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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150630/inhibition-of-myeloid-differentiation-primary-response-protein-88-provides-neuroprotection-in-early-brain-injury-following-experimental-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#1
Huiying Yan, Dingding Zhang, Yongxiang Wei, Hongbin Ni, Weibang Liang, Huasheng Zhang, Shuangying Hao, Wei Jin, Kuanyu Li, Chun-Hua Hang
Accumulating of evidence suggests that activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) exacerbates early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by provoking pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic signaling. Myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) is an endogenous adaptor protein in the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin (IL) -1β family signaling pathways and acts as a bottle neck in the NF-κB and MAPK pathways. Here, we used ST2825, a selective inhibitor of MyD88, to clarify whether inhibiting MyD88 could provide neuroprotection in EBI following SAH...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144992/intracerebroventricular-injection-of-mir-146a-relieves-seizures-in-an-immature-rat-model-of-lithium-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#2
Xiaole Wang, Fei Yin, Linhong Li, Huimin Kong, Baiyang You, Weixi Zhang, Shuyuan Chen, Jing Peng
OBJECTIVE: Status epilepticus (SE) is a common, life-threatening neurological emergency that confers a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Increasing evidence indicates that neuroinflammation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of SE. MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) has been reported to be an important posttranscriptional inflammation-associated microRNA. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of miR-146a in SE and the mechanism by which it operates. METHODS: To study the effect of miR-146a in SE, we chose intracerebroventricular injection for rat at 21-28days old, and made a lithium-pilocarpine-induced SE rat model...
November 4, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138854/ng25-an-inhibitor-of-transforming-growth-factor%C3%A2-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-activated-kinase-1-ameliorates-neuronal-apoptosis-in-neonatal-hypoxic%C3%A2-ischemic-rats
#3
Hua Wang, Zhong Chen, Yu Li, Qiaoyun Ji
Transforming growth factor (TGF)‑β‑activated kinase 1 (TAK1) was found to be activated by TGF‑β and acts as a central regulator of cell death in various types of disease. However, the expression and function of TAK1 in the neonatal brain following hypoxia‑ischemia (HI) remains unclear. In the present study, western blotting and immunofluorescence were employed to determine the expression and distribution of TAK1 in the brain cortex of a perinatal HI rat model. In addition, the specific inhibitor of TAK1, NG25 was administered via intracerebroventricular injection, prior to insult of the neonatal rat brains, for neuroprotection...
November 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138510/high-fat-diet-induced-obesity-and-insulin-resistance-are-characterized-by-differential-beta-oscillatory-signaling-of-the-limbic-cortico-basal-ganglia-loop
#4
Lukas Maurer, Hui Tang, Jens K Haumesser, Jennifer Altschüler, Andrea A Kühn, Joachim Spranger, Christoph van Riesen
The concept of brain circuit disorders has been proposed for a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases, characterized by pathological disturbances of neuronal networks including changes in oscillatory signaling of re-entrant cortico-subcortical loops in the basal ganglia system. Parts of this circuitry play a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. We therefore investigated whether high-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity is associated with changes in oscillatory signaling in the limbic cortico-basal ganglia loop. We performed multi-site in-vivo electrophysiological recordings of local field potentials within this network under urethane anesthesia in adult rats after 4 weeks of HFD feeding compared to age-matched controls...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137190/spirulina-maxima-extract-ameliorates-learning-and-memory-impairments-via-inhibiting-gsk-3%C3%AE-phosphorylation-induced-by-intracerebroventricular-injection-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-in-mice
#5
Eun-Jeong Koh, Kui-Jin Kim, Ji-Hyeon Song, Jia Choi, Hyeon Yong Lee, Do-Hyung Kang, Ho Jin Heo, Boo-Yong Lee
Spirulina maxima, a microalga containing high levels of protein and many polyphenols, including chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. However, the mechanisms where by Spirulina maxima ameliorates cognitive disorders induced by amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ1-42) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether a 70% ethanol extract of Spirulina maxima (SM70EE) ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ1-42 in mice...
