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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337596/prolactin-regulation-of-the-hpa-axis-is-not-mediated-by-a-direct-action-upon-crh-neurons-evidence-from-the-rat-and-mouse
#1
Papillon Gustafson, Ilona Kokay, Tony Sapsford, Stephen Bunn, David Grattan
Centrally acting prolactin has been shown to have anti-stress effects by modulating the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We tested the hypothesis that prolactin directly targets hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. In situ hybridisation confirmed expression of mRNA encoding the long, but not the short, isoform of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the virgin rat; however, only 6% of CRH neurons expressed long-form Prlr mRNA. Examination of the functional response of CRH neurons to intracerebroventricular prolactin (500 ng) showed that these neurons did not respond with activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), a marker of long-form PRLR activation...
March 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336494/minocycline-reduces-inflammatory-parameters-in-the-brain-structures-and-serum-and-reverses-memory-impairment-caused-by-the-administration-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-in-mice
#2
Michelle Lima Garcez, Francielle Mina, Tatiani Bellettini-Santos, Franciellen Gonçalves Carneiro, Aline Pereira da Luz, Gustavo Luis Schiavo, Matheus Scopel Andrighetti, Maylton Grégori Scheid, Renan Pereira Bolfe, Josiane Budni
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common type of age-related dementia. Cognitive decline, beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuroinflammation are the main pathophysiological characteristics of AD. Minocycline is a tetracycline derivative with anti-inflammatory properties that has a neuroprotective effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of minocycline on memory, neurotrophins and neuroinflammation in an animal model of AD induced by the administration of Aβ (1-42) oligomer...
March 20, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326944/fatty-acid-binding-protein-inhibition-produces-analgesic-effects-through-peripheral-and-central-mechanisms
#3
Xiaoxue Peng, Keith Studholme, Martha P Kanjiya, Jennifer Luk, Diane Bogdan, Matthew W Elmes, Gregory Carbonetti, Simon Tong, Yu-Han Gary Teng, Robert C Rizzo, Huilin Li, Dale G Deutsch, Iwao Ojima, Mario J Rebecchi, Michelino Puopolo, Martin Kaczocha
Background Fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are intracellular carriers for endocannabinoids, N-acylethanolamines, and related lipids. Previous work indicates that systemically administered FABP5 inhibitors produce analgesia in models of inflammatory pain. It is currently not known whether FABP inhibitors exert their effects through peripheral or central mechanisms. Here, we examined FABP5 distribution in dorsal root ganglia and spinal cord and examined the analgesic effects of peripherally and centrally administered FABP5 inhibitors...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326060/microbial-neuraminidase-induces-a-moderate-and-transient-myelin-vacuolation-independent-of-complement-system-activation
#4
Pablo Granados-Durán, María Dolores López-Ávalos, Manuel Cifuentes, Margarita Pérez-Martín, María Del Mar Fernández-Arjona, Timothy R Hughes, Krista Johnson, B Paul Morgan, Pedro Fernández-Llebrez, Jesús M Grondona
AIMS: Some central nervous system pathogens express neuraminidase (NA) on their surfaces. In the rat brain, a single intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of NA induces myelin vacuolation in axonal tracts. Here, we explore the nature, the time course, and the role of the complement system in this damage. METHODS: The spatiotemporal analysis of myelin vacuolation was performed by optical and electron microscopy. Myelin basic protein-positive area and oligodendrocyte transcription factor (Olig2)-positive cells were quantified in the damaged bundles...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325299/potent-anti-seizure-effects-of-locked-nucleic-acid-antagomirs-targeting-mir-134-in-multiple-mouse-and-rat-models-of-epilepsy
#5
Cristina R Reschke, Luiz F Almeida Silva, Braxton A Norwood, Ketharini Senthilkumar, Gareth Morris, Amaya Sanz-Rodriguez, Ronán M Conroy, Lara Costard, Valentin Neubert, Sebastian Bauer, Michael A Farrell, Donncha F O'Brien, Norman Delanty, Stephanie Schorge, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Felix Rosenow, David C Henshall
Current anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) act on a limited set of neuronal targets, are ineffective in a third of patients with epilepsy, and do not show disease-modifying properties. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that regulate levels of proteins by post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability and translation. MicroRNA-134 is involved in controlling neuronal microstructure and brain excitability and previous studies showed that intracerebroventricular injections of locked nucleic acid (LNA), cholesterol-tagged antagomirs targeting microRNA-134 (Ant-134) reduced evoked and spontaneous seizures in mouse models of status epilepticus...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323972/neurosecretory-protein-gl-a-hypothalamic-small-secretory-protein-participates-in-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#6
Daichi Matsuura, Kenshiro Shikano, Takaya Saito, Eiko Iwakoshi-Ukena, Megumi Furumitsu, Yuta Ochi, Manami Sato, George E Bentley, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Kazuyoshi Ukena
We have recently identified a novel cDNA encoding a small secretory protein termed neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL) from the avian hypothalamus. In chicks, NPGL increases body weight gain without affecting food intake. A database search reveals that NPGL is conserved throughout vertebrates. However, the central distribution and functional role of NPGL remains to be elucidated in mammals. In this study, we identified the precursor cDNA encoding NPGL from the mouse hypothalamus. Quantitative RT-PCR and morphological analyses revealed that NPGL precursor mRNA is robustly expressed in the mediobasal hypothalamus with NPGL neurons specifically localized to the lateroposterior part of the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus...
