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Aaron S Wallace, Kong Krey, John Hustedt, Eleanor Burnett, Narin Choun, Danni Daniels, Margaret L Watkins, Sann Chan Soeung, Richard Duncan
INTRODUCTION: Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) can result in inadequate protection against disease. Although healthcare provider reluctance to open multi-dose, lyophilized vaccine vials (particularly the measles-containing vaccine [MCV]) for every eligible child due to concerns about wasting vaccine is a known reason for MOV, little is known about providers' related attitudes and practices. METHODS: In 100 randomly selected health facilities and 24 districts of Cambodia, we surveyed healthcare providers and their district supervisors regarding routine vaccine administration and wastage knowledge and practices, and child caregivers (five per facility) regarding MOV...
June 12, 2018: Vaccine
Maren Alchikh, Tim Conrad, Christian Hoppe, Xiaolin Ma, Eeva Broberg, Pasi Penttinen, Janine Reiche, Barbara Biere, Brunhilde Schweiger, Barbara Rath
OBJECTIVES: Hospital-based surveillance of influenza and acute respiratory infections relies on ICD-codes and hospital laboratory reports (Standard-of-Care). It is unclear how many cases are missed with either method, i.e. remain undiagnosed/coded as influenza and other respiratory virus infections. Various influenza-like illness (ILI) definitions co-exist with little guidance on how to use them. We are comparing the diagnostic accuracy of standard surveillance methods with a prospective quality management (QM-Program) at a Berlin children's hospital with the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI)...
June 12, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Jessica L Booth, Emily E Sharpe, Timothy T Houle, Lynnette Harris, Regina S Curry, Carol A Aschenbrenner, James C Eisenach
We know very little about the change in pain in the first 2 months after surgery. To address this gap, we studied 530 women scheduled for elective cesarean delivery who completed daily pain diaries for two months after surgery via text messaging. Over 82% of subjects missed fewer than 10 diary entries and were included in the analysis. Completers were more likely to be Caucasian, non-smokers, and with fewer previous pregnancies than non-completers. Daily worst pain intensity ratings for the previous 24 hours were fit to a log(time) function and allowed to change to a different function up to 3 times according to a Bayesian criterion...
June 13, 2018: Pain
Olivier Codol, Peter J Holland, Joseph M Galea
The motor system's ability to adapt to environmental changes is essential for maintaining accurate movements. Such adaptation recruits several distinct systems: cerebellar sensory-prediction error learning, success-based reinforcement, and explicit control. Although much work has focused on the relationship between cerebellar learning and explicit control, there is little research regarding how reinforcement and explicit control interact. To address this, participants first learnt a 20° visuomotor displacement...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Vyas M Kartha, Mohamed Rehman, Jeffrey P Jacobs, Marshall L Jacobs, David Vener, Kevin D Hill, James M Meza, Sean M O'Brien, Liqi Feng, Karen Chiswell, Neil A Goldenberg, Sara K Pasquali, Pirooz Eghtesady, Vinay Badhwar
BACKGROUND: To determine national benchmarks and assess variability across centers, the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database (CHSD) was analyzed to document proportions of patients receiving intraoperative blood transfusion during open heart surgery. METHODS: Index CPB operations reported in the STS CHSD (2014-2015) were potentially eligible for inclusion. Data from centers with > 15% missing data for packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion were excluded, as were individual records missing information about PRBC transfusion...
