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Yuko Morimoto, Syudo Yamasaki, Shuntaro Ando, Shinsuke Koike, Shinya Fujikawa, Sho Kanata, Kaori Endo, Miharu Nakanishi, Stephani L Hatch, Marcus Richards, Kiyoto Kasai, Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Atsushi Nishida
OBJECTIVES: The rising prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-attributable deaths among women is of worldwide concern. In particular, smoking prevention for mothers in early midlife is a significant international public health goal. A higher sense of purpose in life (PIL) is thought to reduce detrimental health behaviours. However, little is known about the association between a sense of PIL and tobacco use. This study investigates this association among community-dwelling mothers of early adolescents...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
Eyal Karin, Blake F Dear, Gillian Z Heller, Monique F Crane, Nickolai Titov
BACKGROUND: Missing cases following treatment are common in Web-based psychotherapy trials. Without the ability to directly measure and evaluate the outcomes for missing cases, the ability to measure and evaluate the effects of treatment is challenging. Although common, little is known about the characteristics of Web-based psychotherapy participants who present as missing cases, their likely clinical outcomes, or the suitability of different statistical assumptions that can characterize missing cases...
April 19, 2018: JMIR Mental Health
Jeffrey B Knox, J Banks Deal, Jennifer A Knox
INTRODUCTION: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common injury among active duty service members resulting in missed duty hours and limited duty status. Little is known about the current burden of disease and risk factors for LDH among military rotary wing aviators. METHODS: A query was made using the Defense Medical Epidemiology Database (DMED), including patient encounters for the U.S. Military from 2006-2015 using the ICD-9 code for LDH. Incidence rates were calculated for patients with the occupation of helicopter pilot and stratified by age, gender, and branch of service, then compared to matched controls using a Poisson regression analysis...
May 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Emma Molyneaux, Laurence A Telesia, Carol Henshaw, Elizabeth Boath, Eleanor Bradley, Louise M Howard
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in the postnatal period and can lead to adverse effects on the infant and wider family, in addition to the morbidity for the mother. It is not clear whether antidepressants are effective for the prevention of postnatal depression and little is known about possible adverse effects for the mother and infant, particularly during breastfeeding. This is an update of a Cochrane Review last published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of antidepressant medication for the prevention of postnatal depression, in comparison with any other treatment, placebo or standard care...
April 18, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M Mansourati, V Kumar, M Khajanchi, M L Saha, S Dharap, R Seger, M Gerdin Wärnberg
BACKGROUND: India accounts for 20 per cent of worldwide trauma mortality. Little is known about the quality of trauma surgery in an Indian setting. The aim of this study was to estimate the overall perioperative mortality rate, and to assess the association between type of acute surgical intervention and perioperative mortality among adult patients treated for trauma in an urban Indian setting. METHODS: Data were obtained from injured adult patients enrolled in four urban Indian hospitals during 2013-2015...
