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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338821/phylogenomic-insights-into-mouse-evolution-using-a-pseudoreference-approach
#1
Brice A J Sarver, Sara Keeble, Ted Cosart, Priscilla K Tucker, Matthew D Dean, Jeffrey M Good
Comparative genomic studies are now possible across a broad range of evolutionary timescales, but the generation and analysis of genomic data across many different species still present a number of challenges. The most sophisticated genotyping and down-stream analytical frameworks are still predominantly based on comparisons to high-quality reference genomes. However, established genomic resources are often limited within a given group of species, necessitating comparisons to divergent reference genomes that could restrict or bias comparisons across a phylogenetic sample...
February 22, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337988/molecular-heterogeneity-in-major-urinary-proteins-of-mus-musculus-subspecies-potential-candidates-involved-in-speciation
#2
Jane L Hurst, Robert J Beynon, Stuart D Armstrong, Amanda J Davidson, Sarah A Roberts, Guadalupe Gómez-Baena, Carole M Smadja, Guila Ganem
When hybridisation carries a cost, natural selection is predicted to favour evolution of traits that allow assortative mating (reinforcement). Incipient speciation between the two European house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus domesticus and M.m.musculus, sharing a hybrid zone, provides an opportunity to understand evolution of assortative mating at a molecular level. Mouse urine odours allow subspecific mate discrimination, with assortative preferences evident in the hybrid zone but not in allopatry. Here we assess the potential of MUPs (major urinary proteins) as candidates for signal divergence by comparing MUP expression in urine samples from the Danish hybrid zone border (contact) and from allopatric populations...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333487/adaptation-of-the-arizona-cognitive-task-battery-for-use-with-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-mus-musculus-of-down-syndrome
#3
Michael R Hunsaker, Genevieve K Smith, Raymond P Kesner
We propose and validate a clear strategy to efficiently and comprehensively characterize neurobehavioral deficits in the Ts65Dn mouse model of Down syndrome. This novel approach uses neurocognitive theory to design and select behavioral tasks that test specific hypotheses concerning the results of Down syndrome. In this article, we model the Arizona Cognitive Task Battery, used to study human populations with Down syndrome, in Ts65Dn mice. We observed specific deficits for spatial memory, impaired long-term memory for visual objects, acquisition and reversal of motor responses, reduced motor dexterity, and impaired adaptive function as measured by nesting and anxiety tasks...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Comparative Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333336/comparative-sperm-proteomics-in-mouse-species-with-divergent-mating-systems
#4
Alberto Vicens, Kirill Borziak, Timothy L Karr, Eduardo R S Roldan, Steve Dorus
Sexual selection is the pervasive force underlying the dramatic divergence of sperm form and function. Although it has been demonstrated that testis gene expression evolves rapidly, exploration of the proteomic basis of sperm diversity is in its infancy. We have employed a whole-cell proteomics approach to characterize sperm divergence among closely related Mus species that experience different sperm competition regimes and exhibit pronounced variation in sperm energetics, motility and fertilization capacity...
February 25, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331737/barriers-against-mammographic-screening-in-a-socioeconomically-underdeveloped-population-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#5
Tolga Özmen, Salih Yüce, Tekin Güler, Canan Ulun, Nilufer Özaydın, Sandhya Pruthi, Nezih Akkapulu, Koray Karabulut, Atilla Soran, Vahit Özmen
OBJECTIVE: Mammography-screening (MS) rates remain low in underdeveloped populations. We aimed to find the barriers against MS in a low socioeconomic population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women aged 40-69 years who lived in the least developed city in Turkey (Mus), were targeted. A survey was used to question breast cancer (BC) knowledge and health practices. RESULTS: In total, 2054 women were surveyed (participation rate: 85%). The MS rate was 35%...
