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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937043/inhibition-of-cd38-cyclic-adp-ribose-pathway-protects-rats-against-ropivacaine-induced-convulsion
#1
Yu Zou, Xin He, Qian-Yi Peng, Qu-Lian Guo
BACKGROUND: The CD38/cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) pathway plays a role in various central nervous system diseases and in morphine tolerance, but its role in local anesthetic intoxication is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the CD38/cADPR pathway in ropivacaine-induced convulsion. METHODS: Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 per group): sham group, ropivacaine group, ropivacaine+8-Br-cADPR (5 nmol) group, ropivacaine+8-Br-cADPR (10 nmol) group, and ropivacaine+8-Br-cADPR (20 nmol) group (no rats died)...
October 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933957/the-upright-body-position-increases-translaminar-pressure-gradient-in-normotensive-and-hypertensive-rats
#2
Janusz Skrzypecki, Marcin Ufnal
AIM: Several lines of evidence suggest that the pathogenesis of glaucoma may depend on an increased translaminar pressure gradient (TPG), the difference between intraocular and intracranial pressure (ICP), rather than on intraocular pressure (IOP) itself. It has also been suggested that high blood pressure might correlate with the incidence of glaucoma; however, the data are contradictory. Here, we studied the effect of arterial blood pressure and changes in body position on TPG in rats...
September 21, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932185/hyperactivity-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-due-to-dysfunction-of-the-hypothalamic-glucocorticoid-receptor-in-sigma-1-receptor-knockout-mice
#3
Tingting Di, Suyun Zhang, Juan Hong, Tingting Zhang, Ling Chen
Sigma-1 receptor knockout (σ1R-KO) mice exhibit a depressive-like phenotype. Because σ1R is highly expressed in the neuronal cells of hypothalamic paraventricular nuclei (PVN), this study investigated the influence of σ1R deficiency on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. Here, we show that the levels of basal serum corticosterone (CORT), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF) as well as the level of CRF mRNA in PVN did not significantly differ between adult male σ1R-KO mice and wild-type (WT) mice...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929339/intranasal-insulin-ameliorates-cerebral-hypometabolism-neuronal-loss-and-astrogliosis-in-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-rat-model
#4
Yanxing Chen, Zhangyu Guo, Yan-Fang Mao, Tingting Zheng, Baorong Zhang
Intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) in rodents leads to cognitive impairments and several pathological changes like Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, there is hardly any research about the effect of ICV-STZ on regional cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. Previous studies have demonstrated that intranasal insulin improves cognition in AD patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we treated the ICV-STZ rats with daily intranasal delivery of insulin (2 U/day) for 6 consecutive weeks, then monitored (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) uptake using a high-resolution small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and studied the expression of neuronal nuclei (NeuN) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) using immunohistochemical staining...
September 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928661/ginkgo-biloba-extract-gbe-stimulates-the-hypothalamic-serotonergic-system-and-attenuates-obesity-in-ovariectomized-rats
#5
Renata M Banin, Iracema S de Andrade, Suzete M Cerutti, Lila M Oyama, Mônica M Telles, Eliane B Ribeiro
Menopause is associated with increased risk to develop obesity but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. We have shown that Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) improved diet-induced obesity. Since GbE might be effective in the treatment of obesity related to menopause, avoiding the side effects of hormone replacement therapy, we investigated the effect of GbE on hypothalamic systems controlling energy homeostasis. Wistar rats were either ovariectomized (OVX) or Sham-operated. After 2 months, either 500 mg...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927718/metabolic-profiling-of-the-effects-of-ginsenoside-re-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#6
Jingyuan Li, Ying Liu, Wei Li, Zhe Wang, Pan Guo, Lin Li, Naijing Li
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the major neurological diseases among the elderly, and there are presently no approved treatments that can slow its progression. It has been reported that ginsenoside Re (G-Re), an active pharmacological component of ginseng, can ameliorate the symptoms of AD, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The current study was designed to test the effects of G-Re by investigating the metabolite profiles of AD mice. An AD animal model was induced by intracerebroventricular injection of β-amyloid in Kunming mice...
