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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920810/newly-described-toxoplasma-gondii-strain-causes-high-mortality-in-red-necked-wallabies-macropus-rufogriseus-in-a-zoo
#1
Amanda Guthrie, Leah Rooker, Rommel Tan, Richard Gerhold, Karen Trainor, Tiantian Jiang, Chunlei Su
This manuscript describes an outbreak of fatal toxoplasmosis in wallabies. Ten adult red necked wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus) were imported from New Zealand to the Virginia Zoo. Agglutination testing upon admission into quarantine showed all animals to be negative for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii. Nine of these wallabies died from acute toxoplasmosis within 59-565 (average 224) days after being moved onto exhibit. Clinical signs included lethargy, diarrhea, tachypnea, and ataxia that progressed rapidly; death without premonitory signs occurred in one case...
September 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919592/the-study-on-the-lives-and-health-conditions-of-internees-in-santo-thomas-camp-of-philippines-based-on-mcanlis-s-the-war-in-manila-1941-1945
#2
Jueyeon Lee, Youngsoo Cho
When Japan invaded the Philippines, two missionary dentists (Dr. McAnlis and Dr. Boots) who were forced to leave Korea were captured and interned in the Santo Thomas camp in Manila. Japan continued to bombard and plunder the Philippines in the wake of the Pacific War following the Great East Asia policy, leading to serious inflation and material deficiency. More than 4,000 Allied citizens held in Santo Thomas camp without basic food and shelter. Santo Thomas Camp was equipped with the systems of the Japanese military medical officers and Western doctors of captivity based on the Geneva Conventions(1929)...
August 2017: Ŭi Sahak
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916577/evaluation-of-nutrition-interventions-in-children-in-conflict-zones-a-narrative-review
#3
REVIEW
Grace J Carroll, Sonam D Lama, Josefa L Martinez-Brockman, Rafael Pérez-Escamilla
Food and nutrition insecurity becomes increasingly worse in areas affected by armed conflict. Children affected by conflict, or in war-torn settings, face a disproportionate burden of malnutrition and poor health outcomes. As noted by humanitarian response reviews, there is a need for a stronger evidence-based response to humanitarian crises. To achieve this, we systematically searched and evaluated existing nutrition interventions carried out in conflict settings that assessed their impact on children's nutrition status...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916247/comparison-of-two-control-groups-for-estimation-of-oral-cholera-vaccine-effectiveness-using-a-case-control-study-design
#4
Molly F Franke, J Gregory Jerome, Wilfredo R Matias, Ralph Ternier, Isabelle J Hilaire, Jason B Harris, Louise C Ivers
BACKGROUND: Case-control studies to quantify oral cholera vaccine effectiveness (VE) often rely on neighbors without diarrhea as community controls. Test-negative controls can be easily recruited and may minimize bias due to differential health-seeking behavior and recall. We compared VE estimates derived from community and test-negative controls and conducted bias-indicator analyses to assess potential bias with community controls. METHODS: From October 2012 through November 2016, patients with acute watery diarrhea were recruited from cholera treatment centers in rural Haiti...
September 12, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912916/acute-liver-failure-in-a-patient-travelling-from-asia-the-other-face-of-the-coin-of-infectious-disease
#5
Balen Abdulrahman, Mohamed H Ahmed, John Ramage
We present a case of a 63-year-old male who had travelled from South India to United Kingdom (UK) visiting relatives. He had developed episodes of diarrhea, vomiting and fevers while travelling and on assessment in hospital, mild abdominal distension was noted with rapid deterioration to hypovolemic shock. Initial blood test showed a low platelet count with deranged liver function tests (LFTs). It was noted that during admission to intensive care unit (ICU), blood continued to ooze from a previous surgical laparoscopy wound, central and arterial line access sites...
