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acute diarrhea

Valentina Talarico, Monica Aloe, Alice Monzani, Roberto Miniero, Gianni Bona
Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a thrombotic microangiopathy defined by thrombocytopenia, non-immune microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and acute renal failure. HUS is typically classified into two primary types: 1) HUS due to infections, often associated with diarrhea (D+HUS, Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia Coli-HUS), with the rare exception of HUS due to a severe disseminated infection caused by Streptococcus; 2) HUS related to complement, such HUS is also known as "atypical HUS" and is not diarrhea associated (D-HUS, aHUS); but recent studies have shown other forms of HUS, that can occur in the course of systemic diseases or physiopathological conditions such as pregnancy, after transplantation or after drug assumption...
December 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
Carine Bou-Abboud, Jeffry Katz, Wendy Liu
Celiac crisis, an atypical presentation of celiac disease, is characterized by acute diarrhea and severe metabolic derangements. This diagnosis is often missed in the differential of acute diarrheal illness. Our patient is a 69-year-old man who presented with ICD firing and was found to have profound metabolic derangements. Further evaluation revealed undiagnosed celiac disease and his symptoms resolved with a gluten-free diet. Celiac crisis should be considered in all patients presenting with acute diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, and severe electrolyte abnormalities as management can be life-saving...
August 2016: ACG Case Reports Journal
Miguel O'Ryan, Margarita Riera-Montes, Benjamin Lopman
BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are increasingly recognized as a major cause of sporadic and epidemic acute gastroenteritis. Although there have been multiple studies published on norovirus epidemiology in Latin America, no comprehensive assessment of the role of norovirus has been conducted in the region. We aim to estimate the role of norovirus in the Latin American region through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. METHODS: We carried out a literature search in Medline, SciELO and LILACS...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
G Varela-Fascinetto, C Benchimol, R Reyes-Acevedo, M Genevray, D Bradley, J Ives, H T Silva
This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the tolerability of extended prophylaxis with valganciclovir in pediatric kidney transplant recipients at risk of CMV disease. Fifty-six patients aged 4 months to 16 years received once-daily valganciclovir oral solution and/or tablets, dosed by BSA and renal function, for up to 200 days. The most common AEs on treatment were upper respiratory tract infection (33.9%), urinary tract infection (33.9%), diarrhea (32.1%), leukopenia (25.0%), neutropenia (23.2%), and headache (21...
October 17, 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
Jun-Feng Wang, Hui Li, Hua Xiong, He Huang, Yan-Mei Zou
The influence of the position and radiation technique on the organs at risk (OARs) in radiotherapy of rectal cancer was evaluated. The relationship between the volume of irradiated small bowel (VSB) and acute bowel toxicity was determined. A total of 97 cases of rectal cancer were retrospectively randomized to receive radiotherapy with the designated treatment positions and radiation plans. Among 64 patients in the supine position, 32 patients were given three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCR) and 32 patients were subjected to intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) respectively...
October 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Shu Y Ng, Kathryn L Colborn, Lajhem Cambridge, Carla Hajj, T Jonathan Yang, Abraham J Wu, Karyn A Goodman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We examined acute toxicity profiles and outcomes among rectal cancer patients treated with pre-operative chemoradiation using intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) to identify predictive clinical factors associated with increased acute toxicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 301 consecutive rectal cancer patients treated with pre-operative chemotherapy and radiotherapy (median dose 5000cGy) at our institution between 2007 and 2014...
October 14, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Li-Hong Shang, Li-Jing Xiong, Li-Rong Liu, Xiao-Zhi Deng, Xiao-Li Xie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of calicivirus-associated diarrhea in hospitalized children in Chengdu, China in recent years. METHODS: The clinical data of 267 children with calicivirus-associated diarrhea aged <5 years who were hospitalized in Chengdu Women and Children's Central Hospital (the only sentinel hospital for sample collection of pediatric viral diarrhea in Chengdu, Sichuan) between January 2012 and December 2014 were retrospectively studied...
