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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446944/protective-effects-of-proline-rich-peptide-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-disease-an-electrophysiological-study
#1
Naser Khalaji, John Sarkissian, Vergine Chavushyan, Vaghinak Sarkisian
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly that slowly destroys memory and cognitive functions. The disease has no cure and leads to significant structural and functional brain abnormalities. To facilitate the treatment of this disease, we aimed to investigate proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) action of hypothalamus on hippocampal (HP) neurons and dynamics of their recovery, after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of amyloid-β (Aβ). METHODS: Experiments were carried out on 24 adult, male Albino rats (average weight: 230±30 g)...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446241/polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-receptors-gpr40-and-gpr120-are-expressed-in-the-hypothalamus-and-control-energy-homeostasis-and-inflammation
#2
Nathalia R V Dragano, Carina Solon, Albina F Ramalho, Rodrigo F de Moura, Daniela S Razolli, Elisabeth Christiansen, Carlos Azevedo, Trond Ulven, Licio A Velloso
BACKGROUND: The consumption of large amounts of dietary fats is one of the most important environmental factors contributing to the development of obesity and metabolic disorders. GPR120 and GPR40 are polyunsaturated fatty acid receptors that exert a number of systemic effects that are beneficial for metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Here, we evaluate the expression and potential role of hypothalamic GPR120 and GPR40 as targets for the treatment of obesity. METHODS: Male Swiss (6-weeks old), were fed with a high fat diet (HFD, 60% of kcal from fat) for 4 weeks...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445900/central-and-peripheral-glucagon-reduces-hyperlipidemia-in-rats-and-hamsters
#3
Vishal Patel, Amit Joharapurkar, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Hiren M Patel, Dheerendra Pandey, Dipam Patel, Kiran Shah, Rajesh Bahekar, Gaurang B Shah, Mukul R Jain
Increased lipid levels in blood contribute to increasing the risk of diabetic complications. Glucagon exerts lipid lowering effects in diabetic state. However, the mechanism behind the lipid reduction by glucagon independent of glucose homeostasis is not well understood. We assessed the actions of glucagon on lipid modulation in blood and markers in liver in hyperlipidemic hamsters and rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats and Golden Syrian hamsters on a hyperlipidemic diet for 2 weeks were administered a single dose of glucagon by subcutaneous (SC, 150 and 300 µg/kg) or intracerebroventricular (ICV, 15 and 30 µg/animal) route...
April 26, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445779/the-acute-cardiorespiratory-effects-of-centrally-injected-arachidonic-acid-the-mediation-of-prostaglandin-e-d-and-f2%C3%AE
#4
Leman Gizem Erkan, Burcin Altinbas, Gokcen Guvenc, Begum Aydin, Nasir Niaz, Murat Yalcin
Arachidonic acid (AA), which is released from synaptic membrane phospholipid by neuroreceptor-initiated activation of phospholipase A2, is abundant in the brain and works as a neurotransmitter and/or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Recently we reported that centrally injected AA generated pressor and hyperventilation effects by activating thromboxane A2 (TXA2) signaling pathway. The present study was designed to investigate the mediation of other metabolites of AA such as prostaglandin (PG) D, PGE and PGF2α alongside TXA2 in the AA-evoked cardiorespiratory effects in anaesthetized rats...