August 2017: Gastroenterology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902845/clinical-and-epidemiologic-characteristics-of-dengue-and-other-etiologic-agents-among-patients-with-acute-febrile-illness-puerto-rico-2012-2015
#6
Kay M Tomashek, Olga D Lorenzi, Doris A Andújar-Pérez, Brenda C Torres-Velásquez, Elizabeth A Hunsperger, Jorge Luis Munoz-Jordan, Janice Perez-Padilla, Aidsa Rivera, Gladys E Gonzalez-Zeno, Tyler M Sharp, Renee L Galloway, Mindy Glass Elrod, Demetrius L Mathis, M Steven Oberste, W Allan Nix, Elizabeth Henderson, Jennifer McQuiston, Joseph Singleton, Cecilia Kato, Carlos García Gubern, William Santiago-Rivera, Jesús Cruz-Correa, Robert Muns-Sosa, Juan D Ortiz-Rivera, Gerson Jiménez, Ivonne E Galarza, Kalanthe Horiuchi, Harold S Margolis, Luisa I Alvarado
Identifying etiologies of acute febrile illnesses (AFI) is challenging due to non-specific presentation and limited availability of diagnostics. Prospective AFI studies provide a methodology to describe the syndrome by age and etiology, findings that can be used to develop case definitions and multiplexed diagnostics to optimize management. We conducted a 3-year prospective AFI study in Puerto Rico. Patients with fever ≤7 days were offered enrollment, and clinical data and specimens were collected at enrollment and upon discharge or follow-up...
September 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895867/markedly-different-immune-responses-and-virus-kinetics-in-littermates-infected-with-porcine-circovirus-type-2-or-porcine-parvovirus-type-1
#7
Tanja Opriessnig, Priscilla F Gerber, Shannon R Matzinger, Xiang-Jin Meng, Patrick G Halbur
Porcine parvovirus type 1 (PPV1) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) are small single-stranded DNA viruses with high prevalence in the global pig population. The aim of this study was to compare and contrast PCV2 and PPV1 infections in high-health status pigs and to describe PCV2 long-term infection dynamics. Six caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived pigs were randomly divided into two groups and were experimentally infected with PCV2 or PPV1 at 5 weeks of age. All pigs had detectable viremia by day (D) 3 post-infection...
September 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893688/whole-genome-sequencing-identification-of-a-multidrug-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-strain-carrying-blandm-5-from-guangdong-china
#8
Xiaoyan Li, Yan Jiang, Kuihai Wu, Yong Zhou, Ruike Liu, Yan Cao, Aiwu Wu, Yurong Qiu
A carbapenem-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (sequence type 34 [ST34]) strain was isolated from a fecal specimen from a child with acute diarrhea. Whole-genome sequencing revealed that the 84.5-kb IncFII plasmid pST41-NDM carrying the NDM-5 carbapenemase gene possesses a structure identical to that of the IncFII-type plasmid backbone. However, the blaNDM-5 flanking sequence found in this plasmid is identical to the blaNDM-5-positive IncX3 plasmids carried by 10 strains of Enterobacteriaceae identified in the same hospital...
September 8, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893638/innate-immune-responses-play-a-key-role-in-controlling-infection-of-the-intestinal-epithelium-by-cryptosporidium
#9
REVIEW
Fabrice Laurent, Sonia Lacroix-Lamandé
Cryptosporidium infection leads to acute diarrhea worldwide. The development of cryptosporidiosis is closely related to the immune status of its host, affecting primarily young ruminants, infants, and immunocompromised individuals. In recent years, several studies have improved our knowledge on the immune mechanisms responsible for the control of the acute phase of the infection and have highlighted the importance of innate immunity. The parasite develops in the apical side of intestinal epithelial cells, giving these cells a central role, as they are both the exclusive host cell for replication of the parasite and participate in the protective immune response...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892173/prevalence-and-diversity-of-rotavirus-a-genotypes-cirulating-in-turkey-during-a-two-year-sentinel-surveillance-period-2014-2016
#10
Riza Durmaz, Zekiye Bakkaloglu, Ozlem Unaldi, Alper Karagoz, Gulay Korukluoglu, Atila Taner Kalaycioglu, Sumeyra Acar, Selcuk Kilic
Human rotavirus A (RVA) is the main etiological agent of watery diarrhea among children under 5 years of age worldwide. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and diversity of RVA genotypes circulating in Turkey during a two-year sentinel surveillance study. A total of 1639 rotavirus antigen-positive stool samples were obtained from children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with consensus primers for the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888627/genetic-and-pathogenic-characterization-of-a-novel-reassortant-mammalian-orthoreovirus-3-mrv3-from-a-diarrheic-piglet-and-seroepidemiological-survey-of-mrv3-in-diarrheic-pigs-from-east-china
#11
Pan Qin, Huan Li, Jing-Wei Wang, Bin Wang, Rong-Hui Xie, Hui Xu, Ling-Yan Zhao, Long Li, Yongfei Pan, Yanhua Song, Yao-Wei Huang
Mammalian orthoreoviruses (MRVs), which cause gastrointestinal and respiratory illness, have been isolated from a wide variety of mammalian species including bats, minks, pigs and humans. Here we report the isolation and genetic and pathogenic characterization of a novel MRV type 3 (MRV3), named MRV-ZJ2013, from the diarrheic feces of piglets in Zhejiang province, China. Genomic and phylogenetic analysis shows that MRV-ZJ2013 may have originated from reassortments among mink, bat, and pig MRVs, suggesting the hypothesis that interspecies transmission has occurred in pig herds...
