protein-design
#4
Adegoke Ojewole, Anna Lowegard, Pablo Gainza, Stephanie M Reeve, Ivelin Georgiev, Amy C Anderson, Bruce R Donald
Drug resistance in protein targets is an increasingly common phenomenon that reduces the efficacy of both existing and new antibiotics. However, knowledge of future resistance mutations during pre-clinical phases of drug development would enable the design of novel antibiotics that are robust against not only known resistant mutants, but also against those that have not yet been clinically observed. Computational structure-based protein design (CSPD) is a transformative field that enables the prediction of protein sequences with desired biochemical properties such as binding affinity and specificity to a target...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914056/parallel-computational-protein-design
#5
Yichao Zhou, Bruce R Donald, Jianyang Zeng
Computational structure-based protein design (CSPD) is an important problem in computational biology, which aims to design or improve a prescribed protein function based on a protein structure template. It provides a practical tool for real-world protein engineering applications. A popular CSPD method that guarantees to find the global minimum energy solution (GMEC) is to combine both dead-end elimination (DEE) and A* tree search algorithms. However, in this framework, the A* search algorithm can run in exponential time in the worst case, which may become the computation bottleneck of large-scale computational protein design process...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913867/comparison-of-different-concepts-for-interpretation-of-chromosomal-aberrations-in-urothelial-cells-detected-by-fluorescence-in-situ-hybridization
#6
Johannes Mischinger, Lutz Philipp Guttenberg, Jörg Hennenlotter, Georgios Gakis, Stefan Aufderklamm, Steffen Rausch, Eva Neumann, Jens Bedke, Stefan Kruck, Christian Schwentner, Arnulf Stenzl, Tilman Todenhöfer
PURPOSE: Urine fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has become a broadly used marker for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer (BC). However, it has been discussed whether the interpretation algorithm proposed by the manufacturer could be improved. Aim of the present study was to compare alternative evaluation strategies of FISH for detection of BC. METHODS: We included 1048 patients suspicious for BC, who underwent urine FISH examination before cystoscopy (diagnostic cohort)...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913837/hospitalizations-due-to-preventable-adverse-reactions-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Nidhi S Patel, Tejas K Patel, Parvati B Patel, Viren N Naik, C B Tripathi
PURPOSE: The study aimed to measure the percentage of preventable adverse drug reactions that lead to the hospitalization (PADRAd) and to explore the heterogeneity in its estimation through subgroup analysis of study characteristics. METHODS: Two investigators independently searched in electronic databases and related bibliography for prospective studies involving PADRAd. We excluded studies investigating medication errors and spontaneous and retrospective reporting...
December 2, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913794/tlr-ligands-but-not-modulators-of-histone-modifiers-can-induce-the-complex-immune-response-pattern-of-endotoxin-tolerance-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#8
Juliane Günther, Wolfram Petzl, Holm Zerbe, Hans-Joachim Schuberth, Hans-Martin Seyfert
Excessive stimulation of the TLR4 axis through LPS reduces the expression of some cytokine genes in immune cells, while stimulating the expression of immune defense genes during a subsequent bacterial infection. This endotoxin tolerance (ET) is mediated via epigenetic mechanisms. Priming the udder of cows with LPS was shown to induce ET in mammary epithelial cells (MEC), thereby protecting the udder against reinfection for some time. Seeking alternatives to LPS priming we tried to elicit ET by priming MEC with either lipopeptide (Pam2CSK4) via the TLR2/6 axis or inhibitors of histone-modifying enzymes...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913688/left-ventricle-transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-connective-tissue-accumulation-associates-with-initial-age-dependent-decline-in-v%C3%AC-o2peak-from-its-lifetime-apex
#9
Gregory N Ruegsegger, Ryan G Toedebusch, Joshua F Braselton, Thomas E Childs, Frank W Booth
Peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) strongly predicts morbidity and mortality better than other established risk factors, yet mechanisms associated with its age-associated decline are unknown. Our lab has shown that V̇O2peak first begins to decrease at the same age of 19-20 weeks old in both sedentary and wheel-running, female Wistar rats (Toedebusch et al., Physiol Genomics. 48:101-15, 2016). Here, we employed a total systemic approach using unsupervised interrogation of mRNA with RNA-sequencing. The purpose of our study was to analyze transcriptomic profiles from both sedentary (SED) and wheel-running (RUN) conditions as a strategy to identify pathways in the left ventricle that may contribute to the initial reductions in V̇O2peak occurring between 19 and 27 weeks of age...
