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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432371/impact-of-diabetes-mellitus-on-occupational-health-outcomes-in-canada
#1
Anson Kc Li, Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia
BACKGROUND: Research suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) has a negative impact on employment and workplace injury, but there is little data within the Canadian context. OBJECTIVE: To determine if DM has an impact on various occupational health outcomes using the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). METHODS: CCHS data between 2001 and 2014 were used to assess the relationships between DM and various occupational health outcomes. The final sample size for the 14-year study period was 505 606, which represented 159 432 239 employed Canadians aged 15-75 years during this period...
April 2017: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432346/functionally-interchangeable-cis-acting-rna-elements-in-both-genome-segments-of-a-picorna-like-plant-virus
#2
Jiangbo Guo, Junping Han, Junyan Lin, John Finer, Anne Dorrance, Feng Qu
Cis-acting RNA structures in the genomes of RNA viruses play critical roles in viral infection, yet their importance in the bipartite genomes of the picorna-like, plant-infecting comoviruses has not been carefully investigated. We previously characterized SLC, a stem-loop structure in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of the bean pod mottle comovirus (BPMV) RNA2, and found it to be essential for RNA2 accumulation in infected cells. Here we report the identification of SL1, a similar cis-acting element in the other BPMV genome segment - RNA1...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426291/the-structure-of-policy-networks-for-injury-and-violence-prevention-in-15-us-cities
#3
Jenine K Harris, Melissa Jonson-Reid, Bobbi J Carothers, Patrick Fowler
OBJECTIVES: Changes in policy can reduce violence and injury; however, little is known about how partnerships among organizations influence policy development, adoption, and implementation. To understand partnerships among organizations working on injury and violence prevention (IVP) policy, we examined IVP policy networks in 15 large US cities. METHODS: In summer 2014, we recruited 15 local health departments (LHDs) to participate in the study. They identified an average of 28...
January 1, 2017: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425894/trends-in-smoking-initiation-in-canada-does-non-inclusion-of-young-adults-in-tobacco-control-strategies-represent-a-missed-opportunity
#4
Thierry Gagné, Gerry Veenstra
OBJECTIVES: Young adults face high prevalence rates for smoking. Recent evidence suggests that many people initiate smoking during young adulthood, but little is currently known about trends in initiation rates for this age group. METHODS: We examined rates of initiation to first cigarette (FC) and daily smoking (DS) during youth (5-17 years) and young adulthood (18-25 years) using nationally representative data from the 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2013 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey...
April 20, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424382/-near-miss-outcomes-in-gambling-games
#5
Zsuzsa Pecsenye, Gyozo Kurucz
BACKGROUND: Games of chance operate with an intermittent reinforcement schedule in which the number of games takes the player to win differ in each turn thus they can not predict when the next positive reinforcement arrives. The near miss outcome (close to winning but actually a losing outcome) can be interpreted as a secondary (built in) reinforcement within variable ratio reinforcement schedule that presumably contribute to the development and maintanance of gambling addiction. METHODS: The aim of this publication would be to introduce near miss outcomes and to summarize and critically analyze literature connected to this issue...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423165/a-randomized-comparison-between-league-tables-and-funnel-plots-to-inform-health-care-decision-making
#6
Anders Anell, Oskar Hagberg, Fredrik Liedberg, Stefan Ryden
Objective: Comparison of provider performance is commonly used to inform health care decision-making. Little attention has been paid to how data presentations influence decisions. This study analyzes differences in suggested actions by decision-makers informed by league tables or funnel plots. Design: Decision-makers were invited to a survey and randomized to compare hospital performance using either league tables or funnel plots for four different measures within the area of cancer care...
December 1, 2016: International Journal for Quality in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418482/effect-of-oral-dexamethasone-without-immediate-antibiotics-vs-placebo-on-acute-sore-throat-in-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Gail Nicola Hayward, Alastair D Hay, Michael V Moore, Sena Jawad, Nicola Williams, Merryn Voysey, Johanna Cook, Julie Allen, Matthew Thompson, Paul Little, Rafael Perera, Jane Wolstenholme, Kim Harman, Carl Heneghan
Importance: Acute sore throat poses a significant burden on primary care and is a source of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Corticosteroids could be an alternative symptomatic treatment. Objective: To assess the clinical effectiveness of oral corticosteroids for acute sore throat in the absence of antibiotics. Design, Setting, and Participants: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial (April 2013-February 2015; 28-day follow-up completed April 2015) conducted in 42 family practices in South and West England, enrolled 576 adults recruited on the day of presentation to primary care with acute sore throat not requiring immediate antibiotic therapy...
