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Douglas B Sponsler, Reed M Johnson
The role of pesticides in recent honey bee losses is controversial, partly because field studies often fail to detect effects predicted by laboratory studies. This dissonance highlights a critical gap in the field of honey bee toxicology: there exists little mechanistic understanding of the patterns and processes of exposure that link honey bees to pesticides in their environment. We submit that 2 key processes underlie honey bee pesticide exposure: (1) the acquisition of pesticide by foraging bees and (2) the in-hive distribution of pesticide returned by foragers...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Betsy Cleave, Maria Cartmill, Shiu Shing Soo, Harish Vyas
Children with shunts commonly present with fever, and often the focus of infection will be unrelated to their shunt. However, as shunt infections may present with few or even no specific symptoms, evaluation of a child with a shunt presenting with fever should be careful and comprehensive to ensure shunt infections are not missed. Treatment of an infected shunt involves removal of the shunt followed by a long course of antibiotics; missing or partially treating shunt infections can result in significant morbidity and potentially even mortality...
October 20, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Pradeep Jayashantha, Newell W Johnson
Sri Lanka's Veddas/Vanniya-laeto, are a small Indigenous group today with little information on their oral health status. This report is to provide an overview on oral health status of Veddas. Oral health status was recorded by the principal investigator after obtaining consent, using World Health Organization criteria, at an initial screening point before sending the person for any necessary treatment. Total participants were 194: 78% were males>35 years. Mean decayed, missing, filled teeth was 0.9 and 3% had pockets <3...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Tamsin Phillips, Annibale Cois, Robert H Remien, Claude A Mellins, James A McIntyre, Greg Petro, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens containing efavirenz (EFV) are recommended as part of universal ART for pregnant and breastfeeding women. EFV may have appreciable side effects (SE), and ART adherence in pregnancy is a major concern, but little is known about ART SE and associations with adherence in pregnancy. METHODS: We investigated the distribution of patient-reported SE (based on Division of AIDS categories) and the association of SE with missed ART doses in a cohort of 517 women starting EFV+3TC/FTC+TDF during pregnancy...
2016: PloS One
A Pinsent, I M Blake, M G Basáñez, M Gambhir
The World Health Organization has targeted the elimination of blinding trachoma by the year 2020. To this end, the Global Elimination of Blinding Trachoma (GET, 2020) alliance relies on a four-pronged approach, known as the SAFE strategy (S for trichiasis surgery; A for antibiotic treatment; F for facial cleanliness and E for environmental improvement). Well-constructed and parameterized mathematical models provide useful tools that can be used in policy making and forecasting in order to help to control trachoma and understand the feasibility of this large-scale elimination effort...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Christian Güldner, Isabell Diogo, Eva Bernd, Stephanie Dräger, Magis Mandapathil, Afshin Teymoortash, Hesham Negm, Thomas Wilhelm
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, syn. digital volume tomography = DVT) was introduced into ENT imaging more than 10 years ago. The main focus was on imaging of the paranasal sinuses and traumatology of the mid face. In recent years, it has also been used in imaging of chronic ear diseases (especially in visualizing middle and inner ear implants), but an exact description of the advantages and limitations of visualizing precise anatomy in a relevant number of patients is still missing. The data sets of CBCT imaging of the middle and inner ear of 204 patients were analyzed regarding the visualization of 18 different anatomic structures...
October 17, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Natalie Z Wong, Tony Rosen, Allen M Sanchez, Elizabeth M Bloemen, Kevin W Mennitt, Keith Hentel, Refky Nicola, Kieran Murphy, Veronica M LoFaso, Neal E Flomenbaum, Mark S Lachs
PURPOSE: Emergency department assessment represents a critical but often missed opportunity to identify elder abuse, which is common and has serious consequences. Among emergency care providers, diagnostic radiologists are optimally positioned to raise suspicion for mistreatment when reviewing imaging of geriatric injury victims. However, little literature exists describing relevant injury patterns, and most radiologists currently receive neither formal nor informal training in elder abuse identification...
