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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244212/detection-of-enteric-and-non-enteric-adenoviruses-in-gastroenteritis-patients-bangladesh-2012-2015
#1
Mokibul Hassan Afrad, Tasnuva Avzun, Jahurul Haque, Warda Haque, Mohammad Enayet Hossain, Afm Rajibur Rahman, Shahnawaz Ahmed, Abu Syed Golam Faruque, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Mustafizur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are common cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Limited data exist on HAdVs molecular epidemiology associated with acute gastroenteritis in Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: We describe the genetic diversity and epidemiology of HAdVs among hospitalized diarrhea patients, including HAdV genotypes, clinical symptoms and co-infecting enteric pathogens. STUDY DESIGN: Stool samples were collected from ongoing diarrhea surveillance during 2012-2015...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237834/structural-basis-for-the-inhibition-of-host-gene-expression-by-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-nsp1
#2
Zhou Shen, Gang Ye, Feng Deng, Gang Wang, Min Cui, Liurong Fang, Shaobo Xiao, Zhen F Fu, Guiqing Peng
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteropathogenic Alphacoronavirus, has caused enormous economic losses in the pork industry. The non-structural protein 1 (nsp1) is a characteristic feature of Alpha- and Beltacoronaviruses, which exhibits both functional conservation and mechanistic diversity in inhibiting host gene expression and antiviral responses. However, the detailed structure and molecular mechanisms underlying the Alphacoronavirus nsp1 inhibition of host gene expression remain unclear. Here, we report the first full-length crystal structure of Alphacoronavirus nsp1 from PEDV...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218832/necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-the-setting-of-milk-allergy-after-pediatric-living-donor-liver-transplantation
#3
Soichi Narumoto, Seisuke Sakamoto, Hajime Uchida, Kengo Sasaki, Takanobu Shigeta, Akinari Fukuda, Shunsuke Nosaka, Rie Irie, Takako Yoshioka, Mureo Kasahara
NEC is an idiopathic intestinal mucosal injury that may progress to transmural bowel necrosis without mesenteric ischemia. NEC usually affects 7- to 10-day-old neonates following enteral feeding. A 10-month-old girl with no history of laparotomy underwent LDLT for acute liver failure. After starting enteral feeding on postoperative day 5, she developed abdominal distention. Diffuse PVG and PI were detected by radiologic modalities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed patchy necrosis of the intestine without perforation...
December 7, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218495/systemic-epstein-barr-virus-positive-t-cell-lymphoproliferative-disorders-of-childhood-with-fulminant-leukocytosis-and-tumor-lysis-a-case-report-with-autopsy-findings
#4
Sachie Wada, Takayuki Suzuki, Koichi Kitazume, Akira Fujita, Seiichiro Shimizu
Systemic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders (T-LPD) of childhood is an extremely rare disease characterized by an aggressive clinical course and very poor prognosis. We report an adolescent male with systemic EBV-positive T-LPD of childhood after primary EBV infection, resulting in a fatal clinical course within 9 days, along with autopsy findings. A 19-year-old male without an immunocompromised status presented with an acute onset of high fever, and was hospitalized for persistent fever, vomiting and diarrhea on the 5th day from onset...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216027/acute-malnutrition-among-children-mortality-and-humanitarian-interventions-in-conflict-affected-regions-nigeria-october-2016-march-2017
#5
Eva Leidman, Erin Tromble, Adamu Yermina, Robert Johnston, Chris Isokpunwu, Adeyemi Adeniran, Assaye Bulti
A public health emergency was declared by the Nigerian Federal Ministry of Health in northeastern Nigeria in June 2016 and escalated by the United Nations to a Level 3 Emergency in August 2016, after confirmation of wild poliovirus and measles outbreaks and evidence that prevalence of acute malnutrition exceeded emergency thresholds in areas newly liberated from Boko Haram control (1,2). To monitor rates of mortality, acute malnutrition among children, infectious disease morbidity, and humanitarian interventions after the emergency declaration, a series of cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in fall 2016 and winter 2017 in the northeastern states of Borno and Yobe using a cluster methodology...