September 16, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927423/primary-cilia-modulate-tlr4-mediated-inflammatory-responses-in-hippocampal-neurons
#7
Hyunjung Baek, Hyo Jung Shin, Jwa-Jin Kim, Nara Shin, Sena Kim, Min-Hee Yi, Enji Zhang, Jinpyo Hong, Joon Won Kang, Yonghyun Kim, Cuk-Seong Kim, Dong Woon Kim
BACKGROUND: The primary cilium is an organelle that can act as a master regulator of cellular signaling. Despite the presence of primary cilia in hippocampal neurons, their function is not fully understood. Recent studies have demonstrated that the primary cilium influences interleukin (IL)-1β-induced NF-κB signaling, ultimately mediating the inflammatory response. We, therefore, investigated ciliary function and NF-κB signaling in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation in conjunction with ciliary length analysis...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921601/is-2-hydroxypropyl-%C3%AE-cyclodextrin-a-suitable-carrier-for-central-administration-of-%C3%AE-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-preclinical-evidence
#8
R Agabio, F Sanna, C Lobina, M Monduzzi, V Nairi, F Cugia, S Mameli, G M Pisanu, G L Gessa, M R Melis
Preclinical Research Δ(9) -Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is a hydrophobic compound that has a potent antinociceptive effect in animals after intrathecal (IT) or intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration. The lack of a suitable solvent precludes its IT administration in humans. 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) increases the water solubility of hydrophobic drugs and is approved for IT administration in humans. To investigate whether HPβCD might be a suitable carrier for ICV administration of THC in rats, two formulations containing THC complexed with HPβCD (30 and 135 μg of THC per animal) and vehicle were administered to Wistar rats...
September 18, 2017: Drug Development Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918226/chronic-central-oxytocin-infusion-impairs-sociability-in-mandarin-voles
#9
Peirong Du, Zhixiong He, Zhenlu Cai, Xin Hao, Na Dong, Wei Yuan, Wenjuan Hou, Jinfeng Yang, Rui Jia, Faodao Tai
Oxytocin (OT) has been reported to increase social contact, however some studies have related OT to reduced social contact, particularly with unfamiliar individuals. The underlying mechanisms of OT on social contact remain unclear. In this study, male mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus), a socially monogamous rodent, was used as an animal model in which osmotic minipumps were used to intracerebroventricularly administer two dosages of OT or saline for 12 consecutive days. We examined the effect of long-term OT treatment on social behavior, anxiety levels, and levels of oxytocin, vasopressin (AVP) and dopamine (DA) receptors mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and medial amygdala (MeA)...
September 14, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918024/antisense-oligonucleotide-mediated-removal-of-the-polyglutamine-repeat-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-3-mice
#10
Lodewijk J A Toonen, Frank Rigo, Haico van Attikum, Willeke M C van Roon-Mom
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3) is a currently incurable neurodegenerative disorder caused by a CAG triplet expansion in exon 10 of the ATXN3 gene. The resultant expanded polyglutamine stretch in the mutant ataxin-3 protein causes a gain of toxic function, which eventually leads to neurodegeneration. One important function of ataxin-3 is its involvement in the proteasomal protein degradation pathway, and long-term downregulation of the protein may therefore not be desirable. In the current study, we made use of antisense oligonucleotides to mask predicted exonic splicing signals, resulting in exon 10 skipping from ATXN3 pre-mRNA...
September 15, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914428/anhydroecgonine-methyl-ester-aeme-a-product-of-cocaine-pyrolysis-impairs-spatial-working-memory-and-induces-striatal-oxidative-stress-in-rats
#11
Elisa Fraga Gomes, Ingryd Fortes Souza Lipaus, Cleciane Waldetário Martins, Andrezza Menezes Araújo, Josidéia Barreto Mendonça, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Evandro Carlos Lebarch, Lívia Carla de Melo Rodrigues, Ester Miyuki Nakamura-Palacios
When burning crack cocaine, the pyrolysis of cocaine generates anhydroecgonine methyl ester (AEME). AEME has been shown to be highly neurotoxic but its effects on cognitive function and oxidative stress are still unknown. Thus, this study investigated the effects of AEME on spatial working memory and on parameters of oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. First, 18 well-trained rats in 8-arm radial maze (8-RM) procedures received acute intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of AEME at doses of 10, 32, or 100 μg or saline (SAL) in a counterbalanced order and were tested 5 min later in 1-h delayed tasks in the 8-RM...
