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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351420/fourth-ventricular-tsh-induces-satiety-and-increases-body-temperature-in-rats
#1
Ulrika Smedh, Karen A Scott, Timothy H Moran
Besides its well-known action to stimulate thyroid hormone release, Thyrotropin mRNA is expressed within the brain and Thyrotropin and its receptor have been shown to be present in brain areas that control feeding and gastrointestinal function. Here, the hypothesis that Thyrotropin acts on receptors in the dorsal hindbrain to alter food intake and/or gastric function was tested. Fourth ventricular injections of Thyrotropin (0.06, 0.6 and 6.0 µg) were given to rats with chronic intracerebroventricular cannulas aimed at the fourth ventricle...
January 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351171/spinal-pkc-erk-signal-pathway-mediates-hyperalgesia-priming
#2
Wei-Hsin Chen, Ya-Ting Chang, Yong-Cyuan Chen, Sin-Jhong Cheng, Chien-Chang Chen
Chronic pain can be initiated by one or more acute stimulations to sensitize neurons into the primed state. In the primed state, the basal nociceptive thresholds of the animal are normal, but in response to another hyperalgesic stimulus, the animal develops enhanced and prolonged hyperalgesia. The exact mechanism of how primed state is formed is not completely understood. Here we showed that spinal PKC/ERK signal pathway is required for neuronal plasticity change, hyperalgesic priming formation and the development of chronic hyperalgesia using acid-induced muscle pain (AIMP) model in mice...
January 18, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350998/overexpression-of-the-neuronal-human-pro-renin-receptor-mediates-angiotensin-ii-independent-blood-pressure-regulation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#3
Hua Peng, Dane D Jensen, Wencheng Li, Michelle N Sullivan, Sophie A Buller, Caleb J Worker, Silvana G Cooper, Shiqi Zheng, Scott Earley, Curt D Sigmund, Yumei Feng
Despite advances in anti-hypertensive therapeutics, at least 15-20% of hypertensive patients have resistant hypertension through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. In this study, we provide a new mechanism for regulation of blood pressure (BP) in the central nervous system (CNS) by the (pro)renin receptor (PRR), a recently identified component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) that mediates angiotensin II (Ang II) formation in the CNS. Although the PRR also mediates Ang II-independent signaling, the importance of these pathways in BP regulation is unknown...
December 15, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335496/localization-and-function-of-neurosecretory-protein-gm-a-novel-small-secretory-protein-in-the-chicken-hypothalamus
#4
Kenshiro Shikano, Yuki Bessho, Masaki Kato, Eiko Iwakoshi-Ukena, Shusuke Taniuchi, Megumi Furumitsu, Tetsuya Tachibana, George E Bentley, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Kazuyoshi Ukena
Recently, we discovered a novel cDNA encoding the precursor of a small secretory protein, neurosecretory protein GL (NPGL), in the hypothalamic infundibulum of chickens. NPGL plays an important role in the regulation of growth and feeding. A database search indicated that the NPGL gene has a paralogous gene: neurosecretory protein GM (NPGM), also in chickens. We identified cDNA encoding the NPGM precursor in chickens. Morphological analysis showed that NPGM-containing cells are specifically localized in the medial mammillary nucleus (MM) and infundibular nucleus (IN) in the hypothalamus...
January 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331800/nucleus-accumbens-mu-opioid-receptors-regulate-context-specific-social-preferences-in-the-juvenile-rat
#5
Caroline J W Smith, Kevin B Wilkins, Sara Li, Maxwell T Tulimieri, Alexa H Veenema
The μ opioid receptor (MOR) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is involved in assigning pleasurable, or hedonic value to rewarding stimuli. Importantly, the hedonic value of a given rewarding stimulus likely depends on an individual's current motivational state. Here, we examined the involvement of MORs in the motivation to interact with a novel or a familiar (cage mate) conspecific in juvenile rats. First, we demonstrated that the selective MOR antagonist CTAP administered into the NAc reduces social novelty preference of juvenile males, by decreasing the interaction time with the novel conspecific and increasing the interaction time with the cage mate...