October 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Fausto Petrelli, Gianluca Tomasello, Michele Ghidini, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Sandro Barni
Combination of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) is an active but not well-tolerated regimen for advanced gastric cancer (GC) with standard 3-weekly doses. Several modified schedules (mDCFs) have been designed to reduce acute toxicities and improve feasibility as first-line therapy in patients with metastatic GC. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and grade (G) greater than or equal to 3 adverse event of mDCF chemotherapy in this setting...
September 30, 2016: Anti-cancer Drugs
Tareq Abu-Izneid, Aneela Maalik, Saud Bawazeer, Ajmal Khan, Abdur Rauf, Taibi Ben Hadda, Haroon Khan, Mohamed Fawzy Ramadan, Imran Khan, Mohammad S Mubarak, Ghias Uddin, Alia Bahadar, Shujaat Ali Khan
BACKGROUND: Pistacia integerrima has many medicinal uses in therapeutic as well as folk medicine. P. integerrima has been used for the treatment of different ailments such as blood purifier, anti-inflammatory, and as remedy for gastrointestinal disorders such as vomiting and diarrhea, expectorant, cough, asthma and fever. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this research work was to evaluate the effect of pistagremic acid (PA) isolated from the galls of Pistacia integerima in acute toxicity and gastrointestinal (GIT) motility tests...
October 7, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
Ankit Mangla, Nikki Agarwal, Chou Carmel, Thomas Lad
Erlotinib is one of the most widely used tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor. Since its introduction, it has revolutionized the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. Skin rashes and diarrhea are the most often reported side effects of erlotinib however it is also associated with interstitial pneumonitis or interstitial lung disease, which often turns out to be fatal complication of using this medicine. Though reported scarcely in the western world, the association of interstitial lung disease with epidermal growth factor receptor has attracted a lot of attention in the recent times...
September 5, 2016: Rare Tumors
Adrien Flahault, Marguerite Vignon, Marion Rabant, Aurélie Hummel, Laure-Hélène Noël, Danielle Canioni, Bertrand Knebelmann, Felipe Suarez, Khalil El Karoui
INTRODUCTION: We report the case of a multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) with initial renal involvement. Although the renal involvement in this case was typical of MCD, it constitutes a rare presentation of the disease, and in our case the renal manifestations led to the haematological diagnosis. CLINICAL FINDINGS/PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient was admitted for fever, diarrhea, anasarca, lymphadenopathies and acute renal failure. Despite intravenous rehydration using saline and albumin, renal function worsened and the patient required dialysis...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Gamze Ozgurhan, Oznur Vermezoglu, Didem Ocal Topcu, Adem Karbuz, Aysel Vehapoglu, Bulent Hacihamdioglu
Although rotavirus gastroenteritis is quite common in the pediatric population, secondary bacterial sepsis following rotavirus infection is a rare clinical entity. Gram-negative bacilli are the fifth most common cause of meningitis in infants but this infection rarely occurs after gastroenteritis. Here, we report a 2.5-month-old infant who developed Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis after acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. The 2.5-month-old male infant with fever, vomiting, and watery diarrhea that started 1 day earlier was admitted to the hospital...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Aksara Thongprachum, Pattara Khamrin, Ngan Thi Kim Pham, Sayaka Takanashi, Shoko Okitsu, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Niwat Maneekarn, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
Multiplex RT-PCR method using five sets of panel primers was developed for the detection of diarrheal viruses, including rotavirus A, B, and C, adenovirus, astrovirus, norovirus GI and GII, sapovirus, Aichi virus, parechovirus, enterovirus, cosavirus, bocavirus, and Saffold virus. The sensitivity of the method was evaluated and tested with 751 fecal specimens collected from Japanese children with acute diarrhea. Several kinds of viruses were detected in 528 out of 751 (70.3%) fecal specimens. Mixed-infection with different viruses in clinical specimens could also be effectively detected...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
D Ayoub, L R Lopetuso, F Chamseddine, A Dajani, K Lahiri, H Mahmoud, M S Miqdady, G Zirizzotti, M A Sultan, F Franceschi, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Gastroenteritis represents with respiratory tract infection the most common infectious disease syndrome of humans in developing countries. Gut microbiota regional variation and dysbiosis play a crucial role in triggering and worsening this devastating GI disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: With this manuscript, we want to explore and emphasize the critical aspect of acute gastroenteritis in Middle-East Countries and its correlation with the clinical aspect of gut microbiota modification and intestinal homeostasis...
