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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065723/social-context-dependent-relationships-between-mouse-dominance-rank-and-plasma-hormone-levels
#1
Cait M Williamson, Won Lee, Russell D Romeo, James P Curley
The associations between social status and endogenous testosterone and corticosterone have been well-studied across taxa, including rodents. Dominant social status is typically associated with higher levels of circulating testosterone and lower levels of circulating corticosterone but findings are mixed and depend upon numerous contextual factors. Here, we determine that the social environment is a key modulator of these relationships in Mus musculus. In groups of outbred CD-1 mice living in stable dominance hierarchies, we found no evidence of simple linear associations between social rank and corticosterone or testosterone plasma levels...
January 5, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063600/rna-in-situ-hybridization-characterization-of-non-enzymatic-derived-bovine-intervertebral-disc-cell-lineages-suggests-progenitor-cell-potential
#2
Petra Kraus, Rachel Yerden, Victoria Kocsis, Thomas Lufkin
Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is a meritorious target for therapeutic cell based regenerative medicine approaches, however, controversy over what defines the precise identity of mature IVD cells and lack of single cell based quality control measures is of concern. Bos taurus and human IVDs are histologically more similar than is Mus musculus. The mature bovine IVD is well suited as model system for technology development to be translated into therapeutic cell based regenerative medicine applications...
January 4, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063059/experimental-arthritis-mouse-models-driven-by-adaptive-and-or-innate-inflammation
#3
W Razawy, C H Alves, M Molendijk, P S Asmawidjaja, A M C Mus, E Lubberts
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease mainly affecting synovial joints. The clinical presentation of RA shows the heterogeneity of this disease with its underlying complex interactions between the innate and adaptive immune system and flare-ups of disease. Different disease models such as collagen induced arthritis, antigen induced arthritis, and Streptococcal cell wall induced arthritis can be exploited to investigate different aspects of the pathogenesis of arthritis. The disease can be monitored macroscopically over time via scoring systems...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062648/dual-chemistry-catalyzed-by-human-acireductone-dioxygenase
#4
Aditi R Deshpande, Thomas C Pochapsky, Gregory A Petsko, Dagmar Ringe
Acireductone dioxygenase (ARD) from the methionine salvage pathway of Klebsiella oxytoca is the only known naturally occurring metalloenzyme that catalyzes different reactions in vivo based solely on the identity of the divalent transition metal ion (Fe(2+) or Ni(2+)) bound in the active site. The iron-containing isozyme catalyzes the cleavage of substrate 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-(thiomethyl)pent-1-ene (acireductone) by O2 to formate and the ketoacid precursor of methionine, whereas the nickel-containing isozyme uses the same substrates to catalyze an off-pathway shunt to form methylthiopropionate, carbon monoxide and formate...
January 5, 2017: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061379/assessment-of-the-non-gaussianity-and-non-linearity-levels-of-simulated-semg-signals-on-stationary-segments
#5
Noureddine Messaoudi, Raïs El'hadi Bekka, Philippe Ravier, Rachid Harba
The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of the longitudinal single differential (LSD), the longitudinal double differential (LDD) and the normal double differential (NDD) spatial filters, the electrode shape, the inter-electrode distance (IED) on non-Gaussianity and non-linearity levels of simulated surface EMG (sEMG) signals when the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) varied from 10% to 100% by a step of 10%. The effects of recruitment range thresholds (RR), the firing rate (FR) strategy and the peak firing rate (PFR) of motor units were also considered...
December 25, 2016: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058796/hox-gene-expression-in-the-specialized-limbs-of-the-iberian-mole-talpa-occidentalis
#6
Constanze Bickelmann, Wessel van der Vos, Merijn A G de Bakker, Rafael Jiménez, Saskia Maas, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra
Fossorial talpid moles use their limbs predominantly for digging, which explains their highly specialized anatomy. The humerus is particularly short and dorsoventrally rotated, with broadened distal and proximal parts where muscles attach and which facilitate powerful abductive movements. The radius and ulna are exceptionally robust and short. The ulna has an expanded olecranon process. The femur is generalized, but the fused tibia-fibula complex is short and robust. To understand the developmental bases of these specializations, we studied expression patterns of four 5' Hox genes in the fossorial Iberian mole (Talpa occidentalis)...