December 30, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331615/increased-brain-glucocorticoid-actions-following-social-defeat-in-rats-facilitates-the-long-term-establishment-of-social-subordination
#6
Meltem Weger, Yannick Sevelinges, Jocelyn Grosse, Isabelle Guillot de Suduiraut, Olivia Zanoletti, Carmen Sandi
Social rank is frequently established through aggressive encounters between new conspecifics. Despite increasing evidence suggesting that social rank is critical for the well-being of both humans and animals, knowledge about the factors influencing social rank remain scarce. Stress was previously shown to affect the establishment and maintenance of social hierarchies in rats. Likewise, increasing systemic corticosterone levels post-encounter in the emerging subordinate rat facilitates the long-term establishment of social subordination...
January 10, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330516/drinking-by-amphibious-fish-convergent-evolution-of-thirst-mechanisms-during-vertebrate-terrestrialization
#7
Yukitoshi Katayama, Tatsuya Sakamoto, Kazuhiro Saito, Hirotsugu Tsuchimochi, Hiroyuki Kaiya, Taro Watanabe, James T Pearson, Yoshio Takei
Thirst aroused in the forebrain by angiotensin II (AngII) or buccal drying motivates terrestrial vertebrates to search for water, whereas aquatic fish can drink surrounding water only by reflex swallowing generated in the hindbrain. Indeed, AngII induces drinking through the hindbrain even after removal of the whole forebrain in aquatic fish. Here we show that AngII induces thirst also in the amphibious mudskipper goby without direct action on the forebrain, but through buccal drying. Intracerebroventricular injection of AngII motivated mudskippers to move into water and drink as with tetrapods...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330155/amlexanox-inhibits-cerebral-ischemia-induced-delayed-astrocytic-high-mobility-group-box-1-release-and-subsequent-brain-damage
#8
Sebok Kumar Halder, Hiroshi Ueda
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum during the early- and late-phases of brain ischemia and is known to contribute to brain damage. However, detailed characterization underlying cell type-specific HMGB1 release and pathophysiological roles of extracellularly released HMGB1 in ischemic brain remain unclear. Here, we examined cell type-specific HMGB1 release and therapeutic potential of amlexanox, an inhibitor of non-classical release, and an anti-HMGB1 antibody against ischemic brain damage...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325386/-the-protective-effect-of-the-activation-of-nmdar1-erk1-2-signal-pathway-induced-by-levodopa-on-visual-cortical-neurons-in-monocular-deprivation-rats
#9
X N Sun, H L Wang, G Qiao, J Tao, C Liu, X H Hao
Objective: To investigate the protection effects of the activation of NMDAR1(NMDA receptor 1)/ERK1/2 signal pathway on visual cortex nerve cells induced by levodopa in amblyopia rats. Methods: SD rats of SPF grade, were randomly divided into for groups of 9, group A. Control, B. MD group, C. L-levodopa(20 mg·kg(-1))+MD group, D. H-levodopa (80 mg·kg(-1))+MD group, E. H-levodopa+MD+MK801 group, F. H-levodopa+MD+PD98059 group, G. MD+MK801 group, H. MD+PD98059 group, I. MD+DMSO group. Amblyopia rats were made by suture of the right eye...