April 17, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
Félix Forest, Justin Moat, Elisabeth Baloch, Neil A Brummitt, Steve P Bachman, Steffi Ickert-Bond, Peter M Hollingsworth, Aaron Liston, Damon P Little, Sarah Mathews, Hardeep Rai, Catarina Rydin, Dennis W Stevenson, Philip Thomas, Sven Buerki
Driven by limited resources and a sense of urgency, the prioritization of species for conservation has been a persistent concern in conservation science. Gymnosperms (comprising ginkgo, conifers, cycads, and gnetophytes) are one of the most threatened groups of living organisms, with 40% of the species at high risk of extinction, about twice as many as the most recent estimates for all plants (i.e. 21.4%). This high proportion of species facing extinction highlights the urgent action required to secure their future through an objective prioritization approach...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maikel Boot, Susanna Commandeur, Amit K Subudhi, Meriem Bahira, Trever C Smith, Abdallah M Abdallah, Mae van Gemert, Joël Lelièvre, Lluís Ballell, Bree B Aldridge, Arnab Pain, Alexander Speer, Wilbert Bitter
Due to the rise of drug resistant forms of tuberculosis there is an urgent need for novel antibiotics to effectively combat these cases and shorten treatment regimens. Recently, drug screens using whole cell analyses have been shown to be successful. However, current high-throughput screens focus mostly on stricto sensu life-death screening that give little qualitative information. In doing so, promising compound scaffolds or non-optimized compounds that fail to reach inhibitory concentrations are missed. To accelerate early TB drug discovery, we performed RNA sequencing on Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium marinum to map the stress responses that follow upon exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics with known targets: ciprofloxacin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin and rifampicin...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Brunilda Dhamo, Besiana Elezi, Lea Kragt, Eppo B Wolvius, Edwin M Ongkosuwito
Although a link between dietary changes, caries, and dental development has been observed, the literature provides little insight about this relationship. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between dental caries and dental development in a clinical sample of Albanian children and adolescents. In total, 118 children and adolescents, born between 1995 and 2004 and aged 6-15 years, were included. Dental caries in the deciduous dentition was assessed using the Decayed, Filled Teeth (dft) index and dental caries in the permanent dentition was assessed using the Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index...
April 6, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Elizabeth Karras, Cara M Stokes, Sara C Warfield, Heather Elder, Brady Stephens, Robert M Bossarte
BACKGROUND: Communication campaigns offer a viable mechanism to promote suicide prevention and reinforce mental health for U.S. veterans in midlife, a group with a high suicide burden. However, little empirical investigation of this type of messaging has been conducted, with formative campaign research conspicuously missing from the limited literature. AIMS: Using the theory of planned behavior as a guide, formative research was conducted to inform the design of suicide prevention messaging by (a) describing and measuring several theoretical constructs among our audience and (b) modeling associations between constructs and intentions to seek help for suicidal behaviors and mental health more broadly...
April 1, 2018: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Magaly Aceves-Martins, Ross Whitehead, Jo Inchley, Montse Giralt, Candace Currie, Rosa Solà
OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present manuscript are to analyse self-reported data on weight, including the missing data, from the 2014 Scottish Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study, and to investigate whether behavioural factors related with overweight and obesity, namely dietary habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, are associated with weight non-response. RESEARCH METHODS & PROCEDURES: 10839 11-, 13- and 15-year-olds participated in the cross-national 2014 Scottish HBSC Study...
February 12, 2018: Nutrition
J K Strong, K L Petersen, U Kala
BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a reversible neurological condition presenting with seizures and visual disturbances and diagnosed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Little is understood about its pathogenesis, particularly in children, but it is thought to be related to hypertension. OBJECTIVES: To review the presentation, diagnosis and outcome of PRES in paediatric renal patients at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa, between 1 January 2000 and 31 January 2017 and compare these with published case reports to date...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Geraldine M Leydon, Beth Stuart, Rachael H Summers, Paul Little, Stuart Ekberg, Fiona Stevenson, Carolyn A Chew-Graham, Lucy Brindle, John Heritage, Paul Drew, Michael V Moore
OBJECTIVES: To establish: a) feasibility of training GPs in a communication intervention to solicit additional patient concerns early in the consultation, using specific lexical formulations ("do you have 'any' vs. 'some' other concerns?") noting the impact on consultation length, and b) whether patients attend with multiple concerns and whether they voiced them in the consultation. METHODS: A mixed-methods three arm RCT feasibility study to assess the feasibility of the communication intervention...
March 23, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
E R Miller, C Wilson, J Chapman, I Flight, A-M Nguyen, C Fletcher, Ij Ramsey
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) incidence in Australian women aged 45 to 64 years ('middle-aged') has tripled in the past 50 years, along with increasing alcohol consumption and obesity in middle-age women. Alcohol and obesity have been individually associated with BC but little is known about how these factors might interact. Chronic psychological stress has been associated with, but not causally linked to, BC. Here, alcohol could represent the 'missing link' - reflecting self-medication...