April 23, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440874/role-of-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-in-ischemia-induced-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-in-aged-female-rats
#5
Han Xiao, Mingyang Deng, Binbin Yang, Jianguang Tang, Zhiping Hu
Estrogen receptors have protective effects against ischemic brain injury. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have yet to be well studied. Given that inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3) can reduce cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury, we hypothesized that estrogen receptors-mediated protective effects against ischemia-induced blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption involve inhibition of GSK3. Thus, we evaluated GSK3 expression in the brain of ovariectomized female rats, and examined the effects of intracerebroventricular pre-treatments of SB216763, GSK3 inhibitor, on BBB permeability following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438705/tigr4-strain-causes-more-severe-disease-than-wu2-strain-in-a-mouse-model-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-meningitis-a-common-pathogenic-role-for-interferon-%C3%AE
#6
Belinda Yau, Lay Khoon Too, Helen J Ball, Nicholas H Hunt
Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis causes debilitating neurological symptoms and acute fatalities in patients, and long-term neurological sequelae in some survivors. Current vaccines do not protect against all 94 known S. pneumoniae capsular serotypes, many of which are capable of causing pneumococcal meningitis (PM). We here compare the pathogenic outcomes of two clinically virulent isolates of S. pneumoniae, serotype 3 strain WU2 and serotype 4 strain TIGR4, in a murine model of PM. At an identical infectious dosage of 10(3) CFU administered via the intracerebroventricular route, significantly greater mortality, interleukin (IL)1β and IL6 production, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction occurred in TIGR4-induced PM compared to PM caused by WU2...
April 21, 2017: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437839/semicarbazide-sensitive-amine-oxidase-vascular-adhesion-protein-1-inhibition-reduces-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation
#7
Serena Becchi, Alberto Buson, Jonathan Foot, Wolfgang Jarolimek, Bernard W Balleine
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neuroinflammation is initiated by a variety of stimuli including infections, sepsis, neurodegenerative diseases or traumatic brain injury and if not adequately controlled can lead to various degrees of neuronal damage and behavioural impairment. A critical event in the initial steps of inflammation is neutrophil extravasation. Semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO, also known as vascular adhesion protein 1 or VAP-1) regulates neutrophil adhesion and extravasation...
April 24, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435535/opioid-receptor-activity-and-analgesic-potency-of-dpdpe-peptide-analogues-containing-a-xylene-bridge
#8
Azzurra Stefanucci, Ettore Novellino, Sako Mirzaie, Giorgia Macedonio, Stefano Pieretti, Paola Minosi, Edina Szűcs, Anna I Erdei, Ferenc Zádor, Sándor Benyhe, Adriano Mollica
d-Pen(2),d-Pen(5) enkephalin (DPDPE) is one of the most selective synthetic peptide agonists targeting the δ-opioid receptor. Three cyclic analogues of DPDPE containing a xylene bridge in place of disulfide bond have been synthesized and fully characterized as opioid receptors agonists. The in vitro activity was investigated showing a good affinity of 7a-c for μ- and δ-receptors. In vivo biological assays revealed that 7b is the most potent analogue with the ability to maintain high level of analgesia from 15 to 60 min following intracerebroventricular (i...
April 13, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433649/chronic-nicotine-attenuates-behavioral-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-in-a-streptozotocin-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Esteves Im, Lopes-Aguiar C, Rossignoli Mt, Ruggiero Rn, Broggini Acs, Bueno-Junior Ls, Kandratavicius L, Monteiro Mr, Romcy-Pereira Rn, Leite Jp
Brain glucose metabolism is altered in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (sAD), whose pathologies are reproduced in rodents by intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of streptozotocin (STZ) in subdiabetogenic doses. The icv-STZ model also culminates in central cholinergic dysfunctions, which in turn are known to underlie both the sAD cognitive decline, and synaptic plasticity impairments. Considering the cognitive-enhancing potential of chronic nicotine (Nic), we investigated whether it attenuates icv-STZ-induced impairments in recognition memory and synaptic plasticity in a cognition-relevant substrate: the hippocampal CA1-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) pathway...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433253/neuropeptide-s-increases-motor-activity-and-thermogenesis-in-the-rat-through-sympathetic-activation
#10
Takuya Ensho, Keiko Nakahara, Yoshihiro Suzuki, Noboru Murakami
The central role of neuropeptide S (NPS), identified as the endogenous ligand for GPR154, now named neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR), has not yet been fully clarified. We examined the central role of NPS for body temperature, energy expenditure, locomotor activity and adrenal hormone secretion in rats. Intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of NPS increased body temperature in a dose-dependent manner. Energy consumption and locomotor activity were also significantly increased by icv injection of NPS. In addition, icv injection of NPS increased the peripheral blood concentration of adrenalin and corticosterone...
