keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Mobile genetic element

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426231/the-prevalence-of-integrons-as-the-carrier-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-natural-and-man-made-environments
#1
Liping Ma, An-Dong Li, Xiao-Le Yin, Tong Zhang
Class 1 integrase intI1 has been considered as a good proxy for anthropogenic pollution because of being linked to genes conferring resistance to antibiotics. The gene cassettes of class 1 integrons could carry diverse antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and conduct horizontal gene transfer among microorganisms. The present study applied high-throughput sequencing technique combined with an intI1 database and genome assembly to quantify the abundance of intI1 in 64 environmental samples from 8 ecosystems, and to investigate the diverse arrangements of ARG-carrying gene cassettes (ACGCs) carried by class 1 integrons...
April 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426191/genome-wide-abolishment-of-mobile-genetic-elements-using-genome-shuffling-and-crispr-cas-assisted-mage-allows-the-efficient-stabilization-of-a-bacterial-chassis
#2
Kinga Umenhoffer, Gábor Draskovits, Ákos Nyerges, Ildikó Karcagi, Balázs Bogos, Edit Tímár, Bálint Csörgő, Róbert Herczeg, István Nagy, Tamás Fehér, Csaba Pal, Gyorgy Posfai
The ideal bacterial chassis provides a simplified, stable and predictable host environment for synthetic biological circuits. Mutability and evolution can, however, compromise stability, leading to deterioration of artificial genetic constructs. By eliminating certain sources of instability, these undesired genetic changes can be mitigated. Specifically, deletion of prophages and insertion sequences, non-essential constituents of bacterial genomes, has been shown to be beneficial in cellular and genetic stabilization...
April 20, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424761/sequencing-of-blaimp-carrying-incn2-plasmids-and-comparative-genomics-of-incn2-plasmids-harboring-class-1-integrons
#3
Xiaoyuan Jiang, Zhe Yin, Xiuyun Yin, Haihong Fang, Qiang Sun, Yigang Tong, Yuanhong Xu, Defu Zhang, Jiao Feng, Weijun Chen, Yajun Song, Jinglin Wang, Shuiping Chen, Dongsheng Zhou
This work presents the complete nucleotide sequences of p0801-IMP from Klebsiella pneumoniae, p7121-IMP from K. oxytoca, and p17285-IMP from Citrobacter freundii, which are recovered from three different cases of nosocomial infection. These three plasmids represent the first fully sequenced blaIMP-carrying IncN2 plasmids. Further comparative genomics analysis of all the five integron-carrying IncN2 plasmids p0801-IMP, p7121-IMP, p17285-IMP, pJIE137, and p34983-59.134kb indicates that they possess conserved IncN2 backbones with limited genetic variations with respect to gene content and organization...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420154/mechanisms-of-ltr-retroelement-transposition-lessons-from-drosophila-melanogaster
#4
REVIEW
Lidia Nefedova, Alexander Kim
Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons occupy a special place among all mobile genetic element families. The structure of LTR retrotransposons that have three open reading frames is identical to DNA forms of retroviruses that are integrated into the host genome. Several lines of evidence suggest that LTR retrotransposons share a common ancestry with retroviruses and thus are highly relevant to understanding mechanisms of transposition. Drosophila melanogaster is an exceptionally convenient model for studying the mechanisms of retrotransposon movement because many such elements in its genome are transpositionally active...
April 16, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419231/antibiotic-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus-current-status-and-future-prospects
#5
Timothy J Foster
The major targets for antibiotics in staphylococci are (i) the cell envelope, (ii) the ribosome and (iii) nucleic acids. Several novel targets emerged from recent targeted drug discovery programmes including the ClpP protease and FtsZ from the cell division machinery. Resistance can either develop by horizontal transfer of resistance determinants encoded by mobile genetic elements viz plasmids, transposons and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome or by mutations in chromosomal genes. Horizontally acquired resistance can occur by one of the following mechanisms: (i) enzymatic drug modification and inactivation, (ii) enzymatic modification of the drug binding site, (iii) drug efflux, (iv) bypass mechanisms involving acquisition of a novel drug-resistant target, (v) displacement of the drug to protect the target...
