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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595587/multiple-gene-movements-into-and-out-of-haploid-sex-chromosomes
#1
Agnieszka P Lipinska, Nicholas R T Toda, Svenja Heesch, Akira F Peters, J Mark Cock, Susana M Coelho
BACKGROUND: Long-term evolution of sex chromosomes is a dynamic process shaped by gene gain and gene loss. Sex chromosome gene traffic has been studied in XY and ZW systems but no detailed analyses have been carried out for haploid phase UV sex chromosomes. Here, we explore sex-specific sequences of seven brown algal species to understand the dynamics of the sex-determining region (SDR) gene content across 100 million years of evolution. RESULTS: A core set of sex-linked genes is conserved across all the species investigated, but we also identify modifications of both the U and the V SDRs that occurred in a lineage-specific fashion...
June 8, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590748/huygens-metasurfaces-enabled-by-magnetic-dipole-resonance-tuning-in-split-dielectric-nanoresonators
#2
Sheng Liu, Aleksandr Vaskin, Salvatore Campione, Omri Wolf, Michael B Sinclair, John L Reno, Gordon A Keeler, Isabelle Staude, Igal Brener
Dielectric metasurfaces that exploit the different Mie resonances of nanoscale dielectric resonators are a powerful platform for manipulating electromagnetic fields and can provide novel optical behavior. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate independent tuning of the magnetic dipole resonances relative to the electric dipole resonances of split dielectric resonators (SDRs). By increasing the split dimension, we observe a blue shift of the magnetic dipole resonance towards the electric dipole resonance...
June 7, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455793/detecting-signals-of-disproportionate-reporting-from-singapore-s-spontaneous-adverse-event-reporting-system-an-application-of-the-sequential-probability-ratio-test
#3
Cheng Leng Chan, Sowmya Rudrappa, Pei San Ang, Shu Chuen Li, Stephen J W Evans
INTRODUCTION: The ability to detect safety concerns from spontaneous adverse drug reaction reports in a timely and efficient manner remains important in public health. OBJECTIVE: This paper explores the behaviour of the Sequential Probability Ratio Test (SPRT) and ability to detect signals of disproportionate reporting (SDRs) in the Singapore context. METHODS: We used SPRT with a combination of two hypothesised relative risks (hRRs) of 2 and 4...
April 28, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407383/msh1-maintains-organelle-genome-stability-and-genetically-interacts-with-reca-and-recg-in-the-moss-physcomitrella-patens
#4
Masaki Odahara, Yoshihito Kishita, Yasuhiko Sekine
Chloroplast and mitochondrial DNA encodes genes essential for photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Thus, loss of organelle genomic DNA integrity leads to a decline in organelle function and to alteration of organelle genetic information. RECA (RECA1 and RECA2) and RECG, which are homologs of bacterial homologous recombination repair (HRR) factors RecA and RecG, respectively, play an important role in the maintenance of organelle genome integrity by suppressing aberrant recombination between short dispersed repeats (SDRs) in the moss Physcomitrella patens...
April 13, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381493/recreational-concentrations-of-alcohol-enhance-synaptic-inhibition-of-cerebellar-unipolar-brush-cells-via-pre-and-postsynaptic-mechanisms
#5
Ben David Richardson, David James Rossi
Variation in cerebellar sensitivity to alcohol/ethanol (EtOH) is a heritable trait associated with alcohol use disorder (AUD) in humans and high EtOH consumption in rodents, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. A recently identified cellular substrate of cerebellar sensitivity to EtOH: the GABAergic system of cerebellar granule cells (GCs), shows divergent responses to EtOH paralleling EtOH consumption and motor impairment phenotype. Although GCs are the dominant afferent integrator in the cerebellum, such integration is shared by unipolar brush cells (UBCs) in vestibulocerebellar lobes...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287789/effects-of-adolescent-exposure-to-methylmercury-and-d-amphetamine-on-reversal-learning-and-an-extradimensional-shift-in-male-mice
#6
Steven R Boomhower, M Christopher Newland
Adolescence is associated with the continued maturation of dopamine neurotransmission and is implicated in the etiology of many psychiatric illnesses. Adolescent exposure to neurotoxicants that distort dopamine neurotransmission, such as methylmercury (MeHg), may modify the effects of chronic d-amphetamine (d-AMP) administration on reversal learning and attentional-set shifting. Male C57Bl/6n mice were randomly assigned to two MeHg-exposure groups (0 ppm and 3 ppm) and two d-AMP-exposure groups (saline and 1 mg/kg/day), producing four treatment groups (n = 10-12/group): control, MeHg, d-AMP, and MeHg + d-AMP...