December 8, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214442/shiga-toxin-triggers-endothelial-and-podocyte-injury-the-role-of-complement-activation
#6
REVIEW
Carlamaria Zoja, Simona Buelli, Marina Morigi
Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is the offending agent in post-diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), a disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and acute kidney failure, with thrombi occluding the renal microvasculature. Endothelial dysfunction has been recognized as the trigger event in the development of microangiopathic processes. Glomerular endothelial cells are susceptible to the toxic effects of Stxs that, via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation, induce the expression of genes encoding for adhesion molecules and chemokines, culminating in leukocyte adhesion and platelet thrombus formation on the activated endothelium...
December 6, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213351/spondias-purpurea-l-anacardiaceae-antioxidant-and-antiulcer-activities-of-the-leaf-hexane-extract
#7
Cynthia Layse Ferreira de Almeida, Samara Alves Brito, Temístocles Italo de Santana, Henrique Bandeira Alves Costa, Carlson Helder Reis de Carvalho Júnior, Márcia Vanusa da Silva, Lécio Leone de Almeida, Larissa Araújo Rolim, Vanda Lucia Dos Santos, Almir Gonçalves Wanderley, Teresinha Gonçalves da Silva
Spondias purpurea is used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea and diuresis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the phytochemical profile and antioxidant and antiulcer activities of the hexane extract of the leaves of S. purpurea (SpHE). Phytochemical profile was evaluated via thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC. SpHE was screened for antioxidant activities using DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and phosphomolybdenum assays. To determine its antiulcer properties, animals were pretreated with injured control, lansoprazole, ranitidine, carbenoxolone, or SpHE (12...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205622/radiographic-features-of-congenital-segmental-dilation-of-the-intestine-in-a-german-shepherd-dog
#8
Laura Johnson, Kristina Simone, John Cullen, Ashley Talley, Eli B Cohen
A 10-week-old spayed female German Shepherd Dog was presented for acute vomiting and diarrhea. There was no reported foreign body or toxin ingestion. Radiographs showed a severely (∼11 × 7 cm), focally distended right abdominal intestinal segment containing gas and soft tissue material. Other small intestinal segments were segmentally gas distended. Celiotomy identified a ∼9 cm focally dilated segment at the jejunoileal junction with no aborad luminal obstruction. Resection and anastomosis of the dilation was performed...
December 4, 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204525/sbrt-to-adrenal-metastases-provides-high-local-control-with-minimal-toxicity
#9
Kristin Plichta, Nathan Camden, Muhammed Furqan, Taher Abu Hejleh, Gerald H Clamon, Jun Zhang, Ryan T Flynn, Sudershan K Bhatia, Mark C Smith, John M Buatti, Bryan G Allen
Purpose: The adrenal glands are a common site of metastases because of their rich blood supply. Previously, adrenal metastases were treated with systemic chemotherapy or, more rarely, with surgical resection or palliative radiation therapy. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has recently emerged as an attractive noninvasive approach to definitively treat these lesions. We present our experience in treating adrenal metastases using SBRT and review the current literature. Methods and materials: This is a single-institution retrospective review of patients who received SBRT to adrenal metastases originating from various primary malignancies...
