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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640850/no-evidence-for-punishment-in-communally-nursing-female-house-mice-mus-musculus-domesticus
#1
Manuela Ferrari, Barbara König
Punishment is claimed as an important mechanism to stabilise costly cooperation in humans, but its importance in social animals has been questioned recently due to both conceptual considerations and a lack of empirical evidence (only few published studies). We empirically tested whether there is evidence for punishment in communally nursing house mice (Mus musculus domesticus, direct descendants of "wild" animals). Communally breeding females pool their litters and raise all offspring together, indiscriminately caring for own and other offspring...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631116/environmental-factors-and-zoonotic-pathogen-ecology-in-urban-exploiter-species
#2
REVIEW
Jamie L Rothenburger, Chelsea H Himsworth, Nicole M Nemeth, David L Pearl, Claire M Jardine
Knowledge of pathogen ecology, including the impacts of environmental factors on pathogen and host dynamics, is essential for determining the risk that zoonotic pathogens pose to people. This review synthesizes the scientific literature on environmental factors that influence the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic microparasites (bacteria, viruses and protozoa) in globally invasive urban exploiter wildlife species (i.e., rock doves [Columba livia domestica], European starlings [Sturnus vulgaris], house sparrows [Passer domesticus], Norway rats [Rattus norvegicus], black rats [R...
June 19, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629823/characterization-and-biological-function-analysis-of-the-trim47-gene-from-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#3
Yeda Wang, Ming Kuang, Yuanan Lu, Li Lin, Xueqin Liu
The TRIM family protein was known to play an important role in many cellular processes, including potential antiviral activity, which has attracted lots of attention. In this study, a TRIM47 homolog from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was cloned and the full length coding DNA sequence (CDS) of this gene was analyzed, results showed that there was a 97% similarity between common carp and zebrafish (Danio rerio), but only 18% similarity with that of human (Homo sapiens) and mouse (Mus musculus). The tissue distribution analysis showed TRIM47 had the highest mRNA level in the brain, a few immune related organs such as liver and kidney also had a relatively high level of TRIM47 expression...
June 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626946/do-changes-in-gene-expression-contribute-to-sexual-isolation-and-reinforcement-in-the-house-mouse
#4
Etienne Loire, Sergio Tusso, Pierre Caminade, Dany Severac, Pierre Boursot, Guila Ganem, Carole M Smadja
Expression divergence, rather than sequence divergence, has been shown to be important in speciation, particularly in the early stages of divergence of traits involved in reproductive isolation. In the two European subspecies of house mice, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, earlier studies have demonstrated olfactory-based assortative mate preference in populations close to their hybrid zone. It has been suggested that this behaviour evolved following the recent secondary contact between the two taxa (~3,000 years ago) in response to selection against hybridisation...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626537/epidemiological-distribution-of-rodents-as-potent-reservoirs-for-infectious-diseases-in-the-provinces-of-mazandaran-gilan-and-golestan-northern-iran
#5
Behzad Esfandiari, Hossein Nahrevanian, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Pejvak Khaki, Ehsan Mostafavi, Jamshid Darvish, Hamed Hanifi
Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in the dissemination of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites or other micro-organisms. Rodents are important reservoirs of diseases which have been observed in many cities of Iran provinces especially along Caspian Sea border to Alborz Mountain...
May 31, 2017: Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622867/evaluation-of-the-involvement-of-mice-mus-musculus-in-the-epidemiology-of-porcine-proliferative-enteropathy
#6
Michelle de P Gabardo, José Paulo H Sato, Amanda Gabriele de S Daniel, Mariana R Andrade, Carlos Eduardo R Pereira, Talita P Rezende, Luísa V Arantes Otoni, Lucas Avelino Rezende, Roberto M C Guedes
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal-oral transmission of L. intracellularis between mice and pigs. The study was divided into two parts. The first part aimed to determine whether mice could be infected by feces from pigs that are experimentally infected with L. intracellularis. Thirty-four Swiss mice received L. intracellularis PCR-positive feces from experimentally infected pigs (M1) for four consecutive days. Twelve other mice received swine negative feces (M2). Pools of mice feces were collected on alternating days post-exposure (dpe)...