November 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136946/neuroprotective-effect-of-hesperetin-and-nano-hesperetin-on-recognition-memory-impairment-and-the-elevated-oxygen-stress-in-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Elham Kheradmand, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Mahboobeh Zare
Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive dementia affecting a large proportion of the aging population. There is evidence that brain tissue in patients with AD is exposed to oxidative stress during the course of the disease. Hesperetin (Hst) is a natural flavonoid, which has been reported to exert various biological activities such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of hesperetin and nano-hesperetin on neurobehavioral activity and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRx) and catalase (CAT) enzymes activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels in hippocampal area of rats in an experimental model of AD...
November 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133197/inhibition-of-leukotriene-b4-synthesis-protects-against-early-brain-injury-possibly-via-reducing-the-neutrophil-generated-inflammatory-response-and-oxidative-stress-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#7
Zhen-Nan Ye, Ling-Yun Wu, Jing-Peng Liu, Qiang Chen, Xiang-Sheng Zhang, Yue Lu, Meng-Liang Zhou, Wei Li, Zi-Huan Zhang, Da-Yong Xia, Zong Zhuang, Chun-Hua Hang
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a highly potent neutrophil chemoattractant and neutrophils induces inflammatory response and oxidative stress when they recruit to and infiltrate in the injuried/inflamed site, such as the brain parenchyma after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study is to investigate the potential effects of inhibition of LTB4 synthesis on neutrophil recruitment, inflammatory response and oxidative stress, as well as early brain injury (EBI) in rats after SAH. A pre-chiasmatic cistern SAH model of rats was used in this experiment...
November 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133125/very-low-doses-of-muscimol-and-baclofen-ameliorate-cognitive-deficits-and-regulate-protein-expression-in-the-brain-of-a-rat-model-of-streptozocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Vladimirs Pilipenko, Karina Narbute, Ulrika Beitnere, Juris Rumaks, Jolanta Pupure, Baiba Jansone, Vija Klusa
Recent studies devoted to neuroprotection have focused on the role of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) system in regulating neuroinflammatory processes which play a key role in the neurodegenerative processes observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) by inducing glial cell overactivation and impairing neurotransmission. Data on the efficacy of classical GABA-A and GABA-B receptor agonists (muscimol and baclofen, respectively) in animal models of AD are not available. Moreover, no published studies have examined the ability of optimal doses of these compounds to prevent neuroinflammation, the alterations in neurotransmission and cognitive deficits...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132093/a-benzothiazole-piperazine-derivative-with-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory-activity-improvement-in-streptozotocin-induced-cognitive-deficits-in-rats
#9
Ümide Demir Özkay, Özgür Devrim Can, Begüm Nurpelin Sağlık, Nazlı Turan
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are frequently prescribed to mitigate the cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, we investigated the possible efficacy of the AChE inhibitor 2-[(6-Nitro-2-benzothiazolyl)amino]-2-oxoethyl4-[2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl] piperazine-1 carbodithioate (BPCT) in a streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Alzheimer's disease model (SADM). METHODS: First, we analyzed the molecular interaction of BPCT with AChE via a docking study...
June 30, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129596/amyloid-toxicity-is-enhanced-after-pharmacological-or-genetic-invalidation-of-the-%C3%AF-1-receptor
#10
Tangui Maurice, Manon Strehaiano, Fanny Duhr, Nathalie Chevallier
The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a molecular chaperone which activity modulates several intracellular signals including calcium mobilization at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes. S1R agonists are potent neuroprotectants against neurodegenerative insults and particularly in rodent models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We here analyzed whether S1R inactivation modifies vulnerability to amyloid toxicity in AD models. Two strategies were used: (1) amyloid β[25-35] (Aβ25-35) peptide (1, 3, 9nmol) was injected intracerebroventricularly in mice treated repeatedly with the S1R antagonist NE-100 or in S1RKO mice, and (2) WT, APPSweInd, S1RKO, and APPSweInd/S1RKO mice were created and female littermates analyzed at 8 months of age...
