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acute diarrhea

Suat Biçer, Defne Çöl, Öznur Küçük, Gülay Ç Erdağ, Tuba Giray, Meltem Uğraş, Ayça Vitrinel, Çiğdem Kaspar
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis is responsible for dehydration in many children. The viruses like rotavirus, norovirus, and adenovirus are considered the main causative agents of gastroenteritis. The goal of this study is the evaluation of the symptoms, clinical findings and hospitalization requirements in pediatric patients with dehydration secondary to viral gastroenteritis. METHODS: The distribution of age, symptoms, clinical and laboratory findings and hospitalization requirements of 156 viral acute gastroenteritis patients with moderate dehydration were evaluated retrospectively...
April 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Ping Han, Lan Yang, Xiao-Wei Huang, Xiu-Qin Zhu, Li Chen, Nan Wang, Zhen Li, De-An Tian, Hua Qin
RATIONALE: Hepaticarterioportal fistula (APF) is a rare cause of portal hypertension and gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and presents as abnormal communication between the hepatic artery and portal vein. Percutaneous liver biopsy is a main iatrogenic cause of AFP. However, non-iatrogenic, abdominal, trauma-related APF is rarely reported. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 29-year-old man presenting with severe, watery diarrhea was transferred to our hospital, and his condition was suspected to be acute gastroenteritis because he ate expired food and suffered a penetrating abdominal stab wound 5 years ago...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Berardino De Bari, Laëtitia Lestrade, Alessandra Franzetti-Pellanda, Raphael Jumeau, Maira Biggiogero, Melpomeni Kountouri, Oscar Matzinger, Raymond Miralbell, Jean Bourhis, Mahmut Ozsahin, Thomas Zilli
PURPOSE: To report outcomes of a population of anal cancer patients treated with modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy and daily image-guided radiotherapy techniques. METHODS: We analyzed data of 155 patients consecutively treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy +/- chemotherapy in three radiotherapy departments. One hundred twenty-two patients presented a stage II-IIIA disease. Chemotherapy was administered in 138 patients, mainly using mitomycin C and 5-fluorouracil (n = 81)...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Christine Y Louie, Adam J Gomez, Richard K Sibley, Dorsey Bass, Teri A Longacre
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis or Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) typically occurs in the pediatric population, although rare cases also occur in adults. Gastrointestinal (GI) involvement is common. The "classic" histologic finding in IgA vasculitis (HSP) is leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV); other histologic features in biopsies of IgA vasculitis (HSP) have only been rarely described. The pathology archival files at our institution were searched for GI biopsies from patients with IgA vasculitis (HSP)...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Ying Li, Shuang Zhang, Mu He, Yanchun Zhang, Yanyan Fu, Hao Liang, Hongbo Jing, Yindong Li, Hongmei Ma, Maojun Zhang
Bacterial pathogens have been confirmed as the major cause of acute diarrhea among outpatients in China. In this study, 370 stool samples from the patients aged from 15 to 87 years old with diarrhea were collected over 12 months (from May 2016 to April 2017) in two hospitals in Shunyi, Beijing. Bacterial isolation was performed for the common enteric pathogens: Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus for 370 samples. The filtration method was used for the Campylobacter isolation in this study...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jennifer G Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: American Family Physician
Kunishige Okamura, Masanori Ohara, Tsukasa Kaneko, Tomohide Shirosaki, Aki Fujiwara, Takumi Yamabuki, Ryo Takahashi, Kazuteru Komuro, Nozomu Iwashiro, Noriko Kimura
Rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst is one of the rare complications and usually results in high mortality. The present case was a rupture of pancreatic pseudocyst that could be treated by surgical intervention. A 74-year-old man developed abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea, and he was diagnosed with cholecystitis and pneumonia. Three days later, acute pancreatitis occurred and computed tomography (CT) showed slight hemorrhage in the cyst of the pancreatic tail. After another 10 days, CT showed pancreatic cyst ruptured due to intracystic hemorrhage...