October 13, 2016: Canadian Association of Radiologists Journal, Journal L'Association Canadienne des Radiologistes
Barbara Nussbaumer-Streit, Berlinda Yeoh, Ursula Griebler, Lisa M Pfadenhauer, Laura K Busert, Stefan K Lhachimi, Szimonetta Lohner, Gerald Gartlehner
BACKGROUND: Lead poisoning is associated with physical, cognitive and neurobehavioural impairment in children, and trials have tested many household interventions to prevent lead exposure. This is an update of the original review, first published in 2008. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of household interventions for preventing or reducing lead exposure in children, as measured by improvements in cognitive and neurobehavioural development, reductions in blood lead levels and reductions in household dust lead levels...
October 16, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Amedeo F Capetti, Gaetana Sterrantino, Maria Vittoria Cossu, GianCarlo Orofino, Giorgio Barbarini, Giuseppe V De Socio, Simona Di Giambenedetto, Antonio Di Biagio, Benedetto M Celesia, Barbara Argenteri, Giuliano Rizzardini
INTRODUCTION: Little information is available on the efficacy and safety of the dual combination of ripivirine plus dolutegravir. This work aims at beginning to fill this gap. METHODS: All HIV-1 infected subjects treated with ripivirine plus dolutegravir between October 2014 and September 2015 in eight Italian centres were included in an observational cohort. Data were collected at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-two subjects were followed for a median of 24 months, mean 33 months...
2016: PloS One
Fidelindo A Lim, Cheryl A Nadeau
The current emphasis to make nurses full partners in health care dialogue, education, research, practice, and policy-making has made nursing education more challenging and exciting. Competing themes in an already saturated curriculum allow little room for adding more content to formal teaching-learning activities. Well-organized student-led interest groups are an excellent avenue for conducting focused extracurricular offerings that allow students to exercise their leadership and organizational skills, advocate for academic excellence, and add specialty topics missing in the generalist curriculum...
July 2016: Nursing Education Perspectives
Philip Robert Baker, Daniel Peter Francis, Noran Naqiah Mohd Hairi, Sajaratulnisah Othman, Wan Yuen Choo
There is evidence that elder abuse is a significant public health problem that is destined to grow as population age. Countries are considering how best to act and this requires an understanding of the complex causal mechanisms contributing to its occurrence and the identification of effective interventions which can potentially make a difference. Previously, a high quality synthesis of evidence for policy and practice has been missing. In this paper, we describe a new Cochrane review of interventions to prevent the occurrence or reoccurrence of elder abuse...
October 13, 2016: Age and Ageing
Tony Rosen, Elizabeth M Bloemen, Jasmin Harpe, Allen M Sanchez, Kevin W Mennitt, Thomas J McCarthy, Refky Nicola, Kieran Murphy, Veronica M LoFaso, Neal Flomenbaum, Mark S Lachs
OBJECTIVE: Elder abuse is underrecognized, and identification of subtle cases requires a high index of suspicion among all health care providers. Because many geriatric injury victims undergo radiographic imaging, diagnostic radiologists may be well positioned to identify injury patterns suggestive of abuse. Little is known about radiologists' experience with elder abuse. Our goal was to describe knowledge, attitudes, training, and practice experience in elder abuse detection among diagnostic radiologists...
October 12, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Ilaria Galizia, Lucio Oldani, Karine Macritchie, Erica Amari, Dominic Dougall, Tessa N Jones, Raymond W Lam, Guido Jacopo Massei, Lakshmi N Yatham, Allan H Young
BACKGROUND: Depression is a recurrent illness with high rates of chronicity, treatment-resistance and significant economic impact. There is evidence in the literature that S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe), a naturally occurring compound in the human body, has antidepressant efficacy. This product may be an important addition to the armamentarium of antidepressant agents. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of SAMe in comparison with placebo or antidepressants for the treatment of depression in adults...
