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Raymond Boadu, George Darko, Priscilla Nortey, Patricia Akweongo, Bismark Sarfo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Rapid diagnostic Test (RDT) kits are the preferred assays for HIV testing in many countries. Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission, Know Your Status Campaigns, Blood-Safety, Voluntary Counseling and Testing are major strategies adapted to control transmission of the virus and the pivot of these interventions is either screening or diagnosing individuals through testing. There are reports of inconsistent sensitivity and specificity with whole blood and serum samples collected from the same individual...
February 16, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
Onur Burak Dursun, Fatih Şengül, İbrahim Selçuk Esin, Tevfik Demirci, Nermin Yücel, Mehmet Melih Ömezli
INTRODUCTION: Dental caries and poor oral hygiene are among the major childhood public health problems. Although dental research frequently refers to the link between these conditions and behavioural issues, little attention has been paid to understanding the reason for oral health problems from a psychiatric point of view. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between poor oral health and hygiene and parental attitudes towards child rearing, parents' and children's oral hygiene behaviours, and childhood psychiatric disorders...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Xinzhu Wei, Jianzhi Zhang
Gene-environment interaction (G×E) refers to the phenomenon that the same mutation has different phenotypic effects in different environments. Although quantitative trait loci (QTLs) exhibiting G×E have been reported, little is known about the general properties of G×E and those of its underlying QTLs. Here we use the genotypes of 1005 segregants from a cross between two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and the growth rates of these segregants in 47 environments to identify growth rate QTLs (gQTLs) in each environment and QTLs that have different growth effects in each pair of environments (g×eQTLs)...
November 30, 2016: Genetics
Paul Weston, Yuhaniz A Yaziz, David R Moles, Ian Needleman
BACKGROUND: Occlusal interventions may be used in adults with periodontitis. At present there is little consensus regarding the indications and effectiveness of occlusal interventions in periodontal patients. OBJECTIVES: To identify and analyse the evidence for the effect of occlusal interventions on adults who have periodontitis in relation to tooth loss, probing depths, clinical attachment level, adverse effects and patient-centred outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: The search was last conducted in April 2008...
November 28, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jane Bates
Can we get a move on, sister?' the patient asked anxiously. She had come for a preoperative assessment, a lengthy process involving several stages. 'I have to catch the bus back to Little Widdling-on-the-Marsh at three o'clock and there's only one a week. If I miss it, I'm done for.'
November 23, 2016: Nursing Standard
J Navarro, J Deniel, E Yousfi, C Jallais, M Bueno, A Fort
Lane departures represent an important cause of road crashes. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of an auditory Lane Departure Warning System (LDWS) for partial and full lane departures (onset manipulation) combined with missed warnings (reliability manipulation: 100% reliable, 83% reliable and 66% reliable) on drivers' performances and acceptance. Several studies indicate that LDWS improves drivers' performances during lane departure episodes. However, little is known about the effects of the warning onset and reliability of LDWS...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
Mark Regnerus
BACKGROUND: The study of stigma's influence on health has surged in recent years. Hatzenbuehler et al.'s (2014) study of structural stigma's effect on mortality revealed an average of 12 years' shorter life expectancy for sexual minorities who resided in communities thought to exhibit high levels of anti-gay prejudice, using data from the 1988-2002 administrations of the US General Social Survey linked to mortality outcome data in the 2008 National Death Index. METHODS: In the original study, the key predictor variable (structural stigma) led to results suggesting the profound negative influence of structural stigma on the mortality of sexual minorities...
November 14, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Sumitha N Ahmed, Terry E Donovan, Taneet Ghuman
STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Although the scientific literature provides sound decision-making tools for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth, dentists have different opinions on the rationale for the use of endodontic posts (dowels) and selection of post systems. The decision to place a post is at times contrary to the literature. Updated information on the treatment of endodontically treated teeth among general dentists is lacking. PURPOSE: The purpose of this survey was to gain insight into the rationale for choice of endodontic posts and the different endodontic post systems currently used by dental practitioners...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Amanda Guay, Marjorie Aunos, Delphine Collin-Vézina
BACKGROUND: Mothers with intellectual disability are less likely than mothers without intellectual disability to breastfeed their infants, but there is little literature that addresses infant-feeding decisions among this population. This study explores experiences of mothers with intellectual disability in making and carrying out infant-feeding decisions. METHODS: Using a phenomenological approach, in-depth interviews were conducted with four mothers with intellectual disability...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Ann W Bunch, Moonsun Kim, Ronald Brunelli
Missing person searches can entail much time, effort, and resources. With scientific data and techniques increasingly available to law enforcement and investigations units, can these tools be used to predict likely areas where persons or remains may be discovered, especially in cases where little to no information about the disappearance is available? A retrospective study of seventy-three (73) cases was conducted in Onondaga County, New York, U.S.A., in order to explore this question. Quantitative (geospatial) and qualitative (investigator notes) data were utilized to determine whether patterns exist that may assist in investigations of recent and "cold" missing person cases...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Tiffany Tong, Mark Chignell, Mary C Tierney, Jacques S Lee
Introduction: Cognitive screening in settings such as emergency departments (ED) is frequently carried out using paper-and-pencil tests that require administration by trained staff. These assessments often compete with other clinical duties and thus may not be routinely administered in these busy settings. Literature has shown that the presence of cognitive impairments such as dementia and delirium are often missed in older ED patients. Failure to recognize delirium can have devastating consequences including increased mortality (Kakuma et al...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Yize R Wang, Edward V Loftus, Thomas A Judge, Steven R Peikin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In the United States, little is known about the rates of interval upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer (possibly missed out) after an esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is performed. Data from non-US studies reported interval cancer rates of 7-26%. We aimed to study the rate and predictors of interval upper GI cancers in the United States. METHODS: Using the random 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database, we identified patients diagnosed with esophageal or gastric cancer during 2000-2007...