June 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617656/sarcocystis-pantherophis-n-sp-from-eastern-rat-snakes-pantherophis-alleghaniensis-definitive-hosts-and-interferon-gamma-gene-knockout-mice-as-experimental-intermediate-hosts
#7
Shiv Verma, David Lindsay, Joseph Mowery, Benjamin Rosenthal, J P Dubey
Here we report a new species, Sarcocystis pantherophisi n. sp. with the Eastern rat snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis) as natural definitive host and the interferon gamma gene knockout (KO) mouse as the experimental intermediate host. Sporocysts (n = 15) from intestinal contents of the snake were 17.3 x 10.9 µm. Sporocysts were orally infective to interferon gamma KO mice but not to laboratory raised albino outbred house mice (Mus musculus). The interferon gamma KO mice developed schizont-associated neurological signs and schizonts were cultivated in vitro from the brain...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616118/stress-urinary-incontinence-in-women-current-and-emerging-therapeutic-options
#8
REVIEW
Samer Shamout, Lysanne Campeau
Surgical management of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is most commonly achieved by midurethral synthetic sling (MUS) insertion as a first-line surgical option. A great deal of research continues to evolve new management strategies to reach an optimal balance of high efficacy and minimal adverse events. This expert opinion review provides a brief and comprehensive discussion of recent advances and ongoing research in the management of SUI, with an emphasis on single-incision mini-slings, vaginal laser treatment, and cell-based therapy...
June 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616116/the-pubovaginal-sling-reintroducing-an-old-friend
#9
REVIEW
Gregory G Bailly, Kevin V Carlson
The surgical management of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) has evolved over the past century, using various techniques of retropubic colposuspensions and sling procedures. In the past two decades, the sling has become the mainstay of surgical treatment of SUI, with the synthetic midurethral sling (MUS) leading the way. With the recent concerns raised by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada about the safety of vaginal surgery using mesh implants, including the MUS, urologists and gynecologists should be familiar with suitable alternatives, including the pubovaginal sling (PVS), which often incorporates autologous fascia...
June 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616115/management-of-patients-with-stress-urinary-incontinence-after-failed-midurethral-sling
#10
REVIEW
Alex Kavanagh, May Sanaee, Kevin V Carlson, Gregory G Bailly
Surgical failure rates after midurethral sling (MUS) procedures are variable and range from approximately 8-57% at five years of followup. The disparity in long-term failure rates is explained by a lack of long-term followup and lack of a clear definition of what constitutes failure. A recent Cochrane review illustrates that no high-quality data exists to recommend or refute any of the different management strategies for recurrent or persistent stress urinary incontinence (SUI) after failed MUS surgery. Clinical evaluation requires a complete history, physical examination, and establishment of patient goals...
June 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616113/prevention-diagnosis-and-management-of-midurethral-mesh-sling-complications
#11
REVIEW
A Ross Hengel, Kevin V Carlson, Richard J Baverstock
Midurethral slings (MUS) are a proven effective treatment option for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and have become the gold standard in most centres in North America. MUS implantation can be associated with risks that are common to all anti-incontinence surgeries, and others which are unique. This article reviews the intraoperative and the early and late postoperative risks associated with these procedures, with insights into their prevention, diagnosis, and management drawn from the literature and expert opinion...
June 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616112/choosing-the-right-sling-for-your-patient
#12
REVIEW
Stephen S Steele, Gregory G Bailly
Recent data has demonstrated a one in five lifetime risk of a woman requiring stress urinary incontinence (SUI) surgery. Currently, most women opt for a synthetic midurethral sling (MUS), with over 3.6 million placed worldwide. This article attempts to identify whether a gold standard exists with regards to surgical correction of female SUI. When considering which sling type to use for which incontinent woman, the published data demonstrates excellent results for both synthetic mesh (retropubic or transobturator routes) and fascial pubovaginal slings for most patients...
June 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616104/medicolegal-basics-and-update-on-transvaginal-mesh-in-canada
#13
REVIEW
Brock Hengel, Blayne Welk, Richard J Baverstock
In recent years, midurethral slings (MUS) and transvaginal mesh procedures have experienced blazing growth and popularity. However, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Health Canada regulatory advisories threw water on that fire and created a confusing environment surrounding their continued usage. MUS usage has continued in Canada and transvaginal mesh kits for pelvic organ prolapse have become a rarity. Several large organizations (the Society of Urodynamics, Female Pelvic Medicine and Urogenital Reconstruction [SUFU], the American Urogynecologic Society [AUGS], and the Canadian Urological Association [CUA]) have developed "mesh statements" to clarify the issues surrounding mesh for patients and medical professionals; however, often the legal system sees things differently in either individual cases or class action lawsuits...
