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Masaki Odahara, Yusuke Kobayashi, Toshiharu Shikanai, Yoshiki Nishimura
The chloroplast (cp) genome is organized as nucleoids that are dispersed throughout the cp stroma. Previously, a cp homolog of bacterial recombinase RecA (cpRECA) was shown to be involved in maintenance of cp genome integrity by repairing damaged cpDNA and by suppressing aberrant recombination between short dispersed repeats (SDRs) in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Here, overexpression and knockdown analysis of cpRECA in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii revealed that cpRECA was involved in cp nucleoid dynamics as well as having a role in maintaining cp genome integrity...
October 17, 2016: Plant Physiology
Pawel Zagozdzon, Bartosz Goyke, Magdalena Wrotkowska
BACKGROUND: The role of antipsychotics in influencing mortality of patients with mental disorders is still unexplained. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine mortality rates of patients treated with atypical and typical antipsychotics and to compare these data with the mortality rates for the general population. METHODS: The study was based on the 2008-2012 prescription drug reimbursement data from the Polish National Health Fund in Gdansk and mortality data from the death registry...
September 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
Maria Michela Gianino, Jacopo Lenzi, Aida Muça, Maria Pia Fantini, Roberta Siliquini, Walter Ricciardi, Gianfranco Damiani
OBJECTIVE: To update amenable mortality in 32 OECD countries at 2013 (or last available year), to describe the time trends during 2000-2013, and to evaluate the association of these trends with various geographic areas. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data from 32 countries during 2000-2013, gathered from the World Health Organization Mortality Database. STUDY DESIGN: Time trend analysis. DATA COLLECTION: Using Nolte and McKee's list, age-standardized amenable mortality rates (SDRs) were calculated as the annual number of deaths over the population aged 0-74 years per 100,000 inhabitants...
October 5, 2016: Health Services Research
Joachim Ruther, Åsa K Hagström, Birgit Brandstetter, John Hofferberth, Astrid Bruckmann, Florian Semmelmann, Michaela Fink, Helena Lowack, Sabine Laberer, Oliver Niehuis, Rainer Deutzmann, Christer Löfstedt, Reinhard Sterner
Males of all species of the parasitic wasp genus Nasonia use (4R,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RS) as component of their sex pheromone while only N. vitripennis (Nv), employs additionally (4R,5R)-5-hydroxy-4-decanolide (RR). Three genes coding for the NAD(+)-dependent short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDRs) NV10127, NV10128, and NV10129 are linked to the ability of Nv to produce RR. Here we show by assaying recombinant enzymes that SDRs from both Nv and N. giraulti (Ng), the latter a species with only RS in the pheromone, epimerise RS into RR and vice versa with (4R)-5-oxo-4-decanolide as an intermediate...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zhuotao Tan, Hongmin Ma, Qing Li, Lingling Pu, Yang Cao, Xudong Qu, Chenjie Zhu, Hanjie Ying
The increasing demand for biocatalysts in synthesizing enantiomerically pure chiral alcohols results from the outstanding characteristics of enzymes in reaction, economic, ecological issues. Many carbonyl reductases for producing chiral alcohols have been reported but there is still a lack of good catalytic efficacies. Herein, five carbonyl reductases from different Streptomyces were discovered by the strategy of genome mining. These reductases were overexpressed, and we chose SgCR for further study as it owned better enzyme activity...
November 2016: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Małgorzata Pikala, Monika Burzyn Ska, Robert Pikala, Marek Bryła, Irena Maniecka-Bryła
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to evaluate the differences in premature mortality between educational groups of Polish inhabitants in 2002 and 2011. METHODS: The analysis included all deaths among inhabitants of Poland, aged 25-64 years, which occurred in 2002 (N=97 004) and 2011 (N=104 598). We calculated age-standardised death rates (SDRs) and summary measures on inequalities. The relative index of inequality (RII) was calculated with Poisson regression...