April 18, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408359/personal-communication-device-use-by-nurses-providing-in-patient-care-survey-of-prevalence-patterns-and-distraction-potential
#8
Deborah L McBride, Sandra A LeVasseur
BACKGROUND: Coincident with the proliferation of employer-provided mobile communication devices, personal communication devices, including basic and enhanced mobile phones (smartphones) and tablet computers that are owned by the user, have become ubiquitous among registered nurses working in hospitals. While there are numerous benefits of personal communication device use by nurses at work, little is known about the impact of these devices on in-patient care. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine how hospital-registered nurses use their personal communication devices while doing both work-related and non‒work-related activities and to assess the impact of these devices on in-patient care...
April 13, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408003/evaluation-of-noncompletion-bias-and-long-term-adherence-in-a-10-year-patient-reported-outcome-monitoring-program-in-clinical-routine
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Eva Maria Gamper, Virginie Nerich, Monika Sztankay, Caroline Martini, Johannes M Giesinger, Lorenza Scarpa, Sabine Buxbaum, Martin Jeller, Bernhard Holzner, Irene Virgolini
BACKGROUND: Currently there is little knowledge on real-life sustainability of routine patient-reported outcome (PRO) measurement and the representativeness of collected data. OBJECTIVES: The investigation of routine PRO with regard to noncompletion bias and long-term adher- ence, considering the potential impact of mode of assessment (MOA) (paper-pencil vs. electronic PRO [ePRO]) and patient characteristics. METHODS: At our department, routine PRO measurement in oncological patients is being done since 2005 using different MOA (paper-pencil assessment until 2011 and ePRO assessment from 2011 onward)...
April 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407753/genomic-characterization-of-two-novel-pathogenic-avipoxviruses-isolated-from-pacific-shearwaters-ardenna-spp
#10
Subir Sarker, Shubhagata Das, Jennifer L Lavers, Ian Hutton, Karla Helbig, Jacob Imbery, Chris Upton, Shane R Raidal
BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years, many marine seabird populations have been gradually declining and the factors driving this ongoing deterioration are not always well understood. Avipoxvirus infections have been found in a wide range of bird species worldwide, however, very little is known about the disease ecology of avian poxviruses in seabirds. Here we present two novel avipoxviruses from pacific shearwaters (Ardenna spp), one from a Flesh-footed Shearwater (A. carneipes) (SWPV-1) and the other from a Wedge-tailed Shearwater (A...
April 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407646/assessing-the-performance-of-3-human-immunodeficiency-virus-incidence-risk-scores-in-a-cohort-of-black-and-white-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-south
#11
Jeb Jones, Martin Hoenigl, Aaron J Siegler, Patrick S Sullivan, Susan Little, Eli Rosenberg
BACKGROUND: Risk scores have been developed to identify men at high risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion. These scores can be used to more efficiently allocate public health prevention resources, such as pre-exposure prophylaxis. However, the published scores were developed with data sets that comprise predominantly white men who have sex with men (MSM) collected several years prior and recruited from a limited geographic area. Thus, it is unclear how well these scores perform in men of different races or ethnicities or men in different geographic regions...
May 2017: Sexually Transmitted Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399577/drug-development-concepts-as-guides-for-optimizing-clinical-trials-of-supplemental-zinc-for-populations-at-risk-of-deficiency-or-diarrhea
#12
David H Alpers, Graeme P Young, Cuong D Tran, Elissa K Mortimer, Geetha L Gopalsamy, Nancy F Krebs, Mark J Manary, Balakrishnan S Ramakrishna, Henry J Binder, Ian L Brown, Leland V Miller
Studies on the efficacy of zinc supplementation for treatment or prevention of diarrhea have shown an inconsistent effect in populations at risk for zinc deficiency. Unlike drugs, which have no preexisting presence in the body, endogenous zinc must be assessed pharmacokinetically by isotope tracer studies. Although such methods have produced much data, very few studies have estimated the dose and the timing of dosing of zinc supplementation. This review examines drug kinetics used to establish the best dose, the timing of such doses, and the mechanism of action through pharmacodynamic markers and applies them, where possible, to zinc supplements...
March 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397352/effects-of-expanding-the-look-back-period-to-all-available-data-in-the-assessment-of-covariates
#13
Sonja S Nakasian, Jeremy A Rassen, Jessica M Franklin
BACKGROUND: A fixed baseline period has been a common covariate assessment approach in pharmacoepidemiological studies from claims but may lead to high levels of covariate misclassification. Simulation studies have recommended expanding the look-back approach to all available data (AAD) for binary indicators of diagnoses, procedures, and medications, but there have been few real data analyses using this approach. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study is to explore the impact on treatment effect estimates and covariate prevalence of expanding the look-back period within five validated studies in the Aetion system, a rapid cycle analytics platform...
