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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723287/advanced-renal-cell-carcinoma-role-of-the-radiologist-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#1
Atul B Shinagare, Katherine M Krajewski, Marta Braschi-Amirfarzan, Nikhil H Ramaiya
For the past decade, advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been at the forefront of oncologic innovation. Our rapidly evolving understanding of the molecular and genetic basis of RCC has revolutionized the management of advanced RCC; 10 novel molecular targeted agents and immune checkpoint inhibitor have received U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for treatment of advanced RCC in a little over a decade. Amid this progress, imaging has assumed a central role in metastatic surveillance and follow-up of advanced RCC...
August 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717880/environmental-exposure-does-not-explain-putative-maladaptation-in-road-adjacent-populations
#2
Steven P Brady
While the ecological consequences of roads are well described, little is known of their role as agents of natural selection, which can shape adaptive and maladaptive responses in populations influenced by roads. This knowledge gap persists despite a growing appreciation for the influence of evolution in human-altered environments. There, insights indicate that natural selection typically results in local adaptation. Thus, populations influenced by road-induced selection should evolve fitness advantages in their local environment...
July 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717750/fear-of-treatments-surpasses-demographic-and-socioeconomic-factors-in-affecting-patients-with-breast-cancer-in-urban-south-africa
#3
Sarah Rayne, Kathryn Schnippel, Cynthia Firnhaber, Kathryne Wright, Deirdre Kruger, Carol-Ann Benn
PURPOSE: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer in women in South Africa, and often patients present late. There is little understanding of the psychosocial stresses affecting women with breast cancer in Africa. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to 263 patients with breast cancer at two sites (one government and one private facility) in Johannesburg. Self-reported levels of fear were recorded on summative scales and their relationship to demographic variables assessed through univariable and multivariable modified Poisson regression...
April 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695667/a-comparison-of-existing-methods-for-multiple-imputation-in-individual-participant-data-meta-analysis
#4
Deborah Kunkel, Eloise E Kaizar
Multiple imputation is a popular method for addressing missing data, but its implementation is difficult when data have a multilevel structure and one or more variables are systematically missing. This systematic missing data pattern may commonly occur in meta-analysis of individual participant data, where some variables are never observed in some studies, but are present in other hierarchical data settings. In these cases, valid imputation must account for both relationships between variables and correlation within studies...
July 10, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694347/menstrual-hygiene-management-among-bangladeshi-adolescent-schoolgirls-and-risk-factors-affecting-school-absence-results-from-a-cross-sectional-survey
#5
Mahbub-Ul Alam, Stephen P Luby, Amal K Halder, Khairul Islam, Aftab Opel, Abul K Shoab, Probir K Ghosh, Mahbubur Rahman, Therese Mahon, Leanne Unicomb
BACKGROUND: Many adolescent girls in low-income and middle-income countries lack appropriate facilities and support in school to manage menstruation. Little research has been conducted on how menstruation affects school absence. This study examines the association of menstrual hygiene management knowledge, facilities and practice with absence from school during menstruation among Bangladeshi schoolgirls. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative, cross-sectional study in Bangladeshi schools from March to June 2013 among girls 11 to 17 years old who reached menarche...
July 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694019/opportunities-to-reduce-diabetes-risk-in-women-of-reproductive-age-assessment-and-treatment-of-prediabetes-within-a-large-integrated-delivery-system
#6
Cassondra Marshall, Sara Adams, Wendy Dyer, Julie Schmittdiel
BACKGROUND: Preventing diabetes before pregnancy may be important to improve maternal and infant outcomes. Although the preconception period is a crucial time to focus on chronic disease prevention, little is known about preventive services for reproductive-aged women at risk of developing diabetes. METHODS: Using electronic health record data from patients at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, we identified 21,965 nonpregnant women aged 18 to 44 with incident prediabetes (PDM; fasting plasma glucose [FPG] = 100-125 or glycated hemoglobin A1c = 5...