June 11, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Kristen L Kucera, Hester J Lipscomb, Karen G Roos, John M Dement, Jennifer M Hootman
CONTEXT:   Health care workers have high rates of musculoskeletal injuries, but many of these injuries go unreported to workers' compensation and national surveillance systems. Little is known regarding the work-related injuries of certified athletic trainers (ATs). OBJECTIVE:   To determine the 12-month incidence and prevalence of work-related injuries and describe injury-reporting and -management strategies. DESIGN:   Cross-sectional study...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Sasha K Whitmarsh, Charlie Huveneers, Peter G Fairweather
Counting errors can bias assessments of species abundance and richness, which can affect assessments of stock structure, population structure and monitoring programmes. Many methods for studying ecology use fixed viewpoints (e.g. camera traps, underwater video), but there is little known about how this biases the data obtained. In the marine realm, most studies using baited underwater video, a common method for monitoring fish and nekton, have previously only assessed fishes using a single bait-facing viewpoint...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Elisa Martín-Merino, Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga, Samuel Hawley, Beatriz Poblador-Plou, Ana Llorente-García, Irene Petersen, Daniel Prieto-Alhambra
Background: Missing data are often an issue in electronic medical records (EMRs) research. However, there are many ways that people deal with missing data in drug safety studies. Aim: To compare the risk estimates resulting from different strategies for the handling of missing data in the study of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk associated with antiosteoporotic medications (AOM). Methods: New users of AOM (alendronic acid, other bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, selective estrogen receptor modulators, teriparatide, or denosumab) aged ≥50 years during 1998-2014 were identified in two Spanish (the Base de datos para la Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica en Atención Primaria [BIFAP] and EpiChron cohort) and one UK (Clinical Practice Research Datalink [CPRD]) EMR...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
László Ivanizs, András Farkas, Gabriella Linc, Márta Molnár-Láng, István Molnár
Barley chromosome 5H, carrying important QTLs for plant adaptation and tolerance to abiotic stresses, is extremely instable in the wheat genetic background and is eliminated in the early generations of wheat-barley crosses. A spontaneous wheat-barley 5HS-7DS.7DL translocation was previously obtained among the progenies of the Mv9kr1 x Igri hybrid. The present work reports on the transfer of the 5HS-7DS.7DL translocation into a modern wheat cultivar, Mv Bodri, in order to use it in the wheat breeding program...
2018: PloS One
Judy Edworthy, Scott Reid, Katie Peel, Samantha Lock, Jessica Williams, Chloe Newbury, Joseph Foster, Martin Farrington
Very little is known about people's ability to localize sound under varying workload conditions, though it would be expected that increasing workload should degrade performance. A set of eight auditory clinical alarms already known to have relatively high localizability (the ease with which their location is identified) when tested alone were tested in six conditions where workload was varied. Participants were required to indicate the location of a series of alarms emanating at random from one of eight speaker locations...
October 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Lisa M Lowenstein, Robert J Volk, Richard Street, Marie Flannery, Allison Magnuson, Ronald Epstein, Supriya G Mohile
OBJECTIVES: Older patients with advanced cancer often have age-related health issues (e.g., memory impairment) that influence their cancer treatment decisions. Communication about these age-related concerns can potentially lead to further assessment and subsequent clinical interventions to improve treatment decision-making and patients' quality of life. Yet, little is known about the communication of age-related concerns between oncologists, patients, and caregivers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is a secondary analysis of data from the Values and Options in Cancer Care (VOICE) study...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Oncology
Georgia Salanti, Anna Chaimani, Toshi A Furukawa, Julian P T Higgins, Yusuke Ogawa, Andrea Cipriani, Matthias Egger
Background: There is debate in the literature as to whether inclusion of a placebo arm may alter characteristics of antidepressant trials. However, previous research has focused on response rates of various antidepressants on average only, ignoring potential differences among drugs or other aspects of trial findings. Little is known about the impact of a placebo arm on all-cause dropout and dropout due to adverse events. Methods: We carried out a systematic review of published and unpublished double-blind randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for the acute treatment of unipolar major depression (update: January 2016)...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Margae Knox, Rachel Willard-Grace, Beatrice Huang, Kevin Grumbach
BACKGROUND: Clinicians and healthcare staff report high levels of burnout. Two common burnout assessments are the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and a single-item, self-defined burnout measure. Relatively little is known about how the measures compare. OBJECTIVE: To identify the sensitivity, specificity, and concurrent validity of the self-defined burnout measure compared to the more established MBI measure. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey (November 2016-January 2017)...