March 17, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320941/potent-neuroprotection-after-stroke-afforded-by-a-double-knot-spider-venom-peptide-that-inhibits-acid-sensing-ion-channel-1a
#7
Irène R Chassagnon, Claudia A McCarthy, Yanni K-Y Chin, Sandy S Pineda, Angelo Keramidas, Mehdi Mobli, Vi Pham, T Michael De Silva, Joseph W Lynch, Robert E Widdop, Lachlan D Rash, Glenn F King
Stroke is the second-leading cause of death worldwide, yet there are no drugs available to protect the brain from stroke-induced neuronal injury. Acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is the primary acid sensor in mammalian brain and a key mediator of acidosis-induced neuronal damage following cerebral ischemia. Genetic ablation and selective pharmacologic inhibition of ASIC1a reduces neuronal death following ischemic stroke in rodents. Here, we demonstrate that Hi1a, a disulfide-rich spider venom peptide, is highly neuroprotective in a focal model of ischemic stroke...
March 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320234/gelidiella-acerosa-protects-against-a%C3%AE-25-35-induced-toxicity-and-memory-impairment-in-swiss-albino-mice-an-in-vivo-report
#8
Syad Arif Nisha, Kasi Pandima Devi
CONTEXT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is believed to develop due to deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide. Hence, efforts are being made to develop potent drug that target amyloid hypothesis. OBJECTIVE: The present study explores the effect of the seaweed Gelidiella acerosa (Forsskål) Feldmann & Hamel (Gelidiellaceae) against Aβ 25-35 peptide in Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animals were administered through intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with the Aβ 25-35 peptide (10 μg/10 μL/ICV site) on 21st day of the pretreatment of G...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315847/effects-of-peripherally-and-centrally-applied-ghrelin-on-the-oxidative-stress-induced-by-renin-angiotensin-system-in-a-rat-model-of-renovascular-hypertension
#9
Vivian Boshra, Amr M Abbas
BACKGROUND: Renovascular hypertension (RVH) is a result of renal artery stenosis, which is commonly due to astherosclerosis. In this study, we aimed to clarify the central and peripheral effects of ghrelin on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in a rat model of RVH. METHODS: RVH was induced in rats by partial subdiaphragmatic aortic constriction. Experiment A was designed to assess the central effect of ghrelin via the intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of ghrelin (5 μg/kg) or losartan (0...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315311/the-effects-of-crf-and-urocortins-on-the-sociability-of-mice
#10
Zsolt Bagosi, Gergely Karasz, András Czébely-Lénárt, Krisztina Csabafi, Miklós Jászberényi, Gyula Telegdy
The aim of our study was to determine the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), the urocortins (Ucn1, Ucn2 and Ucn3) and their receptors (CRF1 and CRF2) in the sociability of mice. Male CFLP mice were administered intracerebroventricularly (icv) with CRF and urocortins alone or in combination with antalarmin (specific CRF1 antagonist) and astressin2B (specific CRF2 antagonist) and then investigated in a Crawley social interaction test arena, that consists of three chambers. An unknown male in a cage was put in the first chamber and an empty cage was put in the opposite chamber...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300056/imbalance-between-tnf%C3%AE-and-progranulin-contributes-to-memory-impairment-and-anxiety-in-sleep-deprived-mice
#11
Kun Zhang, Yu-Jiao Li, Dan Feng, Peng Zhang, Ya-Tao Wang, Xiang Li, Shui-Bing Liu, Yu-Mei Wu, Ming-Gao Zhao