April 2016: J Breast Health (2013)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331300/dementia-and-delirium-the-outcomes-in-elderly-hip-fracture-patients
#6
Christina A Mosk, Marnix Mus, Jos Pam Vroemen, Tjeerd van der Ploeg, Dagmar I Vos, Leon Hgj Elmans, Lijckle van der Laan
BACKGROUND: Delirium in hip fractured patients is a frequent complication. Dementia is an important risk factor for delirium and is common in frail elderly. This study aimed to extend the previous knowledge on risk factors for delirium and the consequences. Special attention was given to patients with dementia and delirium. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study performed in the Amphia Hospital, Breda, the Netherlands. A full electronic patient file system (Hyperspace Version IU4: Epic, Inc...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328991/pre-breeding-food-restriction-promotes-the-optimization-of-parental-investment-in-house-mice-mus-musculus
#7
Adam Dušek, Luděk Bartoš, František Sedláček
Litter size is one of the most reliable state-dependent life-history traits that indicate parental investment in polytocous (litter-bearing) mammals. The tendency to optimize litter size typically increases with decreasing availability of resources during the period of parental investment. To determine whether this tactic is also influenced by resource limitations prior to reproduction, we examined the effect of experimental, pre-breeding food restriction on the optimization of parental investment in lactating mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321398/unveiling-the-metabolic-changes-on-muscle-cell-metabolism-underlying-p-phenylenediamine-toxicity
#8
Igor Marín de Mas, Silvia Marín, Gisela Pachón, Juan C Rodríguez-Prados, Pedro Vizán, Josep J Centelles, Romà Tauler, Amaya Azqueta, Vitaly Selivanov, Adela López de Ceraín, Marta Cascante
Rhabdomyolysis is a disorder characterized by acute damage of the sarcolemma of the skeletal muscle leading to release of potentially toxic muscle cell components into the circulation, most notably creatine phosphokinase (CK) and myoglobulin, and is frequently accompanied by myoglobinuria. In the present work, we evaluated the toxicity of p-phenylenediamine (PPD), a main component of hair dyes which is reported to induce rhabdomyolysis. We studied the metabolic effect of this compound in vivo with Wistar rats and in vitro with C2C12 muscle cells...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319041/practical-use-of-a-plastic-scintillator-for-quality-assurance-of-electron-beam-therapy
#9
Katsunori Yogo, Yuya Tatsuno, Masato Tsuneda, Yuki Aono, Daiki Mochizuki, Yoshiki Fujisawa, Akihiro Matsushita, Minoru Ishigami, Hiromichi Ishiyama, Kazushige Hayakawa
Quality assurance (QA) of the clinical electron beam is essential for performing accurate and safe radiation therapy. However, with advances in radiation therapy, QA tends to be labor-intensive and time consuming. Here, we propose the practical use of a tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator for quick and easy QA of clinical electron beams. This tool enabled us to verify simultaneously the constancy of output, beam quality, depth and lateral dose profiles during monthly QAs at lower doses of irradiation (small MUs)...
March 20, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315643/benefits-of-21-oxygen-compared-with-100-oxygen-for-delivery-of-isoflurane-to-mice-mus-musculus-and-rats-rattus-norvegicus
#10
Laura A Wilding, Joe A Hampel, Basma M Khoury, Stacey Kang, David Machado-Aranda, Krishnan Raghavendran, Jean A Nemzek
At research institutions, isoflurane delivered by precision vaporizer to a face mask is the standard for rodent surgery and for procedures with durations that exceed a few minutes. Pure oxygen is often used as the carrier gas for isoflurane anesthesia, despite documented complications from long-term 100% oxygen use in humans and known occupational safety risks. We therefore examined the effect of anesthetic delivery gas on physiologic variables in mice and rats. Rodents were anesthetized for 60 min with isoflurane delivered in either 21% or 100% oxygen by means of a nose cone...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303195/sexual-selection-constrains-the-body-mass-of-male-but-not-female-mice
#11
James S Ruff, Douglas H Cornwall, Linda C Morrison, Joseph W Cauceglia, Adam C Nelson, Shannon M Gaukler, Shawn Meagher, Lara S Carroll, Wayne K Potts
Sexual size dimorphism results when female and male body size is influenced differently by natural and sexual selection. Typically, in polygynous species larger male body size is thought to be favored in competition for mates and constraints on maximal body size are due to countervailing natural selection on either sex; however, it has been postulated that sexual selection itself may result in stabilizing selection at an optimal mass. Here we test this hypothesis by retrospectively assessing the influence of body mass, one metric of body size, on the fitness of 113 wild-derived house mice (Mus musculus) residing within ten replicate semi-natural enclosures from previous studies conducted by our laboratory...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297446/initial-clinical-experience-with-arccheck-for-imrt-vmat-qa
#12
Michalis Aristophanous, Yelin Suh, Pai C Chi, Luke J Whittlesey, Scott LaNeave, Mary K Martel
Many devices designed for the purpose of performing patient-specific IMRT/VMAT QA are commercially available. In this work we report our experience and initial clinical results with the ArcCHECK. The ArcCHECK consists of a cylindrical array of diode detectors measuring entry and exit doses. The measured result is a cumulative dose displayed as a 2D matrix. The detector array requires both an absolute dose calibration, and a calibration of the detector response, relative to each other. In addition to the calibrations suggested by the manufacturer, various tests were performed in order to assess its stability and performance prior to clinical introduction...