June 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615333/excitability-and-firing-behavior-of-single-slow-motor-axons-transmitting-natural-repetitive-firing-of-human-motoneurons
#14
Lydia P Kudina, Regina E Andreeva
Excitability of motor axons is critically important for realizing their main function - transmitting motoneuron firing to muscle fibres. The present study was designed to explore excitability recovery and firing behavior in single slow axons transmitting human motoneuron firing during voluntary muscle contractions. The abductor digiti minimi, flexor carpi ulnaris, and tibialis anterior were investigated during threshold stimulation of corresponding motor nerves. Motor unit (MU) firing index in response to testing volleys evoking M-responses was used as a physiological measure of axonal excitability and its changes throughout a target interspike interval (ISI) were explored...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609204/surveillance-of-women-with-the-brca1-or-brca2-mutation-by-using-biannual-automated-breast-us-mr-imaging-and-mammography
#15
Jan C M van Zelst, Roel D M Mus, Gwendolyn Woldringh, Matthieu J C M Rutten, Peter Bult, Suzan Vreemann, Mathijn de Jong, Nico Karssemeijer, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, Ritse M Mann
Purpose To evaluate a multimodal surveillance regimen including yearly full-field digital (FFD) mammography, dynamic contrast agent-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and biannual automated breast (AB) ultrasonography (US) in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Materials and Methods This prospective multicenter trial enrolled 296 carriers of the BRCA mutation (153 BRCA1 and 128 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 women with first-degree untested relatives) between September 2010 and November 2012, with follow-up until November 2015...
June 13, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606738/engineering-high-level-production-of-fatty-alcohols-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-from-lignocellulosic-feedstocks
#16
Leo d'Espaux, Amit Ghosh, Weerawat Runguphan, Maren Wehrs, Feng Xu, Oliver Konzock, Ishaan Dev, Melissa Nhan, Jennifer Gin, Amanda Reider Apel, Christopher J Petzold, Seema Singh, Blake A Simmons, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Héctor García Martín, Jay D Keasling
Fatty alcohols in the C12-C18 range are used in personal care products, lubricants, and potentially biofuels. These compounds can be produced from the fatty acid pathway by a fatty acid reductase (FAR), yet yields from the preferred industrial host Saccharomyces cerevisiae remain under 2% of the theoretical maximum from glucose. Here we improved titer and yield of fatty alcohols using an approach involving quantitative analysis of protein levels and metabolic flux, engineering enzyme level and localization, pull-push-block engineering of carbon flux, and cofactor balancing...
June 10, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603873/environmental-dna-enables-detection-of-terrestrial-mammals-from-forest-pond-water
#17
Masayuki Ushio, Hisato Fukuda, Toshiki Inoue, Kobayashi Makoto, Osamu Kishida, Keiichi Sato, Koichi Murata, Masato Nikaido, Tetsuya Sado, Yukuto Sato, Masamichi Takeshita, Wataru Iwasaki, Hiroki Yamanaka, Michio Kondoh, Masaki Miya
Terrestrial animals must have frequent contact with water to survive, implying that environmental DNA (eDNA) originating from those animals should be detectable from places containing water in terrestrial ecosystems. Aiming to detect the presence of terrestrial mammals using forest water samples, we applied a set of universal PCR primers (MiMammal, a modified version of fish universal primers) for metabarcoding mammalian eDNA. The versatility of MiMammal primers was tested in silico and by amplifying DNAs extracted from tissues...
June 11, 2017: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600394/tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-in-early-vertebrate-development
#18
Joseph Zinski, Benjamin Tajer, Mary C Mullins
TGF-β family ligands function in inducing and patterning many tissues of the early vertebrate embryonic body plan. Nodal signaling is essential for the specification of mesendodermal tissues and the concurrent cellular movements of gastrulation. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling patterns tissues along the dorsal-ventral axis and simultaneously directs the cell movements of convergence and extension. After gastrulation, a second wave of Nodal signaling breaks the symmetry between the left and right sides of the embryo...
June 9, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589063/teaching-the-retropubic-midurethral-sling-using-a-novel-cadaver-and-model-based-approach
#19
Sallie Oliphant, Eliza Beth Littleton, Gabriella Gosman, Gary Sutkin
OBJECTIVE: To measure the impact of a model-based teaching program on resident comfort and skill with retropubic midurethral sling (MUS). STUDY DESIGN: Residents were assessed before and after a retropubic MUS teaching session, which included a brief lecture and three interactive teaching stations (cadaver pelvis, retropubic MUS pelvic model, cystoscopy model). Self-assessment measures included MUS-related visual analog scale (VAS), Likert, and open-ended questions...
May 2, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582898/dosimetric-comparisons-of-imrt-planning-using-mco-and-dmpo-techniques
#20
Xiongfei Liao, Jinyi Lang, Ningshan Li, Pei Wang, Jie Li, Jack Yang, Yazheng Chen
The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of multi-criteria optimization (MCO) in the planning and optimization of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Twenty (20) IMRT patients (ten (10) with prostate cancer and ten (10) with lung cancer) were randomly selected. The treatment plans for these patients were designed using direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). Based on these plans, new plans were designed using multi-criteria optimization (MCO), keeping the optimization objectives and constraints unchanged...
May 19, 2017: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
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