September 15, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913540/expression-of-concern-circulating-ghrelin-concentrations-are-lowered-by-intracerebroventricular-insulin
#12
M Ueno, J B C Carvalheira, R L G S Oliveira, L A Velloso, M J A Saad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912645/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-exendin-4-through-modulation-of-ib1-jip1-expression-and-jnk-signaling-in-stroke
#13
Soojin Kim, Jaewon Jeong, Hye-Seon Jung, Bokyung Kim, Ye-Eun Kim, Da-Sol Lim, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which block inactivation of GLP-1, are currently in clinical use for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, GLP-1 has also been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cases of cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4), after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced in rats by intracerebroventricular (i...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910862/effects-of-newly-synthesized-recombinant-human-amyloid-%C3%AE-complexes-and-poly-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibers-on-cell-apoptosis-and-cognitive-decline
#14
Soojin Park, Jae-Won Huh, Taekil Eom, Naeun Na, Youngjeon Lee, Ju-Sung Kim, Sun-Uk Kim, Insop Shim, Sang-Rae Lee, Ekyune Kim
The main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is the deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the brain. Aβ has been widely used to mimic several aspects of Alzheimer's disease. However, several characteristics of amyloid-induced Alzheimer's disease pathology are not well established, especially in mice. The present study aimed to develop a new Alzheimer's disease model by investigating how amyloid beta can be effectively aggregated using prokaryotes and eukaryotes. To express the Aβ42 complex in HEK293 cells, we cloned the Aβ42 region repeatedly and incorporated the resulting construct into a eukaryotic expression vector...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904149/correction-to-intracerebroventricular-infusion-of-the-pro-renin-receptor-antagonist-pro20-attenuates-deoxycorticosterone-acetate-salt-induced-hypertension
#15
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904020/gtrap3-18-regulates-food-intake-and-body-weight-by-interacting-with-pro-opiomelanocortin
#16
Koji Aoyama, Wattanaporn Bhadhprasit, Masahiko Watabe, Fan Wang, Nobuko Matsumura, Toshio Nakaki
Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing neurons provide α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), which stimulates melanocortin 4 receptor to induce hypophagia by AMPK inhibition in the hypothalamus. α-MSH is produced by POMC cleavage in secretory granules and released. However, it is not known yet whether any posttranscriptional regulatory mechanism of POMC signaling exists upstream of the secretory granules in neurons. Here we show that glutamate transporter-associated protein 3-18 (GTRAP3-18), an anchor protein that retains interacting proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, is a critical regulator of food intake and body weight by interacting with POMC...
September 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903766/fluoxetine-enhanced-autophagy-ameliorates-early-brain-injury-via-inhibition-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-following-subrachnoid-hemorrhage-in-rats
#17
Jian-Ru Li, Hang-Zhe Xu, Sheng Nie, Yu-Cong Peng, Lin-Feng Fan, Zhi-Jiang Wang, Cheng Wu, Feng Yan, Jing-Yin Chen, Chi Gu, Chun Wang, Jing-Sen Chen, Lin Wang, Gao Chen
BACKGROUND: The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that regulates the innate immune inflammatory response by activating caspase-1 and subsequent IL-1β and IL-18. Fluoxetine has been shown to have the anti-inflammatory properties in many disease models. However, the effects and mechanisms of these effects of fluoxetine in early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have not been defined. METHODS: The SAH model was induced by an endovascular perforation in adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats weighing 300-320 g...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899417/serotonin-augmentation-therapy-by-escitalopram-has-minimal-effects-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-levels-in-early-stage-alzheimer-s-like-disease-in-mice
#18
Christian Ulrich von Linstow, Jonas Waider, Manuela Grebing, Athanasios Metaxas, Klaus Peter Lesch, Bente Finsen
BACKGROUND: Dysfunction of the serotonergic (5-HTergic) system has been implicated in the cognitive and behavioural symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulation of toxic amyloid-β (Aβ) species is a hallmark of AD and an instigator of pathology. Serotonin (5-HT) augmentation therapy by treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in patients with AD has had mixed success in improving cognitive function, whereas SSRI administration to mice with AD-like disease has been shown to reduce Aβ pathology...
September 12, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895054/a-neuron-specific-gene-therapy-relieves-motor-deficits-in-pompe-disease-mice
#19
Ni-Chung Lee, Wuh-Liang Hwu, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Darin J Falk, Barry J Byrne, Chia-Hao Cheng, Nien-Chu Shih, Kai-Ling Chang, Li-Kai Tsai, Yin-Hsiu Chien
In Pompe disease, deficient lysosomal acid α-glucosidase (GAA) activity causes glycogen accumulation in the muscles, which leads to weakness, cardiomyopathy, and respiratory failure. Although glycogen accumulation also occurs in the nervous system, the burden of neurological deficits in Pompe disease remains obscure. In this study, a neuron-specific gene therapy was administered to Pompe mice through intracerebroventricular injection of a viral vector carrying a neuron-specific promoter. The results revealed that gene therapy increased GAA activity and decreased glycogen content in the brain and spinal cord but not in the muscles of Pompe mice...
September 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889722/effects-of-central-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-fgf21-in-energy-balance
#20
L Recinella, S Leone, C Ferrante, A Chiavaroli, C Di Nisio, S Martinotti, M Vacca, L Brunetti, G Orlando
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is known as a major metabolic regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. Continuous intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of FGF21 was found to modulate feeding and energy expenditure in rats with diet-induced obesity, suggesting a central effect by the peptide. In this context, in the present work, we studied the effects of a single central FGF21 administration (0.5-5 µg) on feeding and energy expenditure by evaluating locomotor activity, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) weight, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) in BAT and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels in Sprague-Dawley fed rats...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
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