September 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297350/impact-of-small-mu-segment-and-dose-rate-on-delivery-accuracy-of-volumetric-modulated-arc-therapy-vmat
#13
Long Huang, Tingliang Zhuang, Anthony Mastroianni, Toufik Djemil, Taoran Cui, Ping Xia
Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans may require more control points (or segments) than some of fixed-beam IMRT plans that are created with a limited number of segments. Increasing number of control points in a VMAT plan for a given prescription dose could create a large portion of the total number of segments with small number monitor units (MUs) per segment. The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of the small number MU/segment on the delivery accuracy of VMAT delivered with various dose rates...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297284/dosimetric-comparison-of-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-and-volumetric-modulated-arc-radiotherapy-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#14
Wenting Ren, Chao Sun, Ningning Lu, Yingjie Xu, Fei Han, Yue Ping Liu, Jianrong Dai
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) are two main radiotherapy techniques. The aim of this study is to explore which is the preferred technique in prostate treatment through the related publications and meta-analysis. Two authors independently identified all relevant articles available regarding eligibility criteria on PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases until December 2015. Publication bias was evaluated with funnel plot, and statistical analyses were performed with Stata software...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295315/a-comparative-analysis-of-the-physiological-properties-of-neurons-in-the-anterolateral-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-in-the-mus-musculus-rattus-norvegicus-and-macaca-mulatta
#15
Sarah E Daniel, Jidong Guo, Donald G Rainnie
The anterolateral group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTALG ) is a critical modulator of a variety of rodent and primate behaviors spanning anxiety behavior and drug addiction. Three distinct neuronal cell types have been previously defined in the rat BNSTALG based on differences in the voltage-response to hyperpolarizing and depolarizing current injection. Differences in genetic expression profile between these three cell types suggest electrophysiological cell type may be an indicator for functional differences in the circuit of the rat BNSTALG ...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291576/evaluating-challenges-for-improving-medically-unexplained-symptoms-in-us-military-veterans-via-provider-communication
#16
L Alison Phillips, Lisa McAndrew, Benjamin Laman-Maharg, Katharine Bloeser
OBJECTIVES: Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are common, with particularly high rates observed in military veterans. Effective patient-provider-communication is thought to be a key aspect of care; however there have been few empirical studies on the association between communication and outcomes for patients with MUS. We evaluate whether discussing veterans' MUS-illness representations and good interpersonal skills have the potential to promote MUS-treatment adherence and improvement...
March 6, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289468/the-effect-of-an-educational-intervention-in-family-phisicians-on-self-rated-quality-of-life-in-patients-with-medically-unexplained-symptoms
#17
Vojislav Ivetić, Klemen Pašić, Polona Selič
INTRODUCTION: Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are very common in family medicine, despite being a poorly-defined clinical entity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an educational intervention (EI) on self-rated quality of life, treatment satisfaction, and the family physician-patient relationship in patients with MUS. METHODS: In a multi-centre longitudinal intervention study, which was performed between 2012 and 2014, patients were asked to rate their quality of life, assess their depression, anxiety, stress and somatisation, complete the Hypochondriasis Index, the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale and the Patient Enablement Instrument for assessing the physician-patient relationship, before and after the EI...
June 1, 2017: Zdravstveno Varstvo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287553/intracarotid-cancer-cell-injection-to-produce-mouse-models-of-brain-metastasis
#18
Chenyu Zhang, Frank J Lowery, Dihua Yu
Metastasis, the spread and growth of malignant cells at secondary sites within a patient's body, accounts for > 90% of cancer-related mortality. Recently, impressive advances in novel therapies have dramatically prolonged survival and improved quality of life for many cancer patients. Sadly, incidence of brain metastatic recurrences is fast rising, and all current therapies are merely palliative. Hence, good experimental animal models are urgently needed to facilitate in-depth studies of the disease biology and to assess novel therapeutic regimens for preclinical evaluation...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287345/the-role-of-emotion-in-psychotherapeutic-change-for-medically-unexplained-symptoms
#19
Joel M Town, Victoria Lomax, Allan A Abbass, Gillian Hardy
OBJECTIVES: Evidence of the contribution of emotional processes to the emergence, maintenance, and experience of medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) suggests that clinical approaches which target these processes could be beneficial. In this study, qualitative methods were used to examine patients' perspectives and subjective experiences of emotional processes in the context of a psychotherapy assessment and treatment service for MUS provided in a hospital emergency department (ED). METHODS: Seven semi-structured interviews were conducted with ED patients presenting with MUS who received a course of intensive short-term dynamic psychotherapy treatment...
March 13, 2017: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285398/early-voiding-dysfunction-after-midurethral-sling-surgery-comparison-of-two-management-approaches
#20
Erin A Brennand, Selphee Tang, Colin Birch, Magali Robert, Shunaha Kim-Fine
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Early voiding dysfunction (EVD) with urinary retention (UR) is a complication of midurethral sling (MUS) surgery. Management is not standardized. Our objective was to characterize management approaches at our center, and report outcomes including resolution of UR, persistent voiding dysfunction, and recurrent stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: All women requiring catheterization for ≥7 days after MUS surgery during the period March 2014 to 2016 were eligible for inclusion in this prospective study...
March 11, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
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