November 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129468/inhibition-of-rac1-ameliorates-neuronal-oxidative-stress-damage-via-reducing-bcl-2-rac1-complex-formation-in-mitochondria-through-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#11
Yundan Pan, Na Wang, Pingping Xia, E Wang, Qulian Guo, Zhi Ye
Although the neuroprotective effects of Rac1 inhibition have been reported in various cerebral ischemic models, the molecular mechanisms of action have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of Rac1 provided neuroprotection in a diabetic rat model of focal cerebral ischemia and hyperglycemia-exposed PC-12 cells. Intracerebroventricular administration of lentivirus expressing the Rac1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 not only decreased the infarct volumes and improved neurologic deficits with a correlated significant activation of mitochondrial DNA specific proteins, such as OGG1 and POLG, but also elevated Bcl-2 S70 phosphorylation in mitochondria...
November 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128909/central-noradrenergic-activity-affects-analgesic-effect-of-neuropeptide-s
#12
Kei Jinushi, Tetsuya Kushikata, Takashi Kudo, Girolamo Calo, Remo Guerrini, Kazuyoshi Hirota
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptide S (NPS) is an endogenous neuropeptide controlling anxiolysis, wakefulness, and analgesia. NPS containing neurons exist near to the locus coeruleus (LC) involved in the descending anti-nociceptive system. NPS interacts with central noradrenergic neurons; thus brain noradrenergic signaling may be involved in NPS-induced analgesia. We tested NPS analgesia in noradrenergic neuron-lesioned rats using a selective LC noradrenergic neurotoxin, N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4)...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128805/ursolic-acid-affords-antidepressant-like-effects-in-mice-through-the-activation-of-pka-pkc-camk-ii-and-mek1-2
#13
Ana B Ramos-Hryb, Mauricio P Cunha, Francis L Pazini, Vicente Lieberknecht, Rui D S Prediger, Manuella P Kaster, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: Ursolic acid has been shown to display antidepressant-like effects in mice through the modulation of monoaminergic systems. In this study, we sought to investigate the involvement of signaling pathways on the antidepressant-like effects of ursolic acid. METHODS: Mice were treated orally with ursolic acid (0.1mg/kg) and, 45min later they received the followings inhibitors by intracerebroventricular route: H-89 (PKA inhibitor, 1μg/mouse), KN-62 (CAMK-II inhibitor, 1μg/mouse), chelerythrine (PKC inhibitor, 1μg/mouse), U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor, 5μg/mouse), PD98059 (MEK1/2 inhibitor, 5μg/mouse), wortmannin (PI3K irreversible inhibitor, 0...
May 24, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126976/involvement-of-glucose-related-energy-crisis-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-insinuation-of-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-like-pathology
#14
Joyshree Biswas, Sonam Gupta, Dinesh Kumar Verma, Parul Gupta, Abhishek Singh, Shubhangini Tiwari, Poonam Goswami, Sharad Sharma, Sarika Singh
The present study was conducted to correlate the cellular and molecular alterations in Alzheimer's pathology employing streptozotocin (STZ) induced experimental rat model. The STZ was administered in rat brain bilaterally by intracerebroventricular route using stereotaxic surgery followed by donepezil dosing. The Alzheimer's related pathological marker like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, tau phosphorylation and amyloid aggregation were observed after STZ administration. STZ treatment showed decreased glucose and glucose transporters (GLUT) level along with augmented level of calcium in both cortical and hippocampal regions of rat brain...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126194/central-and-peripheral-slow-pressor-mechanisms-contributing-to
#15
Jiao Lu, Hong-Wei Wang, Monir Ahmad, Marzieh Keshtkar-Jahromi, Mordecai P Blaustein, John Hamlyn, Frans H H Leenen
Aims: High salt intake markedly enhances hypertension induced by angiotensin II (Ang II). We explored central and peripheral slow-pressor mechanisms which may be activated by Ang II and salt. Methods and Results: In Protocol I, Wistar rats were infused subcutaneously with low- dose Ang II (150 ng/kg/min) and fed regular (0.4%) or high salt (2%) diet for 14 days. In Protocol II, Ang II -high salt was combined with intracerebroventricular infusion of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) blockers (eplerenone, spironolactone), epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) blocker (benzamil), angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker (losartan) or vehicles...