October 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201911/transmissible-gastroenteritis-virus-papain-like-protease-1-antagonizes-production-of-interferon-%C3%AE-through-its-deubiquitinase-activity
#10
Xiaoliang Hu, Jin Tian, Hongtao Kang, Dongchun Guo, Jiasen Liu, Dafei Liu, Qian Jiang, Zhijie Li, Juanjuan Qu, Liandong Qu
Coronaviruses (CoVs), such as human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63), severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV), murine hepatitis virus (MHV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), encode papain-like (PL) proteases that inhibit Sendai virus- (SeV-) induced interferon (IFN-β) production. Recently, the crystal structure of transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) PL1 has been solved, which was similar to that of SARS-CoV PL2pro, which may antagonize host innate immunity...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200713/gastroprotective-and-ulcer-healing-effects-of-camel-milk-and-urine-in-hcl-etoh-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-indomethacin-and-water-restraint-stress-induced-ulcer-in-rats
#11
Zijuan Hu, Xiaoman Chang, Qing Pan, Kebin Gu, Patrick Nwabueze Okechukwu
Background: Camel milk has been reportedly used to treat dropsy, jaundice, tuberculosis, and diabetes while camel urine is used to treat diarrhea and cancer. However, there is no scientific evidence on the antiulcer activity of camel milk and urine. Thus, the present is designed to investigate the gastroprotective and ulcer healing effect of camel milk and urine on experimentally induced gastric ulcer models in rats. Materials and Methods: The gastroprotective effect was investigated in HCl/EtOH, water-restraint stress (WRS) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (indomethacin)-induced ulcer models while ulcer healing activity was investigated in indomethacin-induced ulcer model...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199039/the-coronavirus-nucleocapsid-protein-is-adp-ribosylated
#12
Matthew E Grunewald, Anthony R Fehr, Jeremiah Athmer, Stanley Perlman
ADP-ribosylation is a common post-translational modification, although how it modulates RNA virus infection is not well understood. While screening for ADP-ribosylated proteins during coronavirus (CoV) infection, we detected a ~55kDa ADP-ribosylated protein in mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-infected cells and in virions, which we identified as the viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N proteins of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV were also ADP-ribosylated...
November 30, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198918/observations-on-the-epidemiology-of-rotavirus-infection-among-hospitalized-children-younger-than-5%C3%A2-years-in-2-ukrainian-hospitals-2007-2015
#13
Liudmyla I Chernyshova, Nataliya M Radionova, Iryna V Demchyshyna, Liudmyla S Kotlik, Oleksandra B Sadkova, Elena O Samoilovich, Galina V Semeiko, Danni S Daniels, Adam L Cohen, Negar Aliabadi
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis remains a burden among children under 5 years of age. Ukraine joined the World Health Organization's Global Rotavirus Surveillance Network in 2006, with a goal of providing accurate rotavirus burden data to aid policy makers in planning for rotavirus vaccine introduction. This analysis describes rotavirus epidemiology among Ukrainian children enrolled in Kyiv and Odesa, two large Ukrainian cities. METHODS: Children 0-59 months of age hospitalized for acute gastroenteritis at 2 sentinel sites in Kyiv and Odesa were enrolled into the active, prospective surveillance program...
November 29, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196412/a-phase-1-trial-of-vadastuximab-talirine-as-monotherapy-in-patients-with-cd33-positive-acute-myeloid-leukemia-aml
#14
Eytan M Stein, Roland B Walter, Harry P Erba, Amir T Fathi, Anjali S Advani, Jeffrey E Lancet, Farhad Ravandi, Tibor Kovacsovics, Daniel J DeAngelo, Dale Bixby, Stefan Faderl, Anand P Jillella, Phoenix Ho, Megan M O'Meara, Baiteng Zhao, Charles Biddle-Snead, Anthony S Stein
Vadastuximab talirine (SGN-CD33A, 33A) is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of pyrrolobenzodiazepine dimers linked to a monoclonal antibody targeting CD33, which is expressed in the majority of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. This phase 1 study (clinicaltrials.gov NCT01902329) evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary activity of vadastuximab talirine and determined the recommended monotherapy dose in patients with relapsed or refractory AML. Additional expansion cohorts tested vadastuximab talirine in specific subpopulations of relapsed AML, and in a cohort of older, treatment-naïve patients...
