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acute diarrhea

Ben R Hofma, Hannah R Wardill, Chris Mavrangelos, Melissa A Campaniello, David Dimasi, Joanne M Bowen, Scott D Smid, Claudine S Bonder, Elizabeth A Beckett, Patrick A Hughes
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is characterized by overt inflammation of the intestine and is typically accompanied by symptoms of bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain and cramping. The Colonic Migrating Motor Complex (CMMC) directs the movement of colonic luminal contents over long distances. The tri-nitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) model of colitis causes inflammatory damage to enteric nerves, however it remains to be determined whether these changes translate to functional outcomes in CMMC activity...
2018: PloS One
Warawan Wongboot, Kazuhisa Okada, Siriporn Chantaroj, Watcharaporn Kamjumphol, Shigeyuki Hamada
Acute diarrheal diseases are causes of global public health concern, especially in developing countries. A variety of diarrhea-associated microbial species, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa, have been recognized. Simplified methods for detecting a wide range of diarrheagenic enteric microbes can clarify the etiology and aid in the diagnosis of diarrheal diseases. Here, we report a quantitative real-time (q)PCR-based method for simultaneous detection of 24 targets from 19 microbes suspected of causing diarrhea in stool specimens...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Thibaud Kuca, Thomas Passler, Benjamin W Newcomer, John D Neill, Patricia K Galik, Kay P Riddell, Yijing Zhang, Paul H Walz
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an economically important pathogen of cattle that can also infect a wide range of domestic and wild species including sheep, goats, deer, camelids, and pigs. BVDV isolates are genetically highly diverse and previous work demonstrated that many substitutions were introduced in the viral genome during acute infections in cattle. In contrast, only limited information exists regarding changes occurring during BVDV infections in species other than cattle. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes introduced in the open reading frame (ORF) of the BVDV genome during serial infection of pregnant cattle and sheep with an isolate of bovine origin...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yu-Jin Jeong, Sung-Kyun Park, Sung-Jin Yoon, Young Jun Park, Moo-Seung Lee
Shiga toxins (Stxs) are the main virulence factors expressed by the pathogenic Stx-producing bacteria, namely, Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and certain Escherichia coli strains. These bacteria cause widespread outbreaks of bloody diarrhea (hemorrhagic colitis) that in severe cases can progress to life-threatening systemic complications, including hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)characterized by the acute onset of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and kidney dysfunction.Shiga toxicosis has a distinct pathogenesis and animal models of Stxs-associated HUS have allowed us to investigate this...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Nancy G Flores-Jiménez, Marcela Rojas-Lemus, Teresa I Fortoul, Armando Zepeda-Rodríguez, Perla Y López-Camacho, Jhony Anacleto-Santos, Filiberto Malagón Gutiérrez, Gustavo Basurto-Islas, Norma Rivera-Fernández
The indiscriminate use of herbal products is increasingly growing worldwide; nonetheless consumers are not warned about the potential health risks that these products may cause. Hintonia latiflora (Hl) is a tree native to the American continent belonging to the Rubiaceae family and its stem bark is empirically used mainly to treat diabetes and malaria; supplements containing Hl are sold in America and Europe without medical prescription, thus scientific information regarding its toxicity as a consequence of a regular consumption is needed...
June 20, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
Christina Bradshaw, Yuanchao Zheng, Samuel A Silver, Glenn M Chertow, Jin Long, Shuchi Anand
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal illness is a major reason for hospitalization, but data on consequent acute kidney injury (AKI) are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of AKI in infectious and non-infectious diarrheal illness requiring hospitalization and to identify correlates and outcomes of diarrhea-associated AKI. DESIGN: Using data from the 2012 National Inpatient Sample (NIS), we created a cohort of patients with a primary diagnosis of diarrheal illness...