April 13, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414318/initial-sites-of-hepadnavirus-integration-into-host-genome-in-human-hepatocytes-and-in-the-woodchuck-model-of-hepatitis-b-associated-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
R Chauhan, N D Churchill, P M Mulrooney-Cousins, T I Michalak
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the closely related woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) are potent carcinogens that trigger development of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The initial sites of hepadnavirus-host genome integration, their diversity and kinetics of formation can be central to virus persistence and the initiation and progression of HCC. To recognize the nature of the very early virus-host interactions, we explored de novo infection of human hepatocyte-like HepaRG cells with authentic HBV and naive woodchucks with WHV...
April 17, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409117/searching-for-active-mobile-genetic-elements-in-dsrna-fraction-of-pinus-sylvestris-having-witches-broom-abnormalities
#7
A A Pochtovyy, O Yu Baranov, I E Rubel', O A Razumova, V E Padutov, A V Khromov, A V Makhotenko, A P Tkachuk, V V Makarov, V A Gushchin
The most common type of coniferous mobile genetic elements are retrotransposons. Despite of their early positive impact on evolution of modern coniferous species they can have a significant negative impact for Forestry and breeding. Breaking genomic structural integrity mobile elements can cause phenotypic defects of plants. In this regard, the study of the diversity of coniferous mobile genetic elements is particularly interesting. In the present paper, we describe mobile genetic elements in dsRNA fraction of Pinus sylvestris having witches broom abnormalities...
June 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407717/the-impact-of-insertion-sequences-on-bacterial-genome-plasticity-and-adaptability
#8
Joachim Vandecraen, Michael Chandler, Abram Aertsen, Rob Van Houdt
Transposable elements (TE), small mobile genetic elements unable to exist independently of the host genome, were initially believed to be exclusively deleterious genomic parasites. However, it is now clear that they play an important role as bacterial mutagenic agents, enabling the host to adapt to new environmental challenges and to colonize new niches. This review focuses on the impact of insertion sequences (IS), arguably the smallest TE, on bacterial genome plasticity and concomitant adaptability of phenotypic traits, including resistance to antibacterial agents, virulence, pathogenicity and catabolism...
April 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404671/an-update-on-antimicrobial-resistance-in-clostridium-difficile-resistance-mechanisms-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing
#9
Zhong Peng, Dazhi Jin, Hyeun Bum Kim, Charles W Stratton, Bin Wu, Yi-Wei Tang, Xingmin Sun
Oral antibiotics such as metronidazole, vancomycin and fidaxomicin are therapies of choice for CDI. Several important mechanisms for C. difficile antibiotic resistance have been described; these include the acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes via transfer of mobile genetic elements, selective pressure in vivo resulting in gene mutations, altered expression of redox-active proteins, iron metabolism and DNA repair, as well as biofilm formation. This update summarizes new information published since 2010 on phenotypic and genotypic resistance mechanisms in C...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401676/regulation-of-solvent-tolerance-in-pseudomonas-putida-s12-mediated-by-mobile-elements
#10
Rohola Hosseini, Jannis Kuepper, Sebastian Koebbing, Lars M Blank, Nick Wierckx, Johannes H de Winde
Organic solvent-tolerant bacteria are outstanding and versatile hosts for the bio-based production of a broad range of generally toxic aromatic compounds. The energetically costly solvent tolerance mechanisms are subject to multiple levels of regulation, involving among other mobile genetic elements. The genome of the solvent-tolerant Pseudomonas putida S12 contains many such mobile elements that play a major role in the regulation and adaptation to various stress conditions, including the regulation of expression of the solvent efflux pump SrpABC...