September 2017: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Ling Zhou, Yuan Sun, Jiao-Ling Wu, Kai-Jie Mai, Gui-Hua Chen, Zi-Xian Wu, Yang Bai, Di Li, Zhi-Hai Zhou, Jian Cheng, Rui-Ting Wu, Xiang-Bin Zhang, Jing-Yun Ma
Swine acute diarrhea syndrome coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus which was first reported in southern China in 2017. It can cause severe diarrhea disease in pigs. In order to detect this new emerging virus rapidly and reliably, a TaqMan-based real-time RT-PCR assay was established in this study. Specific primers and probe were designed and synthesized based on the conserved region within the N gene of the viral genome. Results showed that the lowest limit of detection was 3.0×101 copies/μL. This approach was specific for SADS-CoV, and there were no cross-reaction observed against other 15 swine viruses...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Sarah D Shaw, Henry Stämpfli
Acute, infectious, diarrhea in adult horses is a major cause of morbidity and is associated with numerous complications. Common causes include salmonellosis, clostridiosis, Coronavirus, and infection with Neorickettsia risticii (Potomac horse fever). Treatment is empirical and supportive until results of specific diagnostic tests are available. Supportive care is aimed at restoring hydration, correcting electrolyte imbalances, and limiting the systemic inflammatory response. The mainstays of therapy are intravenous fluid therapy, electrolyte supplementation where necessary, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and nutritional support...
February 6, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Seiichi Yakabi, Lixin Wang, Hiroshi Karasawa, Pu-Qing Yuan, K Koike, Koji Yakabi, Yvette F Tache
We investigated whether vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and/or prostaglandins contribute to peripheral corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-induced CRF1 receptor mediated stimulation of colonic motor function and diarrhea in rats. The VIP antagonist, [4Cl-D-Phe 6 , Leu 17 ]VIP injected intraperitoneally (ip) completely prevented CRF (10 µg/kg, ip)-induced fecal output and diarrhea occurring within the first hour post injection whereas pretreatment with the prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor, indomethacin had no effect...
February 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Daniel C Shippy, Bradley L Bearson, Devin B Holman, Brian W Brunelle, Heather K Allen, Shawn M D Bearson
Salmonella enterica serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- has emerged as a common nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar to cause human foodborne illness. An interesting trait of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- is that it only expresses the fliC gene for bacterial motility (i.e., monophasic), while most Salmonella strains alternately express two flagellin genes (fliC and fljB). The goal of this study was to characterize the porcine response following inoculation with a multidrug-resistant (MDR) serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- isolate associated with a multistate pork outbreak to determine if the increased prevalence of serovar I 4,[5],12:i:- in swine is due to enhanced pathogenicity...
February 7, 2018: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Ahmed Nahari, Salem M AlGhamdi, Abdulsalam Alawfi, Hassan Faqeehi, Saeed Alzahrani, Amani Abu-Shaheen, Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini
Background In Saudi Arabia, there is a lack of recently published, appropriately conducted epidemiological studies on rotavirus (RV) diarrhea, which emphasizes the need for up-to-date and comprehensive studies. Objective Our objective was to provide more recent data on the clinical and epidemiological characteristics as well as the economic burden of RV diarrhea among young children admitted to a tertiary care hospital in the city of Riyadh in the year prior to the initiation of the RV vaccine. Design We conducted a prospective observational study at a children's specialized hospital at King Fahad Medical City...
December 2, 2017: Curēus
Julia Stadler, Lisa Moser, Jasmin Numberger, Anna Rieger, Katrin Strutzberg-Minder, Thorsten Stellberger, Andrea Ladinig, Mathias Ritzmann, Robert Fux
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has reemerged in Europe since 2014. Characterized by a rapid onset of diarrhea in pigs of all ages, morbidity can reach up to 100% whereas mortality is variable. The virus strains involved in the recent European outbreaks all cluster together with US strains (S INDEL) that lead to less severe clinical signs. In this study, fattening pigs and suckling piglets (n = 105) on farms with no prior PED history were monitored after an acute outbreak of the disease, caused by an S INDEL strain of PED virus (PEDV)...