June 18, 2018: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Angel Josabad Alonso-Castro, Juan Ramón Zapata-Morales, Victor Arana-Argáez, Julio Cesar Torres-Romero, Eyra Ramírez-Villanueva, Sabino Eduardo Pérez-Medina, Marco Antonio Ramírez-Morales, Mario Alberto Juárez-Méndez, Yessica Paola Infante-Barrios, Fidel Martínez-Gutiérrez, Candy Carranza-Álvarez, Mario Alberto Isiordia-Espinoza, Andrés Flores-Santos
Eysenhardtia polystachya is used for the empirical treatment of cancer, infections, diarrhea, inflammation, and pain. This study identified, using GC-MS, the main chemical components in an ethanol extract of E. polystachya branches and leaves (EPE) and tested its cytotoxic, antimicrobial, anti-diarrheal, anti-inflammatory, and antinociceptive effects. The in vitro and in vivo toxicity of EPE was evaluated using the comet assay in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the acute toxicity test in mice, respectively...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Giovanni Ianiro, Claudia Recanatini, Marcello M D'Errico, Marina Monini
Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are one of the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in young children, being responsible for up to 250.000 deaths worldwide, mostly in developing countries. The two outer capsid proteins VP7 (glycoprotein, G-genotype) and VP4 (protease-sensitive protein, P-genotype) are the basis for the binary RVA nomenclature. Although at least 36 G-types and 51 P-types of rotavirus are presently known, most RVA infections in humans, worldwide as well as in Italy, are related to six major G/P combinations: G1P[8], G2P[4], G3P[8], G4P[8], G9P[8] and G12P[8]...
June 14, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Kwonil Jung, Ayako Miyazaki, Linda J Saif
Serotonin is a critical monoamine neurotransmitter molecule stored and released from enterochromaffin (EC) cells into the gut submucosa, transmitting the vomiting signal to the brain. We studied one mechanism by which vomiting is induced in pigs infected with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) by characterization of swine EC cells by immunohistochemistry. Conventional or gnotobiotic (Gn) 9-day-old pigs [PEDV-inoculated (n = 12); Mock (n = 14)] were inoculated orally (8.9-9.2 log10 genomic equivalents/pig) with PEDV PC21A strain or mock...
June 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Bibai Ren, Glenmore Lasam
We report a case of a 56-year-old man who presented initially with a sudden onset of right-sided facial droop and weakness, aphasia, and confusion with no associated fever, chills, syncope, fatigue, weight loss, night sweats, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, odontalgia, palpitations, cough, or dyspnea. Code stroke was called and the patient received tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) with subsequent resolution of his symptoms. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed left frontal punctate cortical restricted diffusion consistent with subacute to acute infarction...
June 2018: Cardiology Research
Alfredo Guarino, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Dario Bruzzese, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Ilaria Liguoro, Eduardo Salazar-Lindo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip M Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu
OBJECTIVES: Despite a substantial consistency in recommendations for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), a high variability in clinical practice and a high rate of inappropriate medical interventions persist in both developing and developed countries.Aim of this study was to develop a set of clinical recommendations for the management of non-severely malnourished children with AGE to be applied worldwide. METHODS: The Federation of International Societies of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (FISPGHAN) Working Group (WG) selected care protocols on the management of acute diarrhea in infants and children aged between 1 month and 18 years...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Camilla Adler Sørensen, Anne Rosbjerg, Betina Hebbelstrup Jensen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Peter Garred
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes acute and persistent diarrhea worldwide. Still, the involvement of host factors in EAEC infections is unresolved. Binding of recognition molecules from the lectin pathway of complement to EAEC strains have been observed, but the importance is not known. Our aim was to uncover the involvement of these molecules in innate complement dependent immune protection toward EAEC. Binding of mannose-binding lectin, ficolin-1, -2, and -3 to four prototypic EAEC strains, and ficolin-2 binding to 56 clinical EAEC isolates were screened by a consumption-based ELISA method...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zhifei He, Ghose Bishwajit, Dongsheng Zou, Sanni Yaya, Zhaohui Cheng, Yan Zhou
Having access to improved water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) facilities constitute a key component of healthy living and quality of life. Prolonged exposure to insanitary living conditions can significantly enhance the burden of infectious diseases among children and affect nutritional status and growth. In this study we examined the prevalence of some common infectious diseases/disease symptoms of childhood among under-five children in Nigeria, and the association between the occurrence of these diseases with household’s access to WASH facilities...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rui Gui, Hong-Yan Shi, Wei Liu, Li Feng, Ke-Li Yang, Rui Guo, Wan Liang, Fang-Yan Yuan, Zheng-Ying Duan, Ze-Wen Liu, Khalid Mehmood, Riaz Hussain, Dan-Na Zhou, Yong-Xiang Tian
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea and dehydration in new-born piglets with subsequent economic losses to swine industry. In the current study, gene encoding of 381aa-792aa spike protein (S1) with the main epitope relative to virus neutralization of PEDV was amplified by RT-PCR and inserted into vector pET-30A(+). The plasmid was transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Meanwhile, recombinant protein expression was induced by isopropy1-β-galactopyranoside (IPTG). After denaturation and renaturation of inclusion bodies, the S1 protein was obtained by using purified recombinant S1 protein in immunized female BALB/c mice...