April 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286207/virtual-screening-applications-in-short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-research
#7
REVIEW
Katharina R Beck, Teresa Kaserer, Daniela Schuster, Alex Odermatt
Several members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) enzyme family play fundamental roles in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis as well as in the metabolism of steroids, oxysterols, bile acids, and retinoids in peripheral tissues, thereby controlling the local activation of their cognate receptors. Some of these SDRs are considered as promising therapeutic targets, for example to treat estrogen-/androgen-dependent and corticosteroid-related diseases, whereas others are considered as anti-targets as their inhibition may lead to disturbances of endocrine functions, thereby contributing to the development and progression of diseases...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273900/female-breast-cancer-mortality-clusters-in-shandong-province-china-a-spatial-analysis
#8
Jie Chu, Chengchao Zhou, Xiaolei Guo, Jiandong Sun, Fuzhong Xue, Jiyu Zhang, Zilong Lu, Zhentao Fu, Aiqiang Xu
This study aimed to detect the spatial distribution and high-risk clusters of female breast cancer mortality for the years 2011 to 2013 in Shandong Province, China. The urban-rural difference in the spatial distribution and clusters of disease mortality were also examined. Breast cancer mortality data were obtained from the Shandong Death Registration System (SDRS) during 2011 to 2013 and were adjusted for the underreporting rate. The purely spatial scan Statistics method was performed using Discrete Poisson model...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153571/providing-data-for-serrated-polyp-detection-rate-benchmarks-an-analysis-of-the-new-hampshire-colonoscopy-registry
#9
Joseph C Anderson, Lynn F Butterly, Julia E Weiss, Christina M Robinson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Similar to achieving adenoma detection rate (ADR) benchmarks to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC), achieving adequate serrated polyp detection rates (SDRs) may be essential to the prevention of CRC associated with the serrated pathway. Previous studies have been based on data from high-volume endoscopists at single academic centers. Based on a hypothesis that ADR is correlated with SDR, we stratified a large, diverse group of endoscopists (n = 77 practicing at 28 centers) into high performers and low performers, based on ADR, to provide data for corresponding target SDR benchmarks...
June 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120876/mycofactocin-associated-mycobacterial-dehydrogenases-with-non-exchangeable-nad-cofactors
#10
Daniel H Haft, Phillip G Pierce, Stephen J Mayclin, Amy Sullivan, Anna S Gardberg, Jan Abendroth, Darren W Begley, Isabelle Q Phan, Bart L Staker, Peter J Myler, Vasilios M Marathias, Donald D Lorimer, Thomas E Edwards
During human infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) survives the normally bacteriocidal phagosome of macrophages. Mtb and related species may be able to combat this harsh acidic environment which contains reactive oxygen species due to the mycobacterial genomes encoding a large number of dehydrogenases. Typically, dehydrogenase cofactor binding sites are open to solvent, which allows NAD/NADH exchange to support multiple turnover. Interestingly, mycobacterial short chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) within family TIGR03971 contain an insertion at the NAD binding site...
January 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107498/delineating-substrate-diversity-of-disparate-short-chain-dehydrogenase-reductase-from-debaryomyces-hansenii
#11
Arindam Ghatak, Nagakumar Bharatham, Anirudh P Shanbhag, Santanu Datta, Janani Venkatraman
Short-chain dehydrogenase reductases (SDRs) have been utilized for catalyzing the reduction of many aromatic/aliphatic prochiral ketones to their respective alcohols. However, there is a paucity of data that elucidates their innate biological role and diverse substrate space. In this study, we executed an in-depth biochemical characterization and substrate space mapping (with 278 prochiral ketones) of an unannotated SDR (DHK) from Debaryomyces hansenii and compared it with structurally and functionally characterized SDR Synechococcus elongatus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076679/molecular-dynamics-simulations-for-deciphering-the-structural-basis-of-recognition-of-pre-let-7-mirnas-by-lin28
#12
Chhaya Sharma, Debasisa Mohanty
LIN28 protein inhibits biogenesis of miRNAs belonging to the let-7 family by binding to precursor forms of miRNAs. Overexpression of LIN28 and low levels of let-7 miRNAs are associated with several forms of cancer cells. We have performed multiple explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations ranging from 200 to 500 ns in length on different isoforms of preE-let-7 in complex with LIN28 and also in isolation to identify structural features and key specificity-determining residues (SDRs) that are important for the inhibitory role of LIN28...
February 7, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874239/biocatalytic-properties-and-structural-analysis-of-phloroglucinol-reductases
#13
David Conradt, Bianca Hermann, Stefan Gerhardt, Oliver Einsle, Michael Müller
Phloroglucinol reductases (PGRs) are involved in anaerobic degradation in bacteria, in which they catalyze the dearomatization of phloroglucinol into dihydrophloroglucinol. We identified three PGRs, from different bacterial species, that are members of the family of NAD(P)H-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs). In addition to catalyzing the reduction of the physiological substrate, the three enzymes exhibit activity towards 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzaldehyde, 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone, and methyl 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoate...
December 12, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865848/retinol-dehydrogenase-13-deficiency-diminishes-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-mice
#14
Xiaofang Cui, Suying Dang, Yan Wang, Yan Chen, Jia Zhou, Chunling Shen, Ying Kuang, Jian Fei, Lungen Lu, Zhugang Wang
Retinol dehydrogenase 13 (RDH13) is a mitochondrion-localized member of the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) superfamily that participates in metabolism of some compounds. Rdh13 mRNA is most highly expressed in mouse liver. Rdh13 deficiency reduces the extent of liver injury and fibrosis, reduces hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, attenuates collagen I (II), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (Tgf-β1) expression. The results indicate an important role of Rdh13 and suggest RDH13 as a possible new therapeutic target for CCl4-induced fibrosis...