July 7, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691087/cytoskeletal-actin-dynamics-shape-a-ramifying-actin-network-underpinning-immunological-synapse-formation
#7
Marco Fritzsche, Ricardo A Fernandes, Veronica T Chang, Huw Colin-York, Mathias P Clausen, James H Felce, Silvia Galiani, Christoph Erlenkämper, Ana M Santos, John M Heddleston, Isabela Pedroza-Pacheco, Dominic Waithe, Jorge Bernardino de la Serna, B Christoffer Lagerholm, Tsung-Li Liu, Teng-Leong Chew, Eric Betzig, Simon J Davis, Christian Eggeling
T cell activation and especially trafficking of T cell receptor microclusters during immunological synapse formation are widely thought to rely on cytoskeletal remodeling. However, important details on the involvement of actin in the latter transport processes are missing. Using a suite of advanced optical microscopes to analyze resting and activated T cells, we show that, following contact formation with activating surfaces, these cells sequentially rearrange their cortical actin across the entire cell, creating a previously unreported ramifying actin network above the immunological synapse...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688909/are-we-making-an-impact-with-incident-learning-systems-analysis-of-quality-improvement-interventions-using-total-body-irradiation-as-a-model-system
#8
Aileen Kim, Eric Ford, Matthew Spraker, Jing Zeng, Ralph Ermoian, Loucille Jordan, Gabrielle Kane, Matthew Nyflot
PURPOSE: Despite increasing interest in incident learning systems (ILS) to improve safety and quality in radiation oncology, little is known about interventions developed in response to safety data. We used total body irradiation (TBI) as a model system to study the effectiveness of interventions from our institutional ILS. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Near-miss event reports specific to TBI were identified from a departmental ILS from March 2012 to December 2015. The near-miss risk index was rated at multidisciplinary review from 0 (no potential harm) to 4 (critical potential harm)...
June 6, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688789/yoga-treatment-for-chronic-non-specific-low-back-pain-2017
#9
Alison Whitehead, Susan Gould Fogerite
Wieland LS, Skoetz N, Pilkington K, Vempati R, D׳Adamo CR, Berman BM. Yoga treatment for chronic non-specific low back pain.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2017, Issue 1. Art. No.: CD010671. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD010671.pub2. BACKGROUND: Non-specific low back pain is a common, potentially disabling condition usually treated with self-care and non-prescription medication. For chronic low back pain, current guidelines state that exercise therapy may be beneficial. Yoga is a mind-body exercise sometimes used for non-specific low back pain...
April 22, 2017: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688532/missed-case-feedback-and-quality-assurance-conferences-in-radiology-resident-education-a-survey-of-united-states-radiology-program-directors
#10
Anne E Gill, Philip K Wong, Mark E Mullins, Amanda S Corey, Brent P Little
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Diagnostic Radiology (DR) residents typically generate preliminary reports for imaging examinations, but few publications discuss feedback regarding missed or misinterpreted findings. Our goal was to determine the practices of United States DR residencies with respect to missed case feedback, including the role of Quality Assurance (QA) conferences. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 23-item survey containing multiple-choice questions and several free text fields was created and hosted on SurveyMonkey(R)...
July 5, 2017: Current Problems in Diagnostic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683461/disease-modifying-therapies-and-adherence-in-multiple-sclerosis-comparing-patient-self-report-with-pharmacy-records
#11
Kyla A McKay, Charity Evans, John D Fisk, Scott B Patten, Kirsten Fiest, Ruth Ann Marrie, Helen Tremlett
BACKGROUND: Self-report and pharmacy records are often used to measure adherence rates to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in multiple sclerosis (MS), but little is known about how the sources compare. OBJECTIVE: Compare self-report and pharmacy records for assessing DMT use and adherence rates. METHODS: Demographic information, self-reported DMT use, and missed DMT doses in the previous 30 days were obtained from consecutive MS patients attending an MS clinic and linked to pharmacy records...
July 7, 2017: Neuroepidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678716/learning-deep-generative-models-with-doubly-stochastic-gradient-mcmc
#12
Chao Du, Jun Zhu, Bo Zhang
Deep generative models (DGMs), which are often organized in a hierarchical manner, provide a principled framework of capturing the underlying causal factors of data. Recent work on DGMs focussed on the development of efficient and scalable variational inference methods that learn a single model under some mean-field or parameterization assumptions. However, little work has been done on extending Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods to Bayesian DGMs, which enjoy many advantages compared with variational methods...
June 28, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678514/tailoring-superconductivity-with-quantum-dislocations
#13
Mingda Li, Qichen Song, Te-Huan Liu, Laureen Meroueh, Gerald D Mahan, Mildred S Dresselhaus, Gang Chen
Despite the established knowledge that crystal dislocations can affect a material's superconducting properties, the exact mechanism of the electron-dislocation interaction in a dislocated superconductor has long been missing. Being a type of defect, dislocations are expected to decrease a material's superconducting transition temperature (Tc) by breaking the coherence. Yet experimentally, even in isotropic type I superconductors, dislocations can either decrease, increase, or have little influence on Tc. These experimental findings have yet to be understood...
July 10, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673323/bracelet-and-self-directed-observational-therapy-for-control-of-tuberculosis-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Ruixue Huang, Guofeng Ren, Jianan Hu
BACKGROUND: Approximately 80% of global tuberculosis (TB) cases occur in low-resource settings, with little opportunity for TB control. We hypothesized that the rapid increase in smartphone users and advances in digital technology would render bracelet-based applications possible; specifically, that bracelet- and self-directed observational therapy (BSDOT) can be used by patients with TB to ensure adherence to TB medication regimens and by basic village physicians to monitor care. This will ultimately allow TB to be controlled in low-resource environments...