January 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058793/effects-of-selection-for-ethanol-preference-on-gene-expression-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-of-hs-cc-mice
#7
Alexandre M Colville, Ovidiu D Iancu, Denesa L Oberbeck, Priscila Darakjian, Christina L Zheng, Nicole A R Walter, Christina A Harrington, Robert P Searles, Shannon McWeeney, Robert J Hitzemann
Previous studies on changes in murine brain gene expression associated with the selection for ethanol preference have used F2 intercross or heterogeneous stock (HS) founders, derived from standard laboratory strains. However, these populations represent only a small proportion of the genetic variance available in Mus musculus. To investigate a wider range of genetic diversity, we selected mice for ethanol preference using a HS derived from the eight strains of the Collaborative Cross. These heterogeneous stock mice were selectively bred (four generations) for High and Low ethanol preference...
January 6, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056078/early-life-social-isolation-influences-mouse-ultrasonic-vocalizations-during-male-male-social-encounters
#8
Sarah M Keesom, Caitlyn J Finton, Gabrielle L Sell, Laura M Hurley
Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049628/initiation-of-mtdna-transcription-is-followed-by-pausing-and-diverge-across-human-cell-types-and-during-evolution
#9
Amit Blumberg, Edward J Rice, Anshul Kundaje, Charles G Danko, Dan Mishmar
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes are long known to be co-transcribed in polycistrones, yet it remains impossible to study nascent mtDNA transcripts quantitatively in vivo using existing tools. To this end we used deep sequencing (GRO-seq and PRO-seq) and analyzed nascent mtDNA-encoded RNA transcripts in diverse human cell lines and metazoan organisms. Surprisingly, accurate detection of human mtDNA transcription initiation sites (TIS) in the heavy and light strands revealed a novel conserved transcription pausing site near the light strand TIS...
January 3, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048969/on-the-developmental-self-regulatory-dynamics-and-evolution-of-individuated-multicellular-organisms
#10
Felipe A Veloso
Changes in gene expression are thought to regulate the cell differentiation process intrinsically through complex epigenetic mechanisms. In fundamental terms, however, this assumed regulation refers only to the intricate propagation of changes in gene expression or else leads to non-explanatory regresses. The developmental self-regulatory dynamics and evolution of individuated multicellular organisms also lack a unified and falsifiable description. To fill this gap, I computationally analyzed publicly available high-throughput data of histone H3 post-translational modifications and mRNA abundance for different Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, and Drosophila melanogaster cell-type/developmental-period samples...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048877/su-g-brb-08-investigation-on-the-magnetic-field-effect-on-tlds-oslds-and-gafchromic-films-using-an-mr-linac
#11
Z Wen, J Wang, W Jiang, D O'Brien, G Sawakuchi, G Ibbott
PURPOSE: To investigate whether a strong magnetic field (B=1.5 T) can affect dose responses of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) and Gafchromic films using an MR-Linac (Elekta) before and after the magnet was ramped down from 1.5 T to 0 T. METHODS: Three types of dosimeters (TLDs, OSLDs, EBT3 films) were divided into two groups. Group 1 was first irradiated in a phantom of Solid Water slabs (Standard Imaging) inside a B=1...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048874/su-f-t-616-comparison-of-different-techniques-using-rtog0631-guidelines-in-spine-sbrt
#12
H Acar, M Cebe, H Mabhouti, G Codel, P Pacaci, E Serin, E Sanli, N Kucuk, E Kucukmorkoc, M Doyuran, D Canoglu, A Altinok, H Caglar
PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) for spine metastases involves irradiation using a single high dose fraction. The purpose of this study was to investigate a Hybrid VMAT/IMRT technique which combines volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for spine SBRT in terms of its dosimetric quality and treatment efficiency using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0631 guidelines. METHODS: 7 fields IMRT, 2 full arcs VMAT and Hybrid VMAT/IMRT were created for ten previously treated patients...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048850/su-g-brc-14-multi-lesion-multi-rx-brain-radiosurgery-with-novel-single-isocenter-technique
#13
N Honig, S Alani, A Schlocker, N Shtraus, A Kanner
PURPOSE: There is a strong trend to treat multiple brain metastases with radiosurgery rather than whole brain irradiation. This feasibility study investigates a novel planning technique for radio-surgical treatment of multiple brain lesions with differing dose prescriptions, a single isocenter, and dynamic conformal arcs. The novel technique will be compared to the well-established single-isocenter volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) technique commonly used for treating brain lesions...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048605/su-f-t-331-the-effect-of-optimization-grid-size-on-helical-tomotherapy-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinama
#14
J Gu, Y Yin, J Zhu
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of plan optimization grid size on helical tomotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) METHODS: Ten patients of NPC were enrolled. For each patient, three plans with different dose optimization grid size (fine, normal, coarse) were created by Helical Tomotherapy Planning Station (version: 5.0, GPU Acceleration and VoLo).The time consumed by 500 optimization iterations, the monitor units and the dose volume histogram factors were compared. Paired-Wilcoxon test was used in statistical analysis...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048602/su-f-t-262-commissioning-varian-portal-dosimetry-for-epid-based-patient-specific-qa-in-a-non-aria-environment
#15
M Schmidt, N Knutson, J Herrington, M Price
PURPOSE: Development of an in-house program facilitates a workflow that allows Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) patient specific quality assurance (QA) measurements to be acquired and analyzed in the Portal Dosimetry Application (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) using a non-Aria Record and Verify (R&V) system (MOSAIQ, Elekta, Crawley, UK) to deliver beams in standard clinical treatment mode. METHODS: Initial calibration of an in-house software tool includes characterization of EPID dosimetry parameters by importing DICOM images of varying delivered MUs to determine linear mapping factors in order to convert image pixel values to Varian-defined Calibrated Units (CU)...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048558/su-f-t-338-flattening-filter-free-photon-beams-can-achieve-the-same-plan-quality-as-conventional-flattened-beams-for-prostate-radiotherapy
#16
M Kolar, R Szwedowski, J Greskovich, P Xia
PURPOSE: Some modern linear accelerators are equipped with one low energy flat beam and two flattening filter free (FFF) beams at high and low energies. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the high energy FFF beam can produce the same plan quality as the conventional low energy flat beam, using a volumetric modulated arc (VMAT) technique for prostate patients. METHODS: Ten prostate cancer patients were selected with a prescription of 78Gy. For each patient, three plans were created: (a) double arc flat 6MV plan used clinically; (b) double arc 10MV FFF plan; (c) single arc 10MV FFF plan...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048249/su-f-t-628-an-evaluation-of-grid-size-in-eclipse-acurosxb-dose-calculation-algorithm-for-sbrt-lung
#17
S Pokharel, S Rana
PURPOSE: purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of grid size in Eclipse AcurosXB dose calculation algorithm for SBRT lung. METHODS: Five cases of SBRT lung previously treated have been chosen for present study. Four of the plans were 5 fields conventional IMRT and one was Rapid Arc plan. All five cases have been calculated with five grid sizes (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3mm) available for AXB algorithm with same plan normalization. Dosimetric indices relevant to SBRT along with MUs and time have been recorded for different grid sizes...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048155/th-ef-brb-04-4%C3%AF-dynamic-conformal-arc-therapy-dynamic-conformal-arc-therapy-dcat-for-sbrt
#18
T Chiu, T Long, A Modiri, Z Tian, A Sawant, Y Yan, S Jiang, X Gu
PURPOSE: To develop an efficient and effective trajectory optimization methodology for 4π dynamic conformal arc treatment (4π DCAT) with synchronized gantry and couch motion; and to investigate potential clinical benefits for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) to breast, lung, liver and spine tumors. METHODS: The entire optimization framework for 4π DCAT inverse planning consists of two parts: 1) integer programming algorithm and 2) particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047952/su-f-t-240-epid-based-quality-assurance-for-dosimetric-credentialing
#19
N Miri, J Lehmann, P Vial, P Greer
PURPOSE: We propose a novel dosimetric audit method for clinical trials using EPID measurements at each center and a standardized EPID to dose conversion algorithm. The aim of this work is to investigate the applicability of the EPID method to different linear accelerator, EPID and treatment planning system (TPS) combinations. METHODS: Combination of delivery and planning systems were three Varian linacs including one Pinnacle and two Eclipse TPS and, two ELEKTA linacs including one Pinnacle and one Monaco TPS...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047946/su-f-t-274-modified-dose-calibration-methods-for-imrt-qa
#20
W Luo, S Westlund
PURPOSE: To investigate IMRT QA uncertainties caused by dose calibration and modify widely used dose calibration procedures to improve IMRT QA accuracy and passing rate. METHODS: IMRT QA dose measurement is calibrated using a calibration factor (CF) that is the ratio between measured value and expected value corresponding to the reference fields delivered on a phantom. Two IMRT QA phantoms were used for this study: a 30×30×30 cm3 solid water cube phantom (Cube), and the PTW Octavius phantom...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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