December 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323042/mitochondrial-protective-and-anti-apoptotic-effects-of-rhodiola-crenulata-extract-on-hippocampal-neurons-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Jun-Mei Wang, Ze-Qiang Qu, Jin-Lang Wu, Peter Chung, Yuan-Shan Zeng
In our previous study, we found that the edible alcohol extract of the root of the medicinal plant Rhodiola crenulata (RCE) improved spatial cognition in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease. Another study from our laboratory showed that RCE enhanced neural cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and prevented damage to hippocampal neurons in a rat model of chronic stress-induced depression. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of RCE are unclear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-apoptotic effect of RCE and its neuroprotective mechanism of action in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322008/inhibitory-effects-of-tabernaemontana-divaricata-root-extract-on-oxidative-stress-and-neuronal-loss-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-peptide-in-mice
#11
Onrawee Khongsombat, Walika Nakdook, Kornkanok Ingkaninan
In Alzheimer's disease, there are numerous amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal loss in several brain areas. Oxidative stress is involved in the mechanisms of Aβ-peptide induced neurotoxicity by the generation of free radical oxidative stress that may lead to neurodegeneration. Tabernaemontana divaricata has various medical properties in Thai folklore medicine including prevent forgetfulness or improve memory. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of T. divaricata root extract (TDE) on Aβ25-35 peptides induced neuronal loss and oxidative stress in mice...
January 2018: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321392/-the-role-of-brain-n-3-fatty-acids-gpr40-ffar1-signaling-in-pain
#12
Kazuo Nakamoto, Shogo Tokuyama
G-protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40)/free fatty acid receptor (FFAR) 1 is activated by long-chain fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Its receptor is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system (CNS) and in β-cells in the pancreatic Islets. We have already demonstrated that the intracerebroventricular administration of DHA or GW9508, a GPR40/FFAR1 agonist, suppresses formalin-induced pain behavior. It also attenuates complete Freund's adjuvant-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, suggesting that these effects occur by increasing β-endorphin release from propiomelanocortin neurons...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321171/sgk1-foxo3-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-mediates-glucocorticoid-increased-adiposity
#13
Yalan Deng, Yuzhong Xiao, Feixiang Yuan, Yaping Liu, Xiaoxue Jiang, Jiali Deng, Geza Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray-Fejes-Toth, Shanghai Chen, Yan Chen, Hao Ying, Qiwei Zhai, Yousheng Shu, Feifan Guo
Although central nervous system has been implicated in glucocorticoid-induced fat mass gain, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of our current study was to investigate the possible involvement of hypothalamic serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) in glucocorticoid-increased adiposity. It is well-known that SGK1 expression is induced by acute glucocorticoid treatment, interestingly, we found its expression was decreased in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, including POMC neurons, following chronic dexamethasone (Dex) treatment...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320530/the-amyloid-precursor-protein-derivative-app96-110-is-efficacious-following-intravenous-administration-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Stephanie L Plummer, Frances Corrigan, Emma Thornton, Joshua A Woenig, Robert Vink, Roberto Cappai, Corinna Van Den Heuvel
Following traumatic brain injury (TBI) neurological damage is ongoing through a complex cascade of primary and secondary injury events in the ensuing minutes, days and weeks. The delayed nature of secondary injury provides a valuable window of opportunity to limit the consequences with a timely treatment. Recently, the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its derivative APP96-110 have shown encouraging neuroprotective activity following TBI following an intracerebroventricular administration. Nevertheless, its broader clinical utility would be enhanced by an intravenous (IV) administration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317607/mirna-3473b-contributes-to-neuroinflammation-following-cerebral-ischemia
#15
Xiaoyu Wang, Shuangshuang Chen, Jingshu Ni, Jian Cheng, Jia Jia, Xuechu Zhen
MicroRNAs play an essential role in stroke pathology. Here, we investigated the role of a newly identified microRNA, miR-3473b, in stroke pathology. The expression of miR-3473b was upregulated in the cortex and striatum in mice following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Intracerebroventricular injection of the miR-3473b antagomir prior to MCAO remarkably attenuated ischemia-induced expression of miR-3473b and pro-inflammatory factors in the ischemic brain and decreased infarct volumes in mice following MCAO...