December 1, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196001/allium-tuberosum-antidiabetic-and-hepatoprotective-activities
#15
Xingli Tang, Opeyemi J Olatunji, Yifeng Zhou, Xilin Hou
Allium tuberosum (AT) is traditionally used for treating nocturnal emissions, abdominal pain, diarrhea, sexual dysfunction and asthma. This study aimed at investigating the antidiabetic and hepatoprotective activities of the butyl alcohol fraction from the methanolic extract of A. tuberosum. For the antidiabetic activity, rats were induced with diabetes by intraperitoneal injection of 150mg/kg alloxan and treated for 30days with AT extract (100, 200 and 400mg/kg). Animals were sacrificed after the study and the fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), HDL, malondialdehyde (MDA) catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels were determined...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192505/us-oncology-wide-incidence-duration-costs-and-deaths-from-chemoradiation-mucositis-and-antimucositis-therapy-benefits
#16
Ricky W McCullough
Approximate oncology-wide incidence, duration, costs and deaths associated with mucositis and identify health economic benefits of antimucositis therapies. Review the literature relevant to the clinical experience of mucositis by pathophysiology, incidence, duration, costs and deaths. Use US insurance actuarial and epidemiology on cancer to generalize an oncology-wide impact of toxic mucositis. Toxic mucositis causes oropharyngoesophageal ulcerations, chemo-induced nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Acutely, it lasts 102 days/six cycles of chemotherapy, 60 days in human stem-cell transplantation patients and 70-84 days in head and neck cancer patients at annual costs of US$13...
December 1, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189867/-metformin-associated-lactic-acidosis-report-of-one-case
#17
Felipe Quintana, María José Pezzani, Rodrigo Orozco, Jorge Dreyse, Leonardo Soto, Tomás Regueira
Metformin-associated lactic acidosis is a severe and infrequent adverse event. Early diagnosis is essential to start an early treatment, which often has favorable results. We report a 56 years old non-insulin-requiring type 2 diabetic female who developed a severe metabolic acidosis associated with metformin in relation to an acute renal failure secondary to infectious diarrhea. Early treatment with bicarbonate and continuous hemofiltration allowed a quick improvement of the patient. Metformin-associated lactic acidosis has an elevated mortality (50-80%) and has a specific and effective treatment...
August 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189549/outcome-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-tertiary-care-centers-in-thailand
#18
Kongkiat Kulkantrakorn, Puchit Sukphulloprat
BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a common acute polyneuropathy, is seen worldwide with significant morbidity and mortality. GBS consists of a number of subtypes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify clinical characteristics, electrophysiologic changes, clinical course, treatment, and outcome of GBS in Thailand. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study of GBS patients aged 15 years or older, admitted to Thammasat University Hospital and Bangkok Hospital Medical Center between January 1, 2009 and November 30, 2014...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuromuscular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188130/first-wave-of-the-2016-17-cholera-outbreak-in-hodeidah-city-yemen-acf-experience-and-lessons-learned
#19
Mathias Altmann, Miguel Suarez-Bustamante, Celine Soulier, Celine Lesavre, Caroline Antoine
Introduction: Although cases were reported only in 2010 and 2011, cholera is probably endemic in Yemen. In the context of a civil war, a cholera outbreak was declared in different parts of the country October 6th, 2016. This paper describes the ACF outbreak response in Hodeidah city from October 28th, 2016 to February 28th, 2017 in order to add knowledge to this large outbreak. Methods: The ACF outbreak response in Hodeidah city included a case management component and prevention measures in the community...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183732/role-of-rotavirus-vaccination-on-an-emerging-g8p-8-rotavirus-strain-causing-an-outbreak-in-central-japan
#20
Sheikh Ariful Hoque, Masaaki Kobayashi, Sayaka Takanashi, Kazi Selim Anwar, Taeko Watanabe, Pattara Khamrin, Shoko Okitsu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
BACKGROUND: In this study, we examined the effectiveness of RV1 and RV5 vaccines during an outbreak of G8P[8] rotavirus group A strain (G8P[8]-RVA). These vaccines were originally designed to provide protection against severe diseases caused by common circulating strains, whereas G8P[8]-RVA remains emerging strain and partially heterotypic to the vaccines. It is imperative to investigate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against G8P[8]-RVA because this strain appears to be predominant in recent years, particularly, in post-vaccine era...
November 25, 2017: Vaccine
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