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diarrhea acute

Hye Suk Hwang, Sao Puth, Wenzhi Tan, Vivek Verma, Kwangjoon Jeong, Shee Eun Lee, Joon Haeng Rhee
Norovirus causes acute and debilitating gastroenteritis, characterized by vomiting and diarrhea. We recently reported a recombinant GII. 4 P domain particle (Pd) vaccine adjuvanted with a flagellin, Vibrio vulnificus FlaB, effectively promoting both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In the previous study, we found that sublingual (SL) immunization induced higher fecal secretory IgA (SIgA) responses while intranasal (IN) route provided higher amplitude of humoral and cellular immune responses in the systemic compartment...
May 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Piril Tuncay, Fatma Arpaci, Mutlu Doganay, Deniz Erdem, Arzu Sahna, Hulya Ergun, Dilek Atabey
OBJECTIVE: To compare use of standard enteral formula versus enteric formula with prebiotic content in terms of nutrition therapy related outcomes among neurocritical care patients. METHODS: A total of 46 adult neurocritical care patients who received nutrition therapy with standard enteral formula (SEF group; n = 23) or enteral formula with prebiotic content (EFPC group; n = 23) during their hospitalization in intensive care unit (ICU) were included in this prospective randomized controlled study...
June 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Nyambe Sinyange, Joan M Brunkard, Nathan Kapata, Mazyanga Lucy Mazaba, Kunda G Musonda, Raymond Hamoonga, Muzala Kapina, Fred Kapaya, Lwito Mutale, Ernest Kateule, Francis Nanzaluka, James Zulu, Chileshe Lukwesa Musyani, Alison V Winstead, William W Davis, Hammad S N'cho, Nelia L Mulambya, Patrick Sakubita, Orbie Chewe, Sulani Nyimbili, Ezinne V C Onwuekwe, Nedghie Adrien, Anna J Blackstock, Travis W Brown, Gordana Derado, Nancy Garrett, Sunkyung Kim, Sydney Hubbard, Amy M Kahler, Warren Malambo, Eric Mintz, Jennifer Murphy, Rupa Narra, Gouthami G Rao, Margaret A Riggs, Nicole Weber, Ellen Yard, Khozya D Zyambo, Nathan Bakyaita, Namani Monze, Kennedy Malama, Jabbin Mulwanda, Victor M Mukonka
On October 6, 2017, an outbreak of cholera was declared in Zambia after laboratory confirmation of Vibrio cholerae O1, biotype El Tor, serotype Ogawa, from stool specimens from two patients with acute watery diarrhea. The two patients had gone to a clinic in Lusaka, the capital city, on October 4. Cholera cases increased rapidly, from several hundred cases in early December 2017 to approximately 2,000 by early January 2018 (Figure). In collaboration with partners, the Zambia Ministry of Health (MoH) launched a multifaceted public health response that included increased chlorination of the Lusaka municipal water supply, provision of emergency water supplies, water quality monitoring and testing, enhanced surveillance, epidemiologic investigations, a cholera vaccination campaign, aggressive case management and health care worker training, and laboratory testing of clinical samples...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Saadiyah Bilal, Eric Nelson, Lars Meisner, Mahfuj Alam, Saad Al Amin, Yokabed Ashenafi, Shivani Teegala, Md Khan, Nur Alam, Adam Levine
Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the relative inter-rater reliability and usability of standard and Mobile health (mHealth)-supported World Health Organization (WHO) algorithms for dehydration assessment in patients with acute diarrhea in a rural, low-income country hospital. Two nurses blinded to each other's examinations assessed dehydration status on patients soon after hospital arrival using either the standard WHO algorithm printed on a laminated card or an mHealth-supported WHO algorithm downloaded onto a smartphone...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Francesco Bozzao, Stella Bernardi, Franca Dore, Lorenzo Zandonà, Fabio Fischetti
BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is a syndrome characterized by abnormal proliferation of skin and periosteal tissues of the extremities. It can be a rare hereditary disease (pachydermoperiostosis) or can be secondary to various diseases, though mostly lung malignancies. Here, we report an unusual clinical presentation of HOA. CASE PRESENTATION: A 77-year-old man presented with fever, diarrhea, and an oligoarthritis involving the left knee and the ankles...