April 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
A Vinel, A E Coudert, M Buscato, M C Valera, Ostertag Agnès, J A Katzenellenbogen, B S Katzenellenbogen, A Berdal, S Babajko, J F Arnal, C Fontaine
Estrogens play an important role in bone growth and maturation as well as in the regulation of bone turnover in adults. Although the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) are well documented in long bones and vertebrae, little is known regarding its action in the mandible. E2 actions could be mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) α or β. ERs act primarily as transcriptional factors through two activation functions (AF)-1 and 2, but they can also elicit membrane-initiated steroid signaling (MISS). The aim of the present study was to define ER pathways involved in E2 effects on mandibular bone...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Sally Boa, Edward Duncan, Erna Haraldsdottir, Sally Wyke
BACKGROUND: Goal setting is recognised as an important way of supporting people to live as actively as possible until death. However, there is little agreement about how goal setting should be handled or delivered by health professionals in everyday practice. AIM: To investigate health-care practitioners' understanding and practice of patient-centred goal setting in a hospice. METHODS: A comparative case study of 10 healthcare practitioners in one hospice...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Palliative Nursing
Mangmang Xu, Dan Li, Shihong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sensory stimulation via acupuncture has been reported to alter activities of numerous neural systems by activating multiple efferent pathways. Acupuncture, one of the main physical therapies in Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been widely used to treat patients with stroke for over hundreds of years. This is the first update of the Cochrane Review originally published in 2005. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether acupuncture could reduce the proportion of people with death or dependency, while improving quality of life, after acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke...
March 30, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Anthony J Schultz, Romane H Cristescu, Bethan L Littleford-Colquhoun, Damian Jaccoud, Céline H Frère
Maintaining genetic diversity is a crucial component in conserving threatened species. For the iconic Australian koala, there is little genetic information on wild populations that is not either skewed by biased sampling methods (e.g., sampling effort skewed toward urban areas) or of limited usefulness due to low numbers of microsatellites used. The ability to genotype DNA extracted from koala scats using next-generation sequencing technology will not only help resolve location sample bias but also improve the accuracy and scope of genetic analyses (e...
March 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Cathy Nikdel, Kian Nikdel, Ana Ibarra-Noriega, Elsbeth Kalenderian, Muhammad F Walji
Diagnostic errors are increasingly recognized as a source of preventable harm in medicine, yet little is known about their occurrence in dentistry. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of clinical dental faculty members' perceptions of diagnostic errors, types of errors that may occur, and possible contributing factors. The authors conducted semi-structured interviews with ten domain experts at one U.S. dental school in May-August 2016 about their perceptions of diagnostic errors and their causes...
April 2018: Journal of Dental Education
Jane M Young, Ivana Durcinoska, Katie DeLoyde, Michael J Solomon
BACKGROUND: The incidence and survival rates for colorectal cancer in Australia are among the highest in the world. With population growth and ageing there are increasing numbers of colorectal cancer survivors in the community, yet little is known of their ongoing follow up and survivorship care experiences. This study investigated patterns and predictors of follow up and survivorship care received and recommended for adults with colorectal cancer in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis within the NSW Bowel Cancer Care Survey, a population-based cohort of adults diagnosed with colorectal cancer between April 2012 and May 2013 in NSW...
March 27, 2018: BMC Cancer
Kelsey Anderson, Katie Biello, Joshua G Rosenberger, David Novak, Kenneth Mayer, Kate Carey, Matthew J Mimiaga
In Latin America (LA), HIV prevalence among MSM is estimated at thirty times greater than in the general male population. Little is known about the role of social support or disclosure status in relation to the HIV care continuum among LA MSM. Using multivariable logistic generalized estimation equations, we assessed the impact of social support satisfaction and disclosure status on engagement in HIV care, ART initiation, and ART adherence with data from an online, multinational sample of HIV infected MSM in Latin America (N = 2,350)...
March 27, 2018: AIDS Care
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