2016: BMJ Open
Christopher J Hasselwander, Zhipeng Cao, William A Grissom
The goal of this work is to develop software that enables the rapid implementation of custom MRI spectrometers using commercially-available software defined radios (SDRs). The developed gr-MRI software package comprises a set of Python scripts, flowgraphs, and signal generation and recording blocks for GNU Radio, an open-source SDR software package that is widely used in communications research. gr-MRI implements basic event sequencing functionality, and tools for system calibrations, multi-radio synchronization, and MR signal processing and image reconstruction...
September 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Chunhui Li, Yongxiang Li, Yunsu Shi, Yanchun Song, Dengfeng Zhang, Edward S Buckler, Zhiwu Zhang, Yu Li, Tianyu Wang
Using two nested association mapping populations and high-density markers, some important genomic regions controlling recombination frequency and segregation distortion were detected. Understanding the maize genomic features would be useful for the study of genetic diversity and evolution and for maize breeding. Here, we used two maize nested association mapping (NAM) populations separately derived in China (CN-NAM) and the US (US-NAM) to explore the maize genomic features. The two populations containing 36 families and about 7000 recombinant inbred lines were evaluated with genotyping-by-sequencing...
September 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
J Paul Fedoroff, Deborah Richards, Rebekah Ranger, Susan Curry
This CIHR-funded study examined whether certain current risk assessment tools were effective in appraising risk of recidivism in a sample of sex offenders with intellectual disabilities (ID). Fifty men with ID who had engaged in problematic sexual behavior (PSB) were followed for an average of 2.5 years. Recidivism was defined and measured as any illegal or problematic behavior, as well as any problematic but not necessarily illegal behavior. At the beginning of the study, each participant was rated on two risk assessment tools: the Violence Risk Appraisal Guide (VRAG) and the Sex Offender Risk Appraisal Guide (SORAG)...
October 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Bettina Ebert, Michael Kisiela, Edmund Maser
Numerous physiological functions of the body are controlled by endogenous (e.g. steroids, retinoids, lipid mediators) or exogenous molecules (e.g. drugs, xenobiotics) that bind to transcription factors (TF). The biosynthesis and catabolism of these signaling molecules depend, apart from CYPs, on enzymes belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Moreover, the contribution of SDRs to the metabolism of therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics is increasingly recognized. However, only scarce information exists regarding the transcriptional regulation of most SDR proteins...
May 2016: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Naoki Kitaoka, Yisheng Wu, Jiachen Zi, Reuben J Peters
Rice (Oryza sativa) produces a variety of labdane-related diterpenoids as phytoalexins and allelochemicals. The production of these important natural products has been partially elucidated. However, the oxidases responsible for production of the keto groups found in many of these diterpenoids have largely remained unknown. Only one short-chain alcohol dehydrogenase/reductases (SDRs), which has been proposed to catalyze the last step in such a pathway, has been characterized to-date. While rice contains >220 SDRs, only the transcription of five has been shown to be induced by the fungal cell wall elicitor chitin...
June 23, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Ross E Anderson, Heidi A Hanson, Darshan P Patel, Erica Johnstone, Kenneth I Aston, Douglas T Carrell, William T Lowrance, Ken R Smith, James M Hotaling
OBJECTIVE: To further characterize the association of male infertility with health risks by evaluating semen quality and cancer risk in family members. DESIGN: Retrospective, cohort study. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): A total of 12,889 men undergoing SA and 12,889 fertile control subjects that had first-degree relative (FDR) data (n = 130,689) and 8,032 men with SA and 8,032 fertile control subjects with complete second-degree relative (SDR) data (n = 247,204) were identified through the UPDB...
September 1, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Yusuke Yokota, Tadashi Ishikawa, Shun-ichi Watanabe, Toshiharu Tashiro, Akira Asada
Interplate megathrust earthquakes have inflicted catastrophic damage on human society. Such an earthquake is predicted to occur in the near future along the Nankai Trough off southwestern Japan--an economically active and densely populated area in which megathrust earthquakes have already occurred. Megathrust earthquakes are the result of a plate-subduction mechanism and occur at slip-deficit regions (also known as 'coupling' regions), where friction prevents plates from slipping against each other and the accumulated energy is eventually released forcefully...