January 4, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834878/cdna-isolation-and-functional-characterization-of-udp-d-glucuronic-acid-4-epimerase-family-from-ornithogalum-caudatum
#15
Sen Yin, Yu-Jia Sun, Ming Liu, Li-Na Li, Jian-Qiang Kong
d-Galacturonic acid (GalA) is an important component of GalA-containing polysaccharides in Ornithogalum caudatum. The incorporation of GalA into these polysaccharides from UDP-d-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA) was reasonably known. However, the cDNAs involved in the biosynthesis of UDP-GalA were still unknown. In the present investigation, one candidate UDP-d-glucuronic acid 4-epimerase (UGlcAE) family with three members was isolated from O. caudatum based on RNA-Seq data. Bioinformatics analyses indicated all of the three isoforms, designated as OcUGlcAE1~3, were members of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) and shared two conserved motifs...
November 9, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756821/dynamic-interplay-between-nucleoid-segregation-and-genome-integrity-in-chlamydomonas-chloroplasts
#16
Masaki Odahara, Yusuke Kobayashi, Toshiharu Shikanai, Yoshiki Nishimura
The chloroplast (cp) genome is organized as nucleoids that are dispersed throughout the cp stroma. Previously, a cp homolog of bacterial recombinase RecA (cpRECA) was shown to be involved in the maintenance of cp genome integrity by repairing damaged chloroplast DNA and by suppressing aberrant recombination between short dispersed repeats in the moss Physcomitrella patens Here, overexpression and knockdown analysis of cpRECA in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii revealed that cpRECA was involved in cp nucleoid dynamics as well as having a role in maintaining cp genome integrity...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747835/mortality-rates-in-users-of-typical-and-atypical-antipsychotics-a-database-study-in-poland
#17
Pawel Zagozdzon, Bartosz Goyke, Magdalena Wrotkowska
BACKGROUND: The role of antipsychotics in influencing mortality of patients with mental disorders is still unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine mortality rates of patients treated with atypical and typical antipsychotics and to compare these data with the mortality rates for the general population. METHODS: The study was based on the 2008-2012 prescription drug reimbursement data from the Polish National Health Fund in Gdansk and mortality data from the death registry...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704525/declining-amenable-mortality-time-trend-2000-2013-and-geographic-area-analysis
#18
Maria Michela Gianino, Jacopo Lenzi, Aida Muça, Maria Pia Fantini, Roberta Siliquini, Walter Ricciardi, Gianfranco Damiani
OBJECTIVE: To update amenable mortality in 32 OECD countries at 2013 (or last available year), to describe the time trends during 2000-2013, and to evaluate the association of these trends with various geographic areas. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data from 32 countries during 2000-2013, gathered from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. STUDY DESIGN: Time trend analysis. DATA COLLECTION: Using Nolte and McKee's list, age-standardized amenable mortality rates (SDRs) were calculated as the annual number of deaths over the population aged 0-74 years per 100,000 inhabitants...
October 5, 2016: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703264/epimerisation-of-chiral-hydroxylactones-by-short-chain-dehydrogenases-reductases-accounts-for-sex-pheromone-evolution-in-nasonia
#19
Joachim Ruther, Åsa K Hagström, Birgit Brandstetter, John Hofferberth, Astrid Bruckmann, Florian Semmelmann, Michaela Fink, Helena Lowack, Sabine Laberer, Oliver Niehuis, Rainer Deutzmann, Christer Löfstedt, Reinhard Sterner
Males of all species of the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia use (4R,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS) as component of their sex pheromone while only N. vitripennis (Nv), employs additionally (4R,5R)-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RR). Three genes coding for the NAD(+)-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) NV10127, NV10128, and NV10129 are linked to the ability of Nv to produce RR. Here we show by assaying recombinant enzymes that SDRs from both Nv and N. giraulti (Ng), the latter a species with only RS in the pheromone, epimerise RS into RR and vice versa with (4R)-5-oxo-4-decanolide as an intermediate...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702481/biosynthesis-of-optically-pure-chiral-alcohols-by-a-substrate-coupled-and-biphasic-system-with-a-short-chain-dehydrogenase-from-streptomyces-griseus
#20
Zhuotao Tan, Hongmin Ma, Qing Li, Lingling Pu, Yang Cao, Xudong Qu, Chenjie Zhu, Hanjie Ying
The increasing demand for biocatalysts in synthesizing enantiomerically pure chiral alcohols results from the outstanding characteristics of enzymes in reaction, economic, ecological issues. Many carbonyl reductases for producing chiral alcohols have been reported but there is still a lack of good catalytic efficacies. Herein, five carbonyl reductases from different Streptomyces were discovered by the strategy of genome mining. These reductases were overexpressed, and we chose SgCR for further study as it owned better enzyme activity...
November 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
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