December 2, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913526/update-from-the-latest-who-classification-of-mpns-a-user-s-manual
#10
Francesco Passamonti, Margherita Maffioli
The 2016 multiparameter World Health Organization (WHO) classification for Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) integrates clinical features, morphology, and genetic data to diagnose polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The main novelties are: (1) the reduction of the hemoglobin (Hb) level threshold to diagnose PV, now established at 16.5 g/dL for men and 16 g/dL for women (based on the identification of MPN patients with PV-consistent bone marrow [BM] features and a Hb level lower than that established in the 2008 WHO classification for PV); (2) the recognition of prefibrotic/early PMF, distinguishable from ET on the basis of BM morphology, an entity having a higher tendency to develop overt myelofibrosis or acute leukemia, and characterized by inferior survival; (3) the central role of BM morphology in the diagnosis of ET, prefibrotic/early PMF, PMF, and PV with borderline Hb values; megakaryocyte number and morphology (typical in ET, atypical in both PMF forms) accompanied by a new distinction of reticulin fibrosis grade in PMF (grade 1 in prefibrotic/early PMF and grade 2-3 in PMF) constitute diagnostic criteria; and (4) the inclusion of all mutually exclusive MPN driver mutations (JAK2, CALR, and MPL) as major diagnostic criteria in ET and PMF; 10% to 15% of these patients are triple negative, and in these cases the search for an additional clonal marker (eg, mutations in ASXL1, EZH2, TET2, IDH1/IDH2, SRSF2, and SF3B1) is warranted...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913321/deterioration-of-r-wave-detection-in-pathology-and-noise-a-comprehensive-analysis-using-simultaneous-truth-and-performance-level-estimation
#11
Muhammad Kashif, Stephan Jonas, Thomas Deserno
OBJECTIVE: For long-term electrocardiography (ECG) recordings, accurate R-wave detection is essential. Several algorithms have been proposed but not yet compared on large, noisy, or pathological data, since manual ground truth establishment is impossible on such large data. METHODS: We apply the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) method to ECG signals comparing 9 R-wave detectors: Pan & Tompkins (1985), Chernenko (2007), Arzeno et al. (2008), Manikandan et al...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913137/time-lapse-microscopy-patent-upheld-in-europe-response-to-pearce
#12
Sigrid Sterckx, Julian Cockbain, Guido Pennings
In this piece, we comment on the article by Pearce earlier in this journal. As Pearce correctly points out, what is fundamentally at issue in ESHRE et al's opposition to Stanford University's European patent on time-lapse microscopy is whether an exclusion from patentability, here of methods of medical diagnosis, should be interpreted narrowly or not. In the present case, the dominant piece of case law from the European Patent Office (EPO) gives a narrow interpretation of what a method of diagnosis must be in order not to be patentable...
November 16, 2016: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913028/active-immunization-with-brucella-abortus-s19-phage-lysate-elicits-serum-igg-that-protects-guinea-pigs-against-virulent-b-%C3%A2-abortus-and-protects-mice-by-passive-immunization
#13
Lata Jain, Mayank Rawat, Saravanan Ramakrishnan, Bablu Kumar
Brucellosis is an economically important zoonosis of worldwide significance. Earlier (Jain et al., 2015) we reported methodology for generation of phage lysate preparations against Brucella abortus S19 using brucellaphage 'ϕLd'. In this study, using a fixed dose (Two mouse PD100) of lysates, the prophylactic efficacies of both plain and alum gel adjuvanted lysates were evaluated in guinea pig by direct virulent challenge and passive mouse protection test (PMPT). Strong humoral and cell mediated immune responses in guinea pigs and protection comparable to S19 vaccine was observed with low dose (1...