May 14, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Aimee Summers, Alexa Humphreys, Eva Leidman, Leonie Toroitich Van Mil, Caroline Wilkinson, Anuradhha Narayan, Mohammad Lalan Miah, Blanche Greene Cramer, Oleg Bilukha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Junghwan Lee, Sung Wook Hwang, Jinhee Lee, Kyung Hwa Jung, Ha Il Kim, Sang Hyoung Park, Dong-Hoon Yang, Byong Duk Ye, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Seung-Jae Myung, Suk-Kyun Yang
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been reported to have an increased risk of thromboembolism. Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare but serious extraintestinal manifestation of IBD. Due to its highly variable manifestation and low incidence, CVT is not usually readily recognized by physicians. Herein, we report a case of a 35-year-old male presenting with CVT associated with ulcerative colitis (UC). The patient was admitted with chief complaints of bloody diarrhea that had started 3 days prior...
April 2018: Intestinal Research
Loredana Nilkenes Gomes da Costa, Carolina Costa-Lima, Luciana Rodrigues de Meirelles, Rita B Carvalho, Marcos Paulo Colella, Francisco Jose Penteado Aranha, Afonso Celso Vigorito, Erich Vinicius De Paula
Gastrointestinal (GI) acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains one of the most important complications of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). The diagnosis of this complication is largely dependent on clinical symptoms, but GI biopsies are warranted in most cases, due to the multitude of potential causes that coexist in patients with a clinical suspicion of this complication. In addition, several lines of evidence support that the GI is not only a target organ in aGVHD, but also a key mediator of the pathogenesis of this condition...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Douangdao SoukAloun, Vannida Douangbouphaa, Rattanaphone Phetsouvanh, Bountoy Sibounheuang, Manivanh Vongsouvat, Keomany Chanmala, Thonglay Vongphachanh, Soudalinh Maniphonh, Inhpanh Phouangsouvanh, Kimberley Fox, Josephine Logronio, Varja Grabovac, James Heffelfinger, Hyesook Jeong, Kisang Kim, Batmunkh Nyambat
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of death in children <5 years worldwide, causing an estimated 215,000 deaths in 2013. This evaluation tracks the epidemiologic patterns and most common rotavirus genotypes among hospitalized children in this age group with acute gastroenteritis in Lao PDR. METHODS: Children <5 years in a central tertiary hospital in the capital city were prospectively enrolled into the surveillance platform during January 2009-December 2015...
May 5, 2018: Vaccine
Andrea Matho, Mary Mulqueen, Miyuki Tanino, Aaron Quidort, Jesse Cheung, Jennifer Pollard, Julieta Rodriguez, Supraja Swamy, Brittany Tayler, Gina Garrison, Ashar Ata, Paul Sorum
BACKGROUND: The recommended treatment for acute bacterial sinusitis in adults, amoxicillin with clavulanate, provides only modest benefit. OBJECTIVE: To see if a higher dose of amoxicillin will lead to more rapid improvement. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Double-blind randomized trial in which, from November 2014 through February 2017, we enrolled 315 adult outpatients diagnosed with acute sinusitis in accordance with Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines...
2018: PloS One
Xuejiao Chen, Tingli Shi, Jianhua Huang, Gang Xiao, Jing Huang, Yiquan Xiong, Xiufen Li, Huifang Chen, Xueyan Zheng, Shouyi Yu, Qing Chen
Human parechoviruses (HPeVs) are prevalent in young children; however, their effects are incompletely understood. We investigated the prevalence, genotype distribution, and phylogeny of HPeVs in individuals with diarrhea (n=430) and healthy controls (n=93), by analysis of stool specimens collected from July 2013 to December 2014; 51 (11.86%) and 6 (6.45%) specimens were HPeV-positive, respectively. HPeV1A occurred in 28 (6.51%) and 6 (6.45%) individuals with diarrhea and controls, respectively, whereas HPeV1B (3...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Mingyue Zhang, Linlin Dong, Huichao Zou, Junnan Li, Quanyi Li, Guonian Wang, Hulun Li
Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic used to alleviate moderate or severe pain but the development of drug tolerance and dependence limits its use in pain management. Previous studies showed that cannabinoid type 2 (CB2 ) receptor ligands may modulate opioid effects. However, there is no report of the effect of CB2 receptor agonist on acute morphine tolerance and physical dependence. We therefore investigated the effect of a CB2 receptor agonist (AM1241) on morphine-induced morphine tolerance and physical dependence in mice...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Isidore Juste O Bonkoungou, Nafissatou Ouédraogo, Laure Tamini, Rabieta Kouboura Teguera, Pouiré Yaméogo, Maxime Koiné Drabo, Isaïe Medah, Nicolas Barro, Sumit Sharma, Lennart Svensson, Johan Nordgren
Burkina Faso introduced rotavirus vaccine (RotaTeq) to the national immunization program in November 2013. This study describes the detection rates, clinical profiles and molecular epidemiology of rotavirus and norovirus infections among children <5 years hospitalized (n=154) due to acute diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, from December 2012 to November 2013, just prior to start of vaccination. Overall, 44% and 23% of fecal samples were positive for rotavirus and norovirus respectively, most of them detected during the cold dry season (Dec-Mar)...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Yinghong Wang, Hamzah Abu-Sbeih, Emily Mao, Noman Ali, Wei Qiao, Van Anh Trinh, Chrystia Zobniw, Daniel Hartman Johnson, Rashmi Samdani, Phillip Lum, Gladis Shuttlesworth, Boris Blechacz, Robert Bresalier, Ethan Miller, Selvi Thirumurthi, David Richards, Gottumukkala Raju, John Stroehlein, Adi Diab
Background: Diarrhea and colitis are the second most common immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICPI)-induced adverse events. However, a comprehensive characterization of the endoscopic and histologic features of ICPI-induced diarrhea and colitis is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to describe endoscopic and histologic features of ICPI-induced gastrointestinal toxicities and to assess their association with patients' clinical characteristics and outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed records of 53 patients with ICPI-related diarrhea/colitis between 2011 and 2017...