June 4, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Mufaro Kanyangarara, Victoria B Chou, Andreea A Creanga, Neff Walker
Background: Improving access and quality of obstetric service has the potential to avert preventable maternal, neonatal and stillborn deaths, yet little is known about the quality of care received. This study sought to assess obstetric service availability, readiness and coverage within and between 17 low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We linked health facility data from the Service Provision Assessments and Service Availability and Readiness Assessments, with corresponding household survey data obtained from the Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Brittany W Zelman, Ranju Baral, Iska Zarlinda, Farah N Coutrier, Kelly C Sanders, Chris Cotter, Herdiana Herdiana, Bryan Greenhouse, Rima Shretta, Roly D Gosling, Michelle S Hsiang
BACKGROUND: Reactive case detection (RACD) is an active case finding strategy where households and neighbours of a passively identified case (index case) are screened to identify and treat additional malaria infections with the goal of gathering surveillance information and potentially reducing further transmission. Although it is widely considered a key strategy in low burden settings, little is known about the costs and the cost-effectiveness of different diagnostic methods used for RACD...
June 1, 2018: Malaria Journal
Monica Schoch-Spana, Emily Brunson, Hannah Chandler, Gigi Kwik Gronvall, Sanjana Ravi, Tara Kirk Sell, Matthew P Shearer
National investments to facilitate prompt access to safe and effective medical countermeasures (MCMs) (ie, products used to diagnose, prevent, protect from, or treat conditions associated with chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear threats, or emerging infectious diseases) have little merit if people are not willing to take a recommended MCM during an emergency or inadvertently misuse or miss out on a recommended MCM during an emergency. Informed by the Expert Working Group on MCM Emergency Communication, the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security developed recommendations for achieving desired public health outcomes through improved MCM communication based on a review of model practices in risk communication, crisis communication, and public warnings; detailed analysis of recent health crises involving MCMs; and development of a scenario depicting future MCM communication dilemmas...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
F K Massen, S F Baumbach, W Böcker, C Kammerlander, V Herterich, H Polzer
Fractures to the anterior process of the calcaneus (PAC) have long been considered rare injuries and have received little attention in clinical research. On the contrary, recent studies have reported a distinct higher incidence, especially following ankle sprains. Decisive reasons are that fractures of the PAC are regularly missed on plain radiographs and that a clinical differentiation from injuries to the lateral ankle ligaments is difficult. With the broad availability of cross-sectional imaging modalities fractures of the PAC are diagnosed more frequently and more reliably...
May 29, 2018: Der Unfallchirurg
Boglárka Lilla Szentes, Michael Kreuter, Thomas Bahmer, Surinder S Birring, Martin Claussen, Julia Waelscher, Reiner Leidl, Larissa Schwarzkopf
BACKGROUND: Patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILD) have impaired health-related quality of life (HRQL). Little is known about the applicability of the disease-specific King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease questionnaire (K-BILD) and the generic EQ-5D-5L in a German setting. METHODS: We assessed disease-specific (K-BILD) and generic HRQL (EQ-5D experience based value set (EBVS) and Visual Analog Scale (VAS)) in 229 patients with different ILD subtypes in a longitudinal observational study (HILDA)...
May 25, 2018: Respiratory Research
Sebastian Franik, Stephanie M Eltrop, Jan Am Kremer, Ludwig Kiesel, Cindy Farquhar
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common cause of infrequent periods (oligomenorrhoea) and absence of periods (amenorrhoea). It affects about 4% to 8% of women worldwide and often leads to anovulatory subfertility. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are a class of drugs that were introduced for ovulation induction in 2001. Since about 2001 clinical trials have reached differing conclusions as to whether the AI letrozole is at least as effective as the first-line treatment clomiphene citrate (CC)...
May 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
P Marcin Sowa, Elena Keller, Nicole Stormon, Ratilal Lalloo, Pauline J Ford
Background: Despite a clear causal link between frequent consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and dental disease, little is known about the implications of a tax on SSBs in the context of oral health. The aim of our study was to estimate the impacts of a SSB tax on the Australian population in the context of oral health outcomes, dental care utilisation and associated costs. Methods: We designed a cohort model that accounted for the consequences of the tax through the mechanisms of consumer response to price increase, the effect on oral health due to change in sugar intake, and the implications for dental care use...
May 22, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
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