April 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395597/genome-sequencing-and-comparative-analysis-of-an-ndm-1-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-st15-isolated-from-a-refugee-patient
#11
Tamara Salloum, Harout Arabaghian, Sahar Alousi, Edmond Abboud, Sima Tokajian
The escalating problem of antibiotic resistance, specifically cabarpenemase and extended-spectrum β-lacatamase (ESBL) producing K. pneumoniae strains, is directly correlated with increased patient morbidity and mortality and prolonged hospitalization and costs. In this study, a comprehensive genomic analysis encompassing the resistomics, virulence repertoire and mobile genetic elements of an NDM-1 positive ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae EA-MEH ST15 isolated from a urine sample collected from a Syrian refugee was conducted...
April 11, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394277/structure-of-ty1-internally-initiated-rna-influences-restriction-factor-expression
#12
Leszek Błaszczyk, Marcin Biesiada, Agniva Saha, David J Garfinkel, Katarzyna J Purzycka
The long-terminal repeat retrotransposon Ty1 is the most abundant mobile genetic element in many Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates. Ty1 retrotransposons contribute to the genetic diversity of host cells, but they can also act as an insertional mutagen and cause genetic instability. Interestingly, retrotransposition occurs at a low level despite a high level of Ty1 RNA, even though S. cerevisiae lacks the intrinsic defense mechanisms that other eukaryotes use to prevent transposon movement. p22 is a recently discovered Ty1 protein that inhibits retrotransposition in a dose-dependent manner...
April 10, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394093/genome-editing-technologies-to-improve-research-reproduction-and-production-in-pigs
#13
REVIEW
Kevin D Wells, Randall S Prather
The ability to directly manipulate the pig genome through genetic engineering has been available to the research community for over three decades. This technology has progressed from the random insertion of foreign DNA, via a variety of techniques (pronuclear microinjection, sperm mediated gene transfer, and integration of mobile genetic elements), to manipulation of endogenous genes, via homologous recombination in somatic cells followed by somatic cell nuclear transfer. Over the last few years, designer nucleases facilitated the development of techniques that provide efficient ways to introduce foreign DNA or to modify endogenous genes in eggs, zygotes, or somatic cells...
April 10, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393892/four-genes-essential-for-recombination-define-gints-a-new-type-of-mobile-genomic-island-widespread-in-bacteria
#14
Leire Bardaji, Myriam Echeverría, Pablo Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pedro M Martínez-García, Jesús Murillo
Integrases are a family of tyrosine recombinases that are highly abundant in bacterial genomes, actively disseminating adaptive characters such as pathogenicity determinants and antibiotics resistance. Using comparative genomics and functional assays, we identified a novel type of mobile genetic element, the GInt, in many diverse bacterial groups but not in archaea. Integrated as genomic islands, GInts show a tripartite structure consisting of the ginABCD operon, a cargo DNA region from 2.5 to at least 70 kb, and a short AT-rich 3' end...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392985/conserved-dna-motifs-in-the-type-ii-a-crispr-leader-region
#15
Mason J Van Orden, Peter Klein, Kesavan Babu, Fares Z Najar, Rakhi Rajan
The Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems consist of RNA-protein complexes that provide bacteria and archaea with sequence-specific immunity against bacteriophages, plasmids, and other mobile genetic elements. Bacteria and archaea become immune to phage or plasmid infections by inserting short pieces of the intruder DNA (spacer) site-specifically into the leader-repeat junction in a process called adaptation. Previous studies have shown that parts of the leader region, especially the 3' end of the leader, are indispensable for adaptation...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391142/diverse-mobilization-strategies-facilitate-transfer-of-non-conjugative-mobile-genetic-elements
#16
REVIEW
Joshua P Ramsay, Neville Firth
Conjugation is a dominant mechanism of horizontal gene transfer and substantially contributes to the plasticity and evolvability of prokaryotic genomes. The impact of conjugation on genetic flux extends well beyond self-transmissible conjugative elements, because non-conjugative 'mobilizable elements' utilize other elements' conjugative apparatus for transfer. Bacterial genome comparisons highlight plasmids as vehicles for dissemination of pathogenesis and antimicrobial-resistance determinants, but for most non-conjugative plasmids, a mobilization mechanism is not apparent...