April 13, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432028/evaluation-of-se-phenyl-thiazolidine-4-carboselenoate-protective-activity-against-oxidative-and-behavioral-stress-in-the-maniac-model-induced-by-ouabain-in-male-rats
#11
Fernanda Severo Sabedra Sousa, Natália Seus, Diego Alves, Helena Domingues Salles, Paulo H Schneider, Lucielli Savegnago
This study investigates Se-phenyl-thiazolidine-4-carboselenoate (Se-PTC) protective activity against oxidative and behavioral stress in the model of mania induced by ouabain (OUA) in male rats. The compound used was Se-PTC (50mg/kg) and the positive control LiCl (45mg/kg) was administered for intragastric route (i.g.) 30min prior to administration of OUA (10(-5)M). OUA was dissolved in artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) and administered at the 5μL through an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) cannula. The pretreatment with Se-PTC was effective in preventing the increase in locomotor activity induced by OUA, however the positive control LiCl is capable to block crossing augmentation induced by OUA...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431449/peripheral-and-central-glucocorticoid-signaling-contributes-to-positive-energy-balance-in-rats
#12
Tássia Karin Borba, Lígia Cristina Monteiro Galindo, Kelli Nogueira Ferraz-Pereira, Raquel da Silva Aragão, Ana Elisa Toscano, Omar Guzmán-Quevedo, Raul Manhães-de-Castro
The obesity epidemic has been the target of several studies to understand its etiology. The pathophysiological processes that take to obesity generally relate to the rupture of energy balance. This imbalance can result from environmental and/or endogenous events. Among the endogenous events, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which promotes stress response via glucocorticoid activity, is considered a modulator of energy balance. However, it remains controversial whether the increase in plasma levels of glucocorticoids results in a positive or negative energy balance...
April 21, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429275/tgf-%C3%AE-1-neuroprotection-via-inhibition-of-microglial-activation-in-a-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Xiao Chen, Zhan Liu, Bei-Bei Cao, Yi-Hua Qiu, Yu-Ping Peng
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties. Recently we have shown that TGF-β1 pretreatment in vitro protects against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss that characterizes in Parkinson's disease (PD). Herein, we aimed to demonstrate that TGF-β1 administration in vivo after MPP(+) toxicity has neuroprotection that is achieved by a mediation of microglia. A rat model of PD was prepared by injecting MPP(+) unilaterally in the striatum...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428194/detrimental-effects-of-centrally-administered-angiotensin-ii-are-enhanced-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease-independently-of%C3%A2-blood-pressure
#14
Koki Takane, Yu Hasegawa, Bowen Lin, Nobutaka Koibuchi, Cheng Cao, Takashi Yokoo, Shokei Kim-Mitsuyama
BACKGROUND: The significance of brain angiotensin II in Alzheimer disease (AD) is unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: To examine the role of brain angiotensin II in AD, intracerebroventricular angiotensin II infusion was performed on 5XFAD mice, a mouse model of AD, and wild-type mice, and the detrimental effects of brain angiotensin II was compared between the 2 strains of mice. Intracerebroventricular angiotensin II infusion significantly impaired cognitive function in 5XFAD mice but not in wild-type mice...