November 8, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126131/continuous-kisspeptin-restores-luteinizing-hormone-pulsatility-following-cessation-by-a-neurokinin-b-antagonist-in-female-sheep
#16
Iain J Clarke, Qun Li, Belinda A Henry, Robert P Millar
Pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) drives pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH), with evidence that this depends upon kisspeptin (Kiss) input to GnRH neurons. Kiss administration causes acute GnRH/LH secretion and electrophysiological data suggest that Kiss neurons may act in a phasic manner to drive GnRH secretion, but there is not definitive evidence for this. The product of the Kiss1 gene is proteolytically cleaved to smaller products and the 10 amino-acid C-terminal product (Kiss-10) displays full bioactivity...
November 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121947/interleukin-1%C3%AE-signaling-in-fenestrated-capillaries-is-sufficient-to-trigger-sickness-responses-in-mice
#17
J Gabriel Knoll, Stephanie M Krasnow, Daniel L Marks
BACKGROUND: The physiological and behavioral symptoms of sickness, including fever, anorexia, behavioral depression, and weight loss can be both beneficial and detrimental. These sickness responses are triggered by pro-inflammatory cytokines acting on cells within the brain. Previous research demonstrates that the febrile response to peripheral insults depends upon prostaglandin production by vascular endothelial cells, but the mechanisms and specific cell type(s) responsible for other sickness responses remain unknown...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121520/effects-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-gene-targeted-ablation-on-ghrelin-induced-feeding
#18
Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Claudio Ferrante, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Rugia Shohreh, Chiara Di Nisio, Michele Vacca, Giustino Orlando, Roberto Salvatori, Luigi Brunetti
Impairment of growth hormone (GH) signaling has been associated with increased feeding and adiposity. The gastric hormone ghrelin, in addition to its GH-secretagogue effects, stimulates food intake after both central and peripheral administration. In the present study we further investigated the feeding regulatory role of the ghrelin-GH axis in a mouse model of isolated GH deficiency due to targeted ablation of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene [GHRH knockout (GHRHKO)]. We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin administration on feeding behavior, related hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, and serum ghrelin levels in mice homozygous for GHRHKO allele (-/-) and heterozygous (+/-) control animals...
November 6, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118105/neuropeptide-s-activates-paraventricular-oxytocin-neurons-to-induce-anxiolysis
#19
Thomas Grund, Stephanie Goyon, Yuting Li, Marina Eliava, Haikun Liu, Alexandre Charlet, Valery Grinevich, Inga D Neumann
Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide S (NPS) and oxytocin (OXT) represent potential options for the treatment of anxiety disorders due to their potent anxiolytic profile. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the behavioral action of NPS, and present a chain of evidence that the effects of NPS within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are mediated via actions on local OXT neurons in male Wistar rats. First, retrograde studies identified NPS fibers originating in the brainstem locus coeruleus and projecting to the PVN...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116174/activation-of-g-protein-gated-inwardly-rectifying-potassium-kir3-girk-channels-rescues-hippocampal-functions-in-a-mouse-model-of-early-amyloid-%C3%AE-pathology
#20
Irene Sánchez-Rodríguez, Sara Temprano-Carazo, Alberto Nájera, Souhail Djebari, Javier Yajeya, Agnès Gruart, José M Delgado-García, Lydia Jiménez-Díaz, Juan D Navarro-López
The hippocampus plays a critical role in learning and memory. Its correct performance relies on excitatory/inhibitory synaptic transmission balance. In early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), neuronal hyperexcitability leads to network dysfunction observed in cortical regions such as the hippocampus. G-protein-gated potassium (GirK) channels induce neurons to hyperpolarize, contribute to the resting membrane potential and could compensate any excesses of excitation. Here, we have studied the relationship between GirK channels and hippocampal function in a mouse model of early AD pathology...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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