April 11, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392728/external-quality-assessment-beyond-the-analytical-phase-an-australian-perspective
#14
REVIEW
Tony Badrick, Stephanie Gay, Euan J McCaughey, Andrew Georgiou
External Quality Assessment (EQA) is the verification, on a recurring basis, that laboratory results conform to expectations for the quality required for patient care. It is now widely recognised that both the pre- and post-laboratory phase of testing, termed the diagnostic phases, are a significant source of laboratory errors. These errors have a direct impact on both the effectiveness of the laboratory and patient safety. Despite this, Australian laboratories tend to be focussed on very narrow concepts of EQA, primarily surrounding test accuracy, with little in the way of EQA programs for the diagnostic phases...
February 15, 2017: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391408/informativeness-of-patient-initial-reports-of-adverse-drug-reactions-can-it-be-improved-by-a-pharmacovigilance-centre
#15
F Kheloufi, A Default, F Rouby, D Laugier-Castellan, M Boyer, B Rodrigues, J Ponte-Astoul, M J Jean-Pastor, O Blin, J Micallef
PURPOSE: Little is known about the informativeness of initial patient reports before they are reviewed by a pharmacovigilance centre (PVC). We aim to describe the patterns of patient adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting in France and estimate the contribution of a review by a PVC assessor on the informativeness of these reports. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on patient reports between July 2011 and July 2015. Informativeness of 16 key elements of information (including drug start and end date, duration of treatment, time to onset and duration of the ADR, outcome, medical history and concomitant medication) was assessed in initial reports before and after review by a pharmacovigilance assessor...
April 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385071/treatment-of-missing-data-in-follow-up-studies-of-randomised-controlled-trials-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#16
Thomas R Sullivan, Lisa N Yelland, Katherine J Lee, Philip Ryan, Amy B Salter
BACKGROUND/AIMS: After completion of a randomised controlled trial, an extended follow-up period may be initiated to learn about longer term impacts of the intervention. Since extended follow-up studies often involve additional eligibility restrictions and consent processes for participation, and a longer duration of follow-up entails a greater risk of participant attrition, missing data can be a considerable threat in this setting. As a potential source of bias, it is critical that missing data are appropriately handled in the statistical analysis, yet little is known about the treatment of missing data in extended follow-up studies...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379822/improving-patient-clinician-conversations-during-annual-wellness-visits
#17
Zsolt J Nagykaldi, Ami Dave, Connor J Kristof, Tanya N Watts, Sravanthi Utpala, Elizabeth Wickersham
BACKGROUND: Health risk assessments (HRAs) have been implemented and studied for decades in various settings, but little is known about the effect of introducing HRAs on the dynamics and content of patient-clinician conversations during Medicare Annual Wellness Visits (AWVs) and whether the effective use of HRAs requires additional training and resources. METHODS: We used Conversation Analysis techniques to analyze 40 AWVs conducted in an academic family medicine residency practice...
March 2017: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376440/disease-course-of-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-with-a-bacterial-cause
#18
Jolien Teepe, Berna D L Broekhuizen, Katherine Loens, Christine Lammens, Margareta Ieven, Herman Goossens, Paul Little, Christopher C Butler, Samuel Coenen, Maciek Godycki-Cwirko, Theo Verheij
PURPOSE: Bacterial pathogens are assumed to cause an illness course different from that of nonbacterial causes of acute cough, but evidence is lacking. We evaluated the disease course of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) with a bacterial cause in adults with acute cough. METHODS: We conducted a secondary analysis of a multicenter European trial in which 2,061 adults with acute cough (28 days' duration or less) were recruited from primary care and randomized to amoxicillin or placebo...
November 2016: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370372/the-social-gradient-in-oral-health-is-there-a-role-for-dental-anxiety
#19
Eduardo Bernabé, Gerry Humphris, Ruth Freeman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the contribution of dental anxiety to social gradients in different oral health outcomes and whether social gradients in oral health persist once dental anxiety is removed from the population examined. METHODS: Data from 9035 British adults were analysed. Participants' socioeconomic position (SEP) was measured through education and household income. Dental anxiety was measured with the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale. Poor subjective oral health, oral impacts on quality of life and edentulism among all adults and the number of teeth, the number of decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS) and sextants with pocketing among dentate adults were the oral health outcomes...
March 28, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369227/high-proportion-of-anorectal-chlamydia-trachomatis-and-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-after-routine-universal-urogenital-and-anorectal-screening-in-women-visiting-the-sti-clinic
#20
Geneviève Afs van Liere, Nicole Htm Dukers-Muijrers, Luuk Levels, Christian Jpa Hoebe
Background: Testing on indication of self-reported anal sex or symptoms is used to manage anorectal Chlamydia trachomatis (chlamydia) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (gonorrhoea) infections in women. Little is known about the impact of another testing strategy: routine universal anorectal screening with respect to chlamydia and gonorrhoea prevalence and risk factors. Methods: All women (n=1012) aged ≥16 years attending our STI in 2015 were offered routine universal screening...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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