April 27, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Caroline Andrews, Jodie Gerdin, Jon Patterson, Elizabeth L Buckles, Scott D Fitzgerald
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is classified as a select agent and is capable of causing mortality in humans and a number of veterinary species. Herein, we describe 3 cases of EEE in puppies in Michigan and New York. Two puppies were euthanized following an acute history of seizures and obtundation. A littermate of one of these puppies died 2 wk earlier following a history of anorexia and fever. All 3 puppies lacked significant gross anatomic lesions at autopsy and tested negative for rabies virus...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Seçil Sayın, Şule Ünal, Mualla Cetin, Fatma Gumruk
A five year-old boy, who was under follow-up with a clinical and biochemical diagnosis of Menkes Disease (MD) since ten months of age, was admitted with diarrhea. On examination he had a characteristic cherubic face hypopigmented, sparse hair, hepatosplenomegaly, hypotonia with brisk deep tendon reflexes. Hemogram revealed: Hb:5.5g/dL, Hct:16.2%, RBC:1.69x1012/L, MCV:95.8fL, MCH:32.3pg, RDW:19.2%, WBC:2.2x109/L and platelet count;157x109/L. Serum vitamin B12 level was 575pg/mL. Serum copper level was 81μg/dL and serum zinc level was 152μg/dL...
April 30, 2018: Turkish Journal of Haematology: Official Journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192092.].
2018: PloS One
Mohammad Islamuddin, Wajihul Hasan Khan, Shipra Gupta, Vasundhara Razdhan Tiku, Naushad Khan, Ali Ilter Akdag, Sanjeev Chaudhary, Amit Upadhyay, Praveen Kumar, Geeta Ghatwala, Pratima Ray
Acute gastroenteritis due to Rotavirus (RV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants and young children worldwide. In India, around 0.1 million death annually reported due to RV illness. So, to assess the disease burden continuous surveillance of the circulating genotypes is needed. This study aimed to ascertain the genetic variance of 429 rotavirus positive specimens observed during the period October 2013-September 2014 at four study centers from North India. Out of 1057 patients enrolled, 1018 stool samples were collected at four centers in four different states of North India...
April 23, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Tomonori Aoki, Atsuo Yamada, Naoyoshi Nagata, Ryota Niikura, Yoshihiro Hirata, Kazuhiko Koike
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the generalizability of NOBLADS, a severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding (LGIB) prediction model which we had previously derived when working at a different institution, using an external validation cohort. NOBLADS comprises the following factors: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, no diarrhea, no abdominal tenderness, blood pressure ≤ 100 mmHg, antiplatelet drug use, albumin < 3.0 g/dL, disease score ≥ 2, and syncope. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 511 patients emergently hospitalized for acute LGIB at the University of Tokyo Hospital, from January 2009 to August 2016...
2018: PloS One
Robert J Cybulski, Allen C Bateman, Lori Bourassa, Andrew Bryan, Barb Beail, Jason Matsumoto, Brad T Cookson, Ferric C Fang
Background: Molecular syndromic diagnostic panels can enhance pathogen identification in the approximately 2-4 billion episodes of acute gastroenteritis that occur annually worldwide. However, the clinical utility of these panels has not been established. Methods: We conducted a prospective, multi-center study to investigate the impact of the BioFire FilmArray™ Gastrointestinal PCR panel on clinical diagnosis and decision-making and compared the clinical acuity of patients with positive results obtained exclusively with the FilmArray™ with those detected by conventional stool culture...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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