February 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Sohail Abdul Salim, Tauqeer Yousuf, Asha Patel, Tibor Fülöp, Mohit Agarwal
Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ system involvement, including renal disease, with low complement levels. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman who presented with nonspecific symptoms including fatigue, diarrhea, macular rash and abdominal pain with acute renal failure leading to end-stage kidney disease. Laboratory results showed hematuria, nephrotic range proteinuria, worsening creatinine and low C1q levels. Left kidney biopsy showed proliferative glomerulonephritis with crescent formation...
February 2018: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Magda E Alvarado, Claudia Rubiano, Diana Velandia, Moisés Wasserman
Giardia intestinalis is a parasite that inhabits the small intestine of humans and other mammals, causing a disease that can manifest itself with acute diarrhea. This parasite is an early divergent eukaryote with a compact genome and a life cycle composed of two distinct cell types: the trophozoite, the replicative form, and the cyst, the infectious form. Signal transduction pathways implicated in differentiation processes of G. intestinalis are largely unknown. Calcium, considered an essential messenger in cell signaling, has been shown to regulate a myriad of key cell processes including metabolism, motility, and exocytosis, among other important functions, through calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs)...
February 5, 2018: Parasitology Research
Raphael E Steiner, Robert Z Orlowski, Hans C Lee
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis is an uncommon complication of anti-myeloma agents. Ixazomib is a first-in-class oral proteasome inhibitor to receive regulatory approval for the treatment of multiple myeloma. This case report describes the first case of ixazomib-associated pancreatitis. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old female with relapsed multiple myeloma presented with severe diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and acute renal failure 3 weeks after starting ixazomib and dexamethasone for disease progression...
February 2, 2018: Acta Haematologica
Miguel Fernández, Ueli Braun, Sandra Frei, Matthias Schweizer, Monika Hilbe
Subsequent to a previous study of border disease virus (BDV) horizontal transmission from a persistently BDV-infected calf to 6 seronegative pregnant heifers, the heifers were slaughtered 60 days after exposure to the infected calf, and their fetuses and placentas were examined. Immunohistochemical examination of fetal organs and placenta showed positive labeling of moderate intensity for pestivirus antigen in 3 of 6 heifers. BDV infection in these 3 animals was confirmed by the detection of BDV RNA in different organs using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Jungwon Hyun, Dae Hyun Ko, Su Kyung Lee, Han Sung Kim, Jae Seok Kim, Wonkeun Song, Hyun Soo Kim
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea has been the second leading cause of death among children under the age of five, and the rapid and accurate pathogen diagnosis in patients with diarrhea is crucial for reducing morbidity and mortality. A newly developed one-step multiplex real-time PCR assay, the Allplex GI-Virus Assay, was evaluated for its ability to detect six diarrhea-causing viruses (rotavirus, norovirus genogroup I (GI) and genogroup II (GII), enteric adenovirus, astrovirus, and sapovirus) in stool samples...
May 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
Xin He, Lei Zhu, Shu Li, Zhigang Chen, Xiaoying Zhao
Loperamide, an antidiarrheal agent, is frequently used to treat patients with leukemia with symptoms of diarrhea during treatment. However, the effect of loperamide on leukemia cells is unknown. The MTT assay was used to explore the cytotoxic effect of loperamide on leukemia cells. Morphological analysis and flow cytometry were performed to determine the level of apoptosis in leukemia cells following loperamide treatment. Western blotting was conducted to test the activation of the apoptotic pathway. The comet assay was used to determine the DNA damage induced by loperamide...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
Payel Bhanja, Andrew Norris, Pooja Gupta-Saraf, Andrew Hoover, Subhrajit Saha
BACKGROUND: Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome (RIGS) results from the acute loss of intestinal stem cells (ISC), impaired epithelial regeneration, and subsequent loss of the mucosal barrier, resulting in electrolyte imbalance, diarrhea, weight loss, sepsis, and mortality. The high radiosensitivity of the intestinal epithelium limits effective radiotherapy against abdominal malignancies and limits the survival of victims of nuclear accidents or terrorism. Currently, there is no approved therapy to mitigate radiation toxicity in the intestine...
February 2, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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