June 9, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Sara Ebrahimi, Gholamreza Khademi, Seyed Ali Jafari, Nona Zaboli Nejad, Abdolreza Norouzy, Bahareh Imani
Very-early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) has a distinct phenotype and should be considered a specific entity. VEO-IBD presents with very severe clinical pictures and is frequently known by an indeterminate colitis whose clinical remission is unmanageable. This study examines the case of a neonate with VEO-IBD, not responding to medical and surgical treatment. A 7-day-old Iranian female neonate presented with severe bloody diarrhea, poor feeding, abdominal distention, and dehydration suggesting severe proctocolitis due to an allergy to the protein in cow's milk...
May 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Aviv Mager, David Berger, Hadas Ofek, Yoav Hammer, Zaza Iakobishvili, Ran Kornowski
BACKGROUND: Myocardial involvement is common in acute idiopathic pericarditis and can, in some cases, lead to life-threatening complications. Acute idiopathic pericarditis is often preceded by various prodromal symptoms, but whether these symptoms can predict myocardial involvement is unclear. The aim of the study was to examine the value of different prodromal symptoms of acute idiopathic pericarditis for predicting myocardial involvement. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients diagnosed with acute idiopathic pericarditis in 2007-2017 at our hospital were identified by database search...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Brooke A Spaeth, Billingsley Kaambwa, Mark Ds Shephard, Rodney Omond
Aim: To determine the cost-effectiveness of utilizing point-of-care testing (POCT) on the Abbott i-STAT device as a support tool to aid decisions regarding the emergency medical retrievals of patients at remote health centers in the Northern Territory (NT) of Australia. Methods: A decision analytic simulation model-based economic evaluation was conducted using data from patients presenting with three common acute conditions (chest pain, chronic renal failure due to missed dialysis session(s), and acute diarrhea) at six remote NT health centers from July to December 2015...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Umar Zahid, Fnu Sagar, Mayar Al Mohajer, Aneela Majeed
Immunocompromised patients undergoing chemotherapy for hematologic malignancy and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI). The recurrence of infection and its associated morbidity and mortality are due to multiple risk factors. Diarrhea is common in HSCT recipients, but the diagnosis of diarrhea caused by CDI is a therapeutic challenge due to frequent Clostridium difficile colonization with diarrhea secondary to non-infectious causes...
April 2, 2018: Curēus
Kaïs Rtibi, Dhekra Grami, Dalanda Wannes, Slimen Selmi, Mohamed Amri, Hichem Sebai, Lamjed Marzouki
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ficus carica fruit, a source of bioactive functional ingredients, have been traditionally long time used for its medicinal benefits as they improve the digestive system, treating constipation and used as a natural laxative. AIM OF THE STUDY: The recent study was investigated the ameliorative effect of Ficus carica L. aqueous extract (FCAE) on delayed gastric emptying and ulcerative colitis-improved motility disturbances in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis in rats...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Nenny Sri Mulyani, Dwi Prasetyo, I Putu Gede Karyana, Wayan Sukardi, Wahyu Damayanti, Dian Anggraini, Retno Palupi-Baroto, Hera Nirwati, Abdul Wahab, Asal Wahyuni Erlin Mulyadi, Tomoka Nakamura, Yati Soenarto
CONTEXT: Rotavirus diarrhea is a common disease worldwide which mostly affects children under five years old. Rotavirus infection causes severe diarrhea and leads to substantial health care costs. In Indonesia the rotavirus vaccine has been available since 2011, however it has not been included into the National Immunization Program. This study aims to describe the proportion of rotavirus in children under 5 in Indonesia, the clinical characteristics of rotavirus infections, and the rotavirus strains circulating in the country during 2010-2015...
June 1, 2018: Vaccine
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