July 4, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666656/reasons-for-and-experiences-with-surgical-interventions-for-female-genital-mutilation-cutting-fgm-c-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Rigmor C Berg, Sølvi Taraldsen, Maryan A Said, Ingvil Krarup Sørbye, Siri Vangen
BACKGROUND: Because female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) leads to changes in normal genital anatomy and functionality, women are increasingly seeking surgical interventions for their FGM/C-related concerns. AIM: To conduct a systematic review of empirical quantitative and qualitative research on interventions for women with FGM/C-related complications. METHODS: We conducted systematic searches up to May 2016 in 16 databases to obtain references from different disciplines...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665881/voluntary-medical-male-circumcision-among-adolescents-a-missed-opportunity-for-hiv-behavioral-interventions
#16
Michelle R Kaufman, Kim H Dam, Lynn M Van Lith, Karin Hatzold, Webster Mavhu, Catherine Kahabuka, Lusanda Mahlasela, Arik V Marcell, Eshan U Patel, Maria Elena Figueroa, Emmanuel Njeuhmeli, Kim Seifert-Ahanda, Getrude Ncube, Gissenge Lija, Collen Bonnecwe, Aaron A R Tobian
OBJECTIVE: Voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is one of the first opportunities for adolescent males in African countries to interact with the healthcare system. This study explored the approaches used during adolescent VMMC counseling and whether these strategies maximize broader HIV prevention opportunities. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 92 VMMC clients ages 10-19 years in South Africa (n = 36), Tanzania (n = 36), and Zimbabwe (n = 20) and 33 VMMC providers across the three countries...
July 1, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663182/missed-opportunity-leveraging-mobile-technology-to-reduce-racial-health-disparities
#17
Rashawn Ray, Abigail A Sewell, Keon L Gilbert, Jennifer D Roberts
Blacks and Latinos are less likely than whites to have health insurance access and utilize health care. One way to overcome some of these racial barriers to health equity may be through advances in technology that allow people to access and utilize health care in innovative ways. Yet, little research has focused on whether the racial gap that exists for health care utilization also exists for accessing health information online and through mobile technologies. Using data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS), we examine racial differences in obtaining health information online via mobile devices...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661825/concussions-in-community-level-rugby-risk-knowledge-and-attitudes
#18
R Kyle Martin, Travis J Hrubeniuk, Christopher D Witiw, Peter MacDonald, Jeff Leiter
BACKGROUND: Rugby is a popular collision sport where participants are at risk of sustaining concussions. Most research focuses on elite-level or youth divisions. Comparatively, little is known about adult community rugby. The aim of this research was to estimate the risk of sustaining a concussion during participation in community-level rugby and summarize the collective knowledge and attitudes toward concussions. HYPOTHESIS: Concussion symptoms will be reported frequently among community-level rugby players and a substantial proportion will report a willingness to continue participation despite the risk...
July 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660831/diagnostic-use-of-intramedullary-reaming-biopsy-in-metastatic-long-bone-disease
#19
R A Afinowi, A Chaturvedi, H R Cattermole
INTRODUCTION Bone is the third most common site of metastasis. A histological diagnosis is important in guiding therapy and prognosis. In up to 15% of cases of metastatic disease, the primary tumour remains unknown. This emphasises the importance of adequate, reliable and accurate sampling when performing any type of biopsy. Reaming biopsy is commonly performed during intramedullary nailing of metastatic long-bone disease but there is little published evidence on the diagnostic use and reliability of this technique...
July 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660380/informing-targeted-interventions-to-optimize-the-cascade-of-hiv-care-using-cluster-analyses-of-health-resource-use-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#20
Emanuel Krebs, Jeong E Min, Ahmed M Bayoumi, Rolando Barrios, Julio S G Montaner, Bohdan Nosyk
Increased awareness of the secondary preventive benefits of antiretroviral treatment (ART) has strengthened the desire to optimize health care systems' response to HIV/AIDS. We identified clusters of health resource utilization (HRU) among people living with HIV (PLHIV) to inform targeted interventions aimed to optimize the cascade of HIV care. Using linked population-level health databases in British Columbia, Canada, we selected two analytic samples of PLHIV with 3 years of follow-up between 2006-2011 that were classified as intermittently retained in care or intermittently engaged in ART, and executed a probabilistic model-based clustering analysis for each sample with 5 and 9 quarterly HRU variables, respectively...
June 28, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
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