October 10, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Soren Gantt, Francois Dionne, Fred K Kozak, Oran Goshen, David M Goldfarb, Albert H Park, Suresh B Boppana, Karen Fowler
Importance: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is a major cause of childhood deafness. Most cCMV infections are not diagnosed without newborn screening, resulting in missed opportunities for directed care. Objective: To estimate the cost-effectiveness of universal and targeted newborn cCMV screening programs compared with no cCMV screening. Design, Setting, and Participants: Models were constructed using rates and outcomes from prospective cohort studies of newborn cCMV screening in US postpartum care and early hearing programs...
October 10, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Jane H Williams, Stacy M Carter
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer disproportionately burdens disadvantaged women. Organised cervical screening aims to make cancer prevention available to all women in a population, yet screening uptake and cancer incidence and mortality are strongly correlated with socioeconomic status (SES). Reaching underscreened populations is a stated priority in many screening programs, usually with an emphasis on something like 'equity'. Equity is a poorly defined and understood concept. We aimed to explain experts' perspectives on how cervical screening programs might justifiably respond to 'the underscreened'...
October 6, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
David Vela-Corcía, Rocío Bautista, Antonio de Vicente, Pietro D Spanu, Alejandro Pérez-García
The cucurbit powdery mildew fungus Podosphaera xanthii is a major limiting factor for cucurbit production worldwide. Despite the fungus's agronomic and economic importance, very little is known about fundamental aspects of P. xanthii biology, such as obligate biotrophy or pathogenesis. To design more durable control strategies, genomic information about P. xanthii is needed. Powdery mildews are fungal pathogens with large genomes compared with those of other fungi, which contain vast amounts of repetitive DNA sequences, much of which is composed of retrotransposons...
2016: PloS One
Thomas Desautels, Jacob Calvert, Jana Hoffman, Melissa Jay, Yaniv Kerem, Lisa Shieh, David Shimabukuro, Uli Chettipally, Mitchell D Feldman, Chris Barton, David J Wales, Ritankar Das
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is one of the leading causes of mortality in hospitalized patients. Despite this fact, a reliable means of predicting sepsis onset remains elusive. Early and accurate sepsis onset predictions could allow more aggressive and targeted therapy while maintaining antimicrobial stewardship. Existing detection methods suffer from low performance and often require time-consuming laboratory test results. OBJECTIVE: To study and validate a sepsis prediction method, InSight, for the new Sepsis-3 definitions in retrospective data, make predictions using a minimal set of variables from within the electronic health record data, compare the performance of this approach with existing scoring systems, and investigate the effects of data sparsity on InSight performance...
September 30, 2016: JMIR Medical Informatics
Haonan Liu, Liang He, Guilin Zhang, Xiaofeng Gong, Ning Li
BACKGROUND: There is very little information on the costs of different surgeries for displaced femoral neck fractures. This study aimed to compare the costs between internal fixation and hemiarthroplasty (HA) in the treatment of displaced femoral neck fracture. METHOD: A total of 142 patients aged 65 years or older who had been randomized into internal fixation group (n = 70) or HA group (n = 72) were followed for 2 years. Cost data was collected through hospitalization information, cost diary and telephone interview...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common presentation to the emergency department (ED), though the majority of patients are not diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Many patients are admitted to the hospital due to fear of ACS. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate controversies in low-risk chest pain evaluation, including risk of missed ACS, stress test, and coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). DISCUSSION: Chest pain accounts for 10 million ED visits in the United States annually...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
F W N Silva, A L M T Costa, Lei Liu, E B Barros
The effects of edge vacancies on the electron transport properties of zigzag MoS2/WSe2 nanoribbons are studied using a density functional theory (DFT)-based tight-binding model with a sp(3)d(5) basis set for the electronic structure calculation and applying the Landauer-Büttiker approach for the electronic transport. Our results show that the presence of a single edge vacancy, with a missing MoS2/WSe2 triplet, is enough to suppress the conductance of the system by almost one half for most energies around the Fermi level...
November 4, 2016: Nanotechnology
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