January 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317251/organoselenium-group-is-critical-for-antioxidant-activity-of-7-chloro-4-phenylselenyl-quinoline
#16
Ane G Vogt, Guilherme T Voss, Renata L de Oliveira, Jaini J Paltian, Luis F B Duarte, Diego Alves, Cristiano R Jesse, Silvane S Roman, Juliano A Roehrs, Ethel A Wilhelm, Cristiane Luchese
The quinolone compounds have been reported for many biological properties, especially as potent antioxidants. This study investigated the antioxidant effect of 7-chloro-4-phenylselenyl-quinoline (PSQ), a quinolone derivative with organoselenium group, against oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in brains of mice. A second objective was to verify the importance of phenylselenyl group presents at position 4 of the quinoline structure to antioxidant effect of compound. So, it was compared the antioxidant effect of PSQ with a quinoline without organoseleniun group (7-chloroquinoline [QN])...
January 6, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317180/oral-administration-of-fisetin-promotes-the-induction-of-hippocampal-long-term-potentiation-in%C3%A2-vivo
#17
Wen-Bin He, Kazuho Abe, Tatsuhiro Akaishi
To explore memory enhancing effect of the flavonoid fisetin, we investigated the effect of oral administration of flavonoids on the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses of anesthetized rats. Among four flavonoids (fisetin, quercetin, luteolin and myricetin) tested, only fisetin significantly facilitated the induction of hippocampal LTP. The effect of oral fisetin was abolished by intracerebroventricular injection of U0126, an agent that was previously found to inhibit its effect in hippocampal slices in vitro...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316834/delayed-administration-of-bq788-an-etb-antagonist-after-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-promotes-recovery-of-blood-brain-barrier-function-and-reduction-of-cerebral-edema-in-mice
#18
Shotaro Michinaga, Akimasa Kimura, Shunichi Hatanaka, Shizuho Minami, Arisa Asano, Yuki Ikushima, Shingo Matsui, Yoshiya Toriyama, Manami Fujii, Yutaka Koyama
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is induced by immediate physical disruption of brain tissue, and causes death and disability. Studies on experimental TBI animal models show that disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) underlies brain edema and neuroinflammation during the delayed phase of TBI. In neurological disorders, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is involved in BBB dysfunction and brain edema. In this study, the effect of ET antagonists on BBB dysfunction and brain edema were examined in a mouse focal TBI model using lateral fluid percussion injury (FPI)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316812/aavrh10-gene-therapy-ameliorates-central-and-peripheral-nervous-system-disease-in-canine-globoid-cell-leukodystrophy-krabbe-disease
#19
Allison M Bradbury, Mohammad A Rafi, Jessica Bagel, Becky K Brisson, Michael S Marshall, Jill Pesayco Salvador, Xuntian Jiang, Gary P Swain, Maria L Prociuk, Patricia O'Donnell, Caitlin Fitzgerald, Daniel S Ory, Ernesto R Bongarzone, G Diane Shelton, David A Wenger, Charles Vite
Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), or Krabbe disease, is an inherited, neurologic disorder that results from deficiency of a lysosomal enzyme, galactosylceramidase (GALC). Most commonly, deficits of GALC result in widespread central and peripheral nervous system (CNS, PNS) demyelination and death in affected infants typically by 2 years of age. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the current standard of care in children diagnosed prior to symptom onset; however, disease correction is incomplete. Herein we present the first adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy experiments in a naturally occurring canine model of GLD that closely recapitulates the clinical disease progression, neuropathological alterations, and biochemical abnormalities observed in human patients...
January 9, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306407/intracerebroventricular-injections-of-endotoxin-et-reduces-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#20
Farah Chamaa, Lynn Bitar, Batoul Darwish, Nayef E Saade, Wassim Abou-Kheir
Physio-pathological conditions such as neuroinflammation can modulate neurogenesis in the hippocampus. The aim of this study is to follow the time course of inflammation-induced effects on the neurogenic niche and the counter-effects of an anti-inflammatory drug. Rats received intracerebroventricular injections of lipopolysaccharide/endotoxin (ET) and intraperitoneal injections of 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, then perfused at different time intervals. At day 3, ET injection resulted in thermal hyperalgesia accompanied by a significant decrease in neurogenesis...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
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