September 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Ritva Kaikkonen, Kati Niinistö, Tiina Lindholm, Marja Raekallio
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of geosediment (further referred as sand) may cause weight loss, diarrhea and acute or recurrent colic in horses. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of three treatment protocols in clearing colonic sand accumulations in clinical patients. This retrospective clinical study consisted of 1097 horses and ponies, which were radiographed for the presence of colonic sand. Horses included to the study (n = 246) were displaying areas of sand in the radiographs of ≥75 cm(2) and were treated medically monitoring the response with radiographs...
October 12, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Xian Yang, Xue Zhang, Shui-Ping Yang, Tao Le, Bin Chen
Aucklandialappa Decne (ALD) is one of the traditional herbs to treat various kinds of disorders including asthma, cough, vomit, diarrhea, hepatitis and cholecystitis. However, its effects on indigestion and particularly antiulcer activity of ethanol extract have not been studied. In the study, the Aucklandia lappa Decne extract (ALDE) was investigated to see if it againstgastric injury effects through traditional pathways. Ethyl alcohol and epinephrine hydrochloride were used to induce acute gastric mucous membrane damage in adult SD rats and Kunming mice, respectively...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Mélanie Gagnon, Allison Vimont, André Darveau, Ismaïl Fliss, Julie Jean
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe acute gastroenteritis among children worldwide. Despite effective vaccines, inexpensive alternatives such as probiotics are needed. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of probiotic candidate Bifidobacterium thermophilum RBL67 to inhibit rotavirus infection. Bacterial adhesion to intestinal cells and interference with viral attachment were evaluated in vitro. B. thermophilum RBL67 displayed adhesion indexes of 625 ± 84 and 1958 ± 318 on Caco-2 and HT-29 cells respectively and was comparable or superior to four other bifidobacteria, including B...
2016: PloS One
Jea Yeon Choi, Eell Ryoo, Jeong Hyun Jo, Tchah Hann, Seong Min Kim
PURPOSE: This study examined the risk factors of a delayed diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children undergoing an appendectomy. METHODS: This retrospective study involved children aged below 18 years, who underwent an appendectomy. After dividing them into a delayed diagnosis group and nondelayed diagnosis group according to the time interval between the initial hospital visit and final diagnosis, the risk factors of delayed diagnosis were identified using logistic regression analysis...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Edgar E Caamal-Fuentes, Manlio Graniel-Sabido, Gonzalo J Mena-Rejón, Rosa E Moo-Puc
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Senna racemosa (Mill.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (syn. Cassia racemosa Mill.) is a plant used in traditional Mayamedicinal practices to treat diarrhea. A methanol extract of S. racemosa bark has been shown to have in vitro activity against Giardia intestinalis. No studies of its efficacy and toxicity in in vivo models have been done.The present study objective was to analyze the activity of this methanol extract of S. racemosa bark against Giardia intestinalis trophozoites in experimentally infected mice, and evaluate its toxicological effects in rats...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Peter Teunis, Maria J Figueras
Cases of Aeromonas diarrhea have been described all over the world. The genus Aeromonas includes ca. 30 species, of which 10 have been isolated in association with gastroenteritis. The dominating species that account for ca. 96% of the identified strains are Aeromonas caviae, A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. However, the role of Aeromonas as a true enteropathogen has been questioned on the basis of the lack of outbreaks, the non-fulfillment of Koch's postulates and the low numbers of acute illnesses in the only existing human challenge study...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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