June 16, 2016: Nature
Pedro Pechorro, Lara Ayala-Nunes, João Pedro Oliveira, Cristina Nunes, Rui Abrunhosa Gonçalves
The main aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Socially Desirable Response Set-5 (SDRS-5) among a forensic sample (N=324) of incarcerated male (n=221) and female (n=103) juvenile offenders. The Portuguese validation of the SDRS-5 demonstrated good psychometric properties, namely in terms of its factor structure, internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity that overall justifies its use among this population. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the SDRS-5 with male and female juvenile offenders...
May 19, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Gage J Greening, Narasimhan Rajaram, Timothy J Muldoon
In the non-keratinized epithelia, dysplasia typically arises near the basement membrane and proliferates into the upper epithelial layers over time. We present a non-invasive, multimodal technique combining high-resolution fluorescence imaging and broadband sub-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (sDRS) to monitor health at various tissue layers. This manuscript focuses on characterization of the sDRS modality, which contains two source-detector separations (SDSs) of 374 μm and 730 μm, so that it can be used to extract in vivo optical parameters from human oral mucosa at two tissue thicknesses...
February 13, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Ji-Hyun Lee, Heon-Seock Cynn, Woo-Jeong Choi, Hyo-Jung Jeong, Tae-Lim Yoon
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to introduce levator scapulae (LS) measurement using a caliper and the levator scapulae index (LSI) and to investigate intra- and interrater reliability of the LSI in subjects with and without scapular downward rotation syndrome (SDRS). DESIGN: Two raters measured LS length twice in 38 subjects (19 with SDRS and 19 without SDRS). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For reliability testing, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) were calculated...
May 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Sébastien Bélanger, Isabelle Clermont, Patricio Esteves, François Belzile
Extent and overlap of segregation distortion regions in 12 barley crosses determined via a Pool-GBS approach. Segregation distortion is undesirable as it alters the frequency of alleles and can reduce the chances of obtaining a particular combination of alleles. In this work, we have used a pooled genotyping-by-sequencing (Pool-GBS) approach to estimate allelic frequencies and used it to examine segregation distortion in 12 segregating populations of barley derived from androgenesis. Thanks to the extensive genome-wide SNP coverage achieved (between 674 and 1744 markers), we determined that the proportion of distorted markers averaged 28...
July 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Nataliya Makarova, Tilman Brand, Claudia Brünings-Kuppe, Hermann Pohlabeln, Sabine Luttmann
OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to explore differences in mortality patterns among two large immigrant groups in Germany: one from Turkey and the other from the former Soviet Union (FSU). To this end, we investigated indicators of premature mortality. DESIGN: This study was conducted as a retrospective population-based study based on mortality register linkage. Using mortality data for the period 2004-2010, we calculated age-standardised death rates (SDR) and standardised mortality ratios (SMR) for premature deaths (<age 65 years)...
2016: BMJ Open
François Montastruc, Francesco Salvo, Mickaël Arnaud, Bernard Bégaud, Antoine Pariente
INTRODUCTION: Investigations have highlighted the lack of evidence regarding the likelihood of congenital malformations following exposure to antipsychotic drugs during pregnancy. To gain further knowledge regarding their safety, we evaluated signals of congenital malformations with antipsychotics using VigiBase(®), the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Report (ICSR) database. METHOD: A case/non-case study was conducted in VigiBase(®) between 1967 and 2014...
July 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Lili Qin, Yun Zhu, Zhiqiang Ding, Xuejiao Zhang, Sheng Ye, Rongguang Zhang
Iridoid synthase (IS), as a vegetal enzyme belonging to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily, produces the ring skeletons for downstream alkaloids with various pharmaceutical activities, including the commercially available antineoplastic agents, vinblastine and vincristine. Here, we present the crystal structures of IS in apo state and in complex with NADP(+)/8-oxogeranial, exhibiting an active center that lacks the classical Tyr/Lys/Ser triad spatially conserved in SDRs, with only the catalytically critical function of triad tyrosine remained in Tyr178...
May 2016: Journal of Structural Biology
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