Sleep disorder is becoming a widespread problem in current society, and is associated with impaired cognition and emotional disorders. Progranulin (PGRN), also known as granulin epithelin precursor, promotes neurite outgrowth and cell survival, and is encoded by the GRN gene. It is a tumor necrosis factor α receptor (TNFR) ligand which is implicated in many central nervous system diseases. However, the role PGRN in sleep disorder remains unclear. In the present study, we found that sleep deprivation (S-DEP) impaired the memory and produced thigmotaxis/anxiety-like behaviors in mice...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299639/age-related-changes-in-central-effects-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-crf-suggest-a-role-for-this-mediator-in-aging-anorexia-and-cachexia
#12
Judit Tenk, Ildikó Rostás, Nóra Füredi, Alexandra Mikó, Margit Solymár, Szilvia Soós, Balázs Gaszner, Diana Feller, Miklós Székely, Erika Pétervári, Márta Balaskó
Hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) lays downstream to catabolic melanocortins and at least partly mediates their catabolic effects. Age-related changes in the melanocortin system (weak responsiveness in middle-aged and a strong one in old rats) have been shown to contribute to middle-aged obesity and later to aging anorexia and cachexia of old age groups. We hypothesized that catabolic (anorexigenic and hypermetabolic) CRF effects vary with aging similarly to those of melanocortins. Thus, we aimed to test whether age-related variations of CRF effects may also contribute to middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia leading to weight loss of old age groups...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296947/the-dual-orexin-receptor-antagonist-tcs1102-does-not-affect-reinstatement-of-nicotine-seeking
#13
Shaun Yon-Seng Khoo, Gavan P McNally, Kelly J Clemens
The orexin/hypocretin system is important for appetitive motivation towards multiple drugs of abuse, including nicotine. Both OX1 and OX2 receptors individually have been shown to influence nicotine self-administration and reinstatement. Due to the increasing clinical use of dual orexin receptor antagonists in the treatment of disorders such as insomnia, we examined whether a dual orexin receptor antagonist may also be effective in reducing nicotine seeking. We tested the effect of intracerebroventricular (i...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288545/chronic-overexpression-of-angiotensin-1-7-in-rats-reduces-cardiac-reactivity-to-acute-stress-and-dampens-anxious-behavior
#14
Danielle Moura Santos, Fernanda Ribeiro Marins, Marcelo Limborço-Filho, Marilene Luzia de Oliveira, Daniele Hamamoto, Carlos Henrique Xavier, Fabrício Araújo Moreira, Robson Augusto Souza Santos, Maria José Campagnole-Santos, Marco Antonio Peliky Fontes
Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts as a pro-stress hormone, while other evidence indicates that angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] attenuates physiological responses to emotional stress. To further test this hypothesis, in groups of 5-6 rats we evaluated autonomic, cardiovascular and behavioral parameters in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) and transgenic TGR(A1-7)3292 (TG) rats chronically overexpressing Ang-(1-7). Compared to SD rats, TG rats showed reduced baseline heart rate (HR; SD 380 ± 16 versus TG 329 ± 9 beats per minute (bpm), mean ± standard error of mean, p < ...
March 13, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284975/chronic-treatment-with-taurine-after-intracerebroventricular-streptozotocin-injection-improves-cognitive-dysfunction-in-rats-by-modulating-oxidative-stress-cholinergic-functions-and-neuroinflammation
#15
K H Reeta, Devendra Singh, Y K Gupta
The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of taurine, an essential amino acid for growth and development of central nervous system. Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) model of cognitive impairment was used in male Wistar rats (270 ± 20 g). Morris water maze, elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were used to assess cognitive performance. Taurine (40, 60 and 120 mg/kg) was administered orally for 28 days following STZ administration on day 1. Oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase) and cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) activity were measured at end of the study in the cortex and hippocampus...