November 22, 2016: Digestion
Cristiano Lara Massara, Felipe Leão Gomes Murta, Martin Johannes Enk, Amanda Domingues de Araújo, Celina Maria Modena, Omar Dos Santos Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: to characterize printed educational materials about schistosomiasis produced at federal, state and municipal levels in Brazil. METHODS: the educational materials were characterized considering the following categories: 'format', 'parasite and intermediate host', 'definitive host (ill)' and 'disease'. RESULTS: 60 materials were assessed, three had no information about risk activities and 41 indicated more than one popular name for the disease, thus allowing greater reach among the target audience in diverse endemic areas; the biological cycle was missing or incorrect in 53 materials; the intermediate host (snail) was incorrectly illustrated, with use of stereotyped images in 39 and no image in one material; diagnosis was mentioned in 36 materials...
July 2016: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Yun Jian, Sonia Silvestri, Jeff Brown, Rick Hickman, Marco Marani
The prediction of mosquito abundance is of central interest in addressing mosquito population dynamics and in forecasting the associated emerging and re-emerging diseases. However, little work has focused on the systematic evaluation of how well adult mosquito abundance can be predicted as a function of observational resolutions, aggregation scales, and prediction lead time. We use a state space reconstruction (SSR) approach to compare the predictability of mosquito population dynamics at weekly, biweekly, and monthly scales...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Alana T Brennan, Jacob Bor, Mary-Ann Davies, Francesca Conradie, Mhairi Maskew, Lawrence Long, Ian Sanne, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVE: Using data from four public-sector clinics in South Africa we sought to investigate provider and patient level outcomes, to understand how the 2012 tenofovir stock shortage affected the HIV care and monitoring of ART patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort analysis of ART-naïve, non-pregnant, HIV-infected patients >18 years initiating first-line ART between July 1, 2011-March 31, 2013. Linear regression was used for all outcomes (number of ART initiates, days between pharmacy visits, transfers, single drug substitutions, treatment interruptions, missed pharmacy visits, loss to follow-up and elevated viral load)...
November 11, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Anna Marcinkowski, Dirk Ziebolz, Bjoern E Kleibrink, Gerhard Weinreich, Markus Kamler, Helmut Teschler, Urte Sommerwerck
BACKGROUND: Dental status has been implicated in several systemic inflammatory diseases and is a potential focus for systemic infections. Therefore, most lung-transplant centers have recommendations regarding pre-transplant dental care and follow-up, but there are no official clinical guidelines. To date there is little information on oral health status in lung transplant (LTx) recipients. The aim of this study was to systematically assess oral health status in LTx recipients. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess oral health status, including periodontal disease, oral health behavior, and awareness of the need for good oral health after LTx...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Giorgio Dall'Olmo, James Dingle, Luca Polimene, Robert J W Brewin, Hervé Claustre
The "mesopelagic" is the region of the ocean between about 100 and 1000 m that harbours one of the largest ecosystems and fish stocks on the planet1,2. This vastly unexplored ecosystem is believed to be mostly sustained by chemical energy, in the form of fast-sinking particulate organic carbon, supplied by the biological carbon pump3. Yet, this supply appears insufficient to match mesopelagic metabolic demands4-6. The mixed-layer pump is a physically-driven biogeochemical process7-11 that could further contribute to meet these energetic requirements...
November 2016: Nature Geoscience
Moritz Crönlein, Konstantin Holzapfel, Marc Beirer, Lukas Postl, Karl-Georg Kanz, Dominik Pförringer, Stefan Huber-Wagner, Peter Biberthaler, Chlodwig Kirchhoff
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate potential benefits of a new diagnostic software prototype (Trauma Viewer, TV) automatically reformatting computed tomography (CT) data on diagnostic speed and quality, compared to CT-image data evaluation using a conventional CT console. METHODS: Multiple trauma CT data sets were analysed by one expert radiology and one expert traumatology fellow independently twice, once using the TV and once using the secondary conventional CT console placed in the CT control room...
November 17, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Y G Tedla, L E Bautista
Self-reported medication adherence is known to overestimate true adherence. However, little is known about patient factors that may contribute to the upward bias in self-reported medication adherence. The objective of this study is to examine whether demographic, behavioral, medication and mood factors are associated with being a false-positive self-reported adherer (FPA) to antihypertensive drug treatment. We studied 175 patients (mean age: 50 years; 57% men) from primary-care clinics starting antihypertensive drug treatment...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Human Hypertension
Jong H Yoon, Anthony Grandelis, Richard J Maddock
: The discovery of neural mechanisms of working memory (WM) would significantly enhance our understanding of complex human behaviors and guide treatment development for WM-related impairments found in neuropsychiatric conditions and aging. Although the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has long been considered critical for WM, we still know little about the neural elements and pathways within the DLPFC that support WM in humans. In this study, we tested whether an individual's DLPFC gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) content predicts individual differences in WM task performance using a novel behavioral approach...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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