April 20, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424564/new-developments-in-the-management-of-narcolepsy
#15
REVIEW
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Narcolepsy is a life-long, underrecognized sleep disorder that affects 0.02%-0.18% of the US and Western European populations. Genetic predisposition is suspected because of narcolepsy's strong association with HLA DQB1*06-02, and genome-wide association studies have identified polymorphisms in T-cell receptor loci. Narcolepsy pathophysiology is linked to loss of signaling by hypocretin-producing neurons; an autoimmune etiology possibly triggered by some environmental agent may precipitate hypocretin neuronal loss...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421141/excess-of-aminopeptidase-a-in-the-brain-elevates-blood-pressure-via-the-angiotensin-ii-type-1-and-bradykinin-b2-receptors-without-dipsogenic-effect
#16
Takuto Nakamura, Masanobu Yamazato, Akio Ishida, Yusuke Ohya
Aminopeptidase A (APA) cleaves angiotensin (Ang) II, kallidin, and other related peptides. In the brain, it activates the renin angiotensin system and causes hypertension. Limited data are available on the dipsogenic effect of APA and pressor effect of degraded peptides of APA such as bradykinin. Wistar-Kyoto rats received intracerebroventricular (icv) APA in a conscious, unrestrained state after pretreatment with (i) vehicle, (ii) 80 μg of telmisartan, an Ang II type-1 (AT1) receptor blocker, (iii) 800 nmol of amastatin, an aminopeptidase inhibitor, and (iv) 1 nmol of HOE-140, a bradykinin B2 receptor blocker...
2017: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420957/neuropeptide-y-induced-orexigenic-action-is-attenuated-by-the-orexin-receptor-antagonist-in-bullfrog-larvae
#17
Kouhei Matsuda, Kairi Matsumura, Syun-Suke Shimizu, Tomoya Nakamachi, Norifumi Konno
In bullfrog larvae at the pre- and pro-metamorphic stages, feeding behavior is regulated by appetite factors such as orexigenic peptides. In fact, food intake is enhanced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and orexin A. Using goldfish, our previous study indicated that the orexigenic action of NPY is mediated by orexin A, suggesting the functional interaction between the two. However, there is little information about whether the action of orexin A mediates the orexigenic action of NPY in bullfrog larvae...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420695/adeno-associated-viral-9-mediated-cdk5-inhibitory-peptide-reverses-pathologic-changes-and-behavioral-deficits-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#18
Yong He, Suyue Pan, Miaojing Xu, Rongni He, Wei Huang, Pingping Song, Jianou Huang, Han-Ting Zhang, Yafang Hu
Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5), which binds to and is activated by p35, phosphorylates multiple substrates and plays an essential role in the development and function of the CNS; however, proteolytic production of p25 from p35 under stress conditions leads to the inappropriate activation of Cdk5 and contributes to hyperphosphorylation of τ and other substrates that are related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Selective inhibition of aberrant Cdk5 activity via genetic overexpression of Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) reduces pathologic changes and prevents brain atrophy and memory loss in p25-transgenic mice...
April 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419244/resolvin-d1-and-d2-reverse-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depression-like-behaviors-through-the-mtorc1-signaling-pathway
#19
Satoshi Deyama, Yuka Ishikawa, Kotomi Yoshikawa, Kento Shimoda, Soichiro Ide, Masamichi Satoh, Masabumi Minami
Background: Resolvin D1 (RvD1) and D2 (RvD2) are bioactive lipid mediators that are generated from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Although recent preclinical studies suggest that these compounds have antidepressant effects, their mechanisms of action remain unclear. Methods: We investigated mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of RvD1 and RvD2 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.8 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced depression model mice using a tail suspension test. Results: Intracerebroventricular (i...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417659/effects-of-nphe-1-arg-14-lys-15-n-ofq-nh2-ufp-101-a-potent-nop-receptor-antagonist-on-molecular-cellular-and-behavioural-alterations-associated-with-chronic-mild-stress
#20
Giovanni Vitale, Monica Filaferro, Maria Vittoria Micioni Di Bonaventura, Valentina Ruggieri, Carlo Cifani, Remo Guerrini, Michele Simonato, Silvia Zucchini
The present study investigated the effect of [Nphe(1)] Arg(14), Lys(15)-N/OFQ-NH2 (UFP-101), a selective NOP receptor antagonist, in chronic mild stress (CMS) in male Wistar rats. NOP receptor antagonists were reported to elicit antidepressant-like effects in rodents. Our aim was to investigate UFP-101 effects on CMS-induced anhedonia and impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis. UFP-101 (10 nmol/rat intracerebroventricularly) did not influence sucrose intake in non-stressed animals, but reinstated basal sucrose consumption in stressed animals from the second week of treatment...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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