April 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390978/study-on-the-excision-and-integration-mediated-by-class-1-integron-in-enterococcus-faecalis
#17
Guangchao Yu, Congxiu Ye, Qiang Fu, Juzhen Liu, Xiaoyi Fan, Yunzu Huang, Shishui Zhou
Recognized as a mobile genetic element, integron is correlated to the excision and integration of exogenous genes, especially bacterial resistance genes. However, most of the investigations focused on Gram-positive bacteria with few exceptions. In this study, Enterococcus faecalis was selected to investigate the excision and integration of class 1 integron. A total of eight plasmids were subjected to establish the transformants for excision and integration test. As results showed, positive excision assay was observed, which had been confirmed by the further integration assays and PCR amplification...
April 5, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390961/sequencing-and-comparative-genomics-analysis-of-the-inchi2-plasmids-pt5282-mpha-and-p112298-cata-and-the-inchi5-plasmid-pynkp001-dfra
#18
Quanhui Liang, Zhe Yin, Yachao Zhao, Liqi Liang, Jiao Feng, Zhe Zhan, Hui Wang, Yajun Song, Yigang Tong, Weili Wu, Weijun Chen, Jinglin Wang, Lingxiao Jiang, Dongsheng Zhou
Incompatibility group IncHI plasmids are important vectors of antibiotic resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, a scheme for typing IncHI into five separately clustering subgroups, including previously designated IncHI1-3 as well as IncHI4-5, was proposed based on sequenced IncHI plasmids. The complete nucleotide sequences of the IncHI2 plasmids pT5282-mphA and p112298-catA and the IncHI5 plasmid pYNKP001-dfrA from clinical Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii and Raoultella ornithinolytica isolates, respectively, were determined and were compared with IncHI2 and IncHI5 reference plasmids...
April 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385959/crispr-cas-adapting-to-change
#19
REVIEW
Simon A Jackson, Rebecca E McKenzie, Robert D Fagerlund, Sebastian N Kieper, Peter C Fineran, Stan J J Brouns
Bacteria and archaea are engaged in a constant arms race to defend against the ever-present threats of viruses and invasion by mobile genetic elements. The most flexible weapons in the prokaryotic defense arsenal are the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems. These systems are capable of selective identification and neutralization of foreign DNA and/or RNA. CRISPR-Cas systems rely on stored genetic memories to facilitate target recognition. Thus, to keep pace with a changing pool of hostile invaders, the CRISPR memory banks must be regularly updated with new information through a process termed CRISPR adaptation...
April 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379509/a-locus-encoding-variable-defence-systems-against-invading-dna-identified-in-streptococcus-suis
#20
Masatoshi Okura, Takashi Nozawa, Takayasu Watanabe, Kazunori Murase, Ichiro Nakagawa, Daisuke Takamatsu, Makoto Osaki, Tsutomu Sekizaki, Marcelo Gottschalk, Shigeyuki Hamada, Fumito Maruyama
Streptococcus suis, an important zoonotic pathogen, is known to have an open pan-genome and to develop a competent state. In S. suis, limited genetic lineages are suggested to be associated with zoonosis. However, little is known about the evolution of diversified lineages and their respective phenotypic or ecological characteristics. In this study, we performed comparative genome analyses of S. suis, with a focus on the competence genes, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and genetic elements related to various defence systems against exogenous DNAs (defence elements) that are associated with gene gain/loss/exchange mediated by horizontal DNA movements and their restrictions...
April 4, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
keyword
keyword
102088
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"