November 29, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912194/a-model-driven-approach-to-studying-dissociations-between-body-size-mental-representations-in-anorexia-nervosa
#14
Anne-Laure Moscone, Michel-Ange Amorim, Christine Le Scanff, Pascale Leconte
This study compared dissociations between mental representations of current, ideal and normal body sizes (i.e., Current BS, Ideal BS and Normal BS) for women with anorexia nervosa (AN group, n=56) and healthy women (control group, n=56). Along the lines of the single channel model of Cornelissen et al. (2013), the discrepancy between Current BS and BMI for both groups was adequately described along a common linear continuum of Current BS (mis)perception. Body size mental representations were ranked similarly (Ideal BS<Current BS<Normal BS) in each group...
November 29, 2016: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912096/drugging-acat1-for-cancer-therapy
#15
Javier Garcia-Bermudez, Kivanç Birsoy
In this issue, Fan et al. (2016) show that oncogenic tyrosine kinases can promote glycolysis by phosphorylating and stabilizing the tetrameric form of mitochondrial acetyl-coA acetyltransferase 1 (ACAT1). The authors further identify a small molecule ACAT1 inhibitor that displays anti-cancer effects.
December 1, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912095/the-ras-mapk-axis-gets-stressed-out
#16
Scott A Foster, Shiva Malek
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Ritt et al. (2016) describe a stress-induced checkpoint that effectively suppresses RAS-MAPK signaling. This pathway, activated by agents such as Rigosertib that induce mitotic and oxidative stress, results in JNK-mediated inhibition of RAS-MAPK pathway components SOS and RAF.
December 1, 2016: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912087/plug-and-play-brain-understanding-integration-of-transplanted-neurons-for-brain-repair
#17
Shane Grealish, Malin Parmar
In a recent issue of Nature,Falkner et al. (2016) use chronic two-photon imaging, virus-based transsynaptic tracing, and dynamic calcium indicators to elegantly demonstrate extensive in vivo functional maturation and target-specific functional integration of transplanted embryonic mouse cortical progenitors into adult lesioned visual cortical circuits.
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912086/the-mediator-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-homeostasis
#18
Sneha Borikar, Jennifer J Trowbridge
Mechanisms establishing and maintaining promoter-enhancer interactions in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to maintain stem cell identity are not fully understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Aranda-Orgilles et al. (2016) describe a role for a member of the Mediator complex in maintaining HSC-specific enhancers and hematopoietic homeostasis.
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912085/pdgfa-makes-thin-skin-thicker-molecular-regulation-of-adipose-progenitor-maintenance
#19
Shingo Kajimura
Adipocyte progenitor proliferation and self-renewal contribute to adipose tissue maintenance; however, the regulatory circuits of these processes are less understood. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Rivera-Gonzalez et al. (2016) show that PDGFA, which acts through PI3K-Akt pathways, plays a vital role in the proliferation and maintenance of adipocyte progenitors in dermal adipose tissues.
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912084/fetal-to-adult-hematopoiesis-with-the-flk-of-a-switch
#20
Stijn Vanhee, Joan Yuan
Blood development relies on discrete stem and progenitor cell populations with unclear lineage relationships and distinct functional characteristics that change during ontogeny. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Beaudin et al. (2016) identify a hematopoietic stem cell population with fetal characteristics that is developmentally restricted yet capable of long-term multi-lineage reconstitution upon transplantation into adult recipients.
December 1, 2016: Cell Stem Cell
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