March 8, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279130/dietary-macronutrient-composition-and-central-neuropeptide-y-injection-affect-dietary-preference-and-hypothalamic-gene-expression-in-chicks
#16
Betty R McConn, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the influence of dietary macronutrient composition on central NPY's orexigenic effect in chicks. METHODS: Day-of-hatch chicks were fed one of three diets (3000 kcal ME/kg) ad libitum from hatch: high carbohydrate (HC), high fat (HF; 30% ME derived from soybean oil), and high protein (HP; 25 vs. 22% CP). In Experiment 1, chicks received intracerebroventricular injections of 0 (vehicle), 0.2, or 2.0 nmol NPY on day 4 and food intake was recorded for 6 hours...
March 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276261/high-monosaccharide-intake-inhibits-anorexigenic-hypothalamic-insulin-response-in-male-rats
#17
Viviane Wagner Ramos, Leandro Oliveira Batista, Elisaldo Mendes Cordeiro, Gustavo Vieira Oliveira, Kelse Tibau Albuquerque
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this research is to evaluate if intake of 20% fructose solution is able to change the anorexigenic hypothalamic insulin action. METHODS: Thirty day-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: standard chow and water for the rats (Control group, C) and standard chow and 20% fructose solution for the rats (Fructose group, F).These treatments lasted 8 weeks. Three-month-old rats from group C and F received insulin or saline intracerebroventricular injections for evaluation of 24 h food intake, phosphorylated forms of the IR (p-IR) and Akt (p-Akt) proteins and quantified hypothalamic insulin receptor (IR) and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) proteins...
March 9, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274189/intracerebroventricular-administration-of-the-1%C3%A2-6-%C3%AE-d-glucan-lasiodiplodan-in-male-rats-prevents-d-penicillamine-induced-behavioral-alterations-and-lipoperoxidation-in-the-cortex
#18
Carlos Ricardo Maneck Malfatti, Fabio Seidel Dos Santos, Jéssica Wouk, Luiz Augusto da Silva, Renan Garcia Michel, André Luiz Snak, Tiago Czervinski, Mário A Alves da Cunha, Aneli M Barbosa, Robert F H Dekker
CONTEXT: Lasiodiplodan, an exocellular (1→6)-β-d-glucan of molecular weight >1.4 × 10(6) Da produced by MMPI strain of Lasiodiplodia theobromae (Pat.) Griffon & Maubl. (Brotyosphaeriaceae) is known to exhibit anti-proliferative activity on breast cancer cells (MCF-7), anticoagulant activity when sulfonylated, and reduction in transaminase activity when administered in rats. OBJECTIVE: The effect of intracerebroventricular (I.C.V) injection of lasiodiplodan on neurotoxicity and behavioural changes induced by d-penicillamine was investigated...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267150/ablation-of-neuropsin-neuregulin-1-signaling-imbalances-erbb4-inhibitory-networks-and-disrupts-hippocampal-gamma-oscillation
#19
M Kawata, S Morikawa, S Shiosaka, H Tamura
Parvalbumin-expressing interneurons are pivotal for the processing of information in healthy brain, whereas the coordination of these functions is seriously disrupted in diseased brain. How these interneurons in the hippocampus participate in pathological functions remains unclear. We previously reported that neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB4 signaling, which is actuated by neuropsin, is important for coordinating brain plasticity. Neuropsin cleaves mature NRG1 (bound to extracellular glycosaminoglycans) in response to long-term potentiation or depression, liberating a soluble ligand that activates its receptor, ErbB4...
March 7, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263818/glucocorticoids-induced-high-fat-diet-preference-via-activating-hypothalamic-ampk-signaling-in-chicks
#20
Lei Liu, Xiaojuan Wang, Hongchao Jiao, Hai Lin
Glucocorticoids (GCs) stimulate appetite, contributing to enhanced fat deposition. Our present study was conducted to determine whether GCs could evoke an appetite specifically for fat-rich diets in chicks. Chicks were subjected to a subcutaneous injection of corticosterone (CORT, 2 mg/kg body weight/day) or corn oil (control), and food preference was tested. The results showed that CORT-chicks consumed more high-fat diet (HFD) compared with controls. In HFD-fed chicks, hypothalamic phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels were increased by CORT treatment...
March 2, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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