September 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885923/implementation-and-evaluation-of-deployment-health-guidelines-on-acute-diarrhea-management-a-medical-call-to-arms
#12
Mark S Riddle, David Tribble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885922/management-of-acute-diarrheal-illness-during-deployment-a-deployment-health-guideline-and-expert-panel-report
#13
Mark S Riddle, Gregory J Martin, Clinton K Murray, Timothy H Burgess, Patrick Connor, James D Mancuso, Elizabeth R Schnaubelt, Timothy P Ballard, Jamie Fraser, David R Tribble
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrheal illness during deployment causes significant morbidity and loss of duty days. Effective and timely treatment is needed to reduce individual, unit, and health system performance impacts. METHODS: This critical appraisal of the literature, as part of the development of expert consensus guidelines, asked several key questions related to self-care and healthcare-seeking behavior, antibiotics for self-treatment of travelers' diarrhea, what antibiotics/regimens should be considered for treatment of acute watery diarrhea and febrile diarrhea and/or dysentery, and when and what laboratory diagnostics should be used to support management of deployment-related travelers' diarrhea...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885920/antibiotic-therapy-for-acute-watery-diarrhea-and-dysentery
#14
David R Tribble
Diarrheal disease affects a large proportion of military personnel deployed to developing countries, resulting in decreased job performance and operational readiness. Travelers' diarrhea is self-limiting and generally resolves within 5 days; however, antibiotic treatment significantly reduces symptom severity and duration of illness. Presently, azithromycin is the preferred first-line antibiotic for the treatment of acute watery diarrhea (single dose 500 mg), as well as for febrile diarrhea and dysentery (single dose 1,000 mg)...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885917/preface-guidelines-for-the-treatment-of-travelers-diarrhea-in-deployed-military-personnel
#15
Mark S Riddle, David Tribble
Diarrheal disease frequently affects military personnel deployed to developing countries, resulting in decreased job performance and potential negative impacts on military operational readiness. Travelers' diarrhea is a self-limiting illness; however, antibiotic treatment (with and without use of adjunct loperamide therapy) has been shown to significantly reduce clinical presentation of symptoms and duration of illness. Nonetheless, the choice of first-line antibiotics must be carefully considered as increasing resistance of enteric pathogens in endemic regions has rendered many first-line antibiotics ineffective (e...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885460/potential-diarrheal-pathogens-common-also-in-healthy-children-in-angola
#16
Tuula Pelkonen, Mauro Dias Dos Santos, Irmeli Roine, Elisabete Dos Anjos, César Freitas, Heikki Peltola, Sanna Laakso, Juha Kirveskari
BACKGROUND: Globally, diarrhea kills almost 1,500 children daily. In diagnostics, molecular methods are replacing traditional assays. We aimed to investigate enteropathogens in children with and without diarrhea in Luanda, the capital of Angola. METHODS: 194 stool samples from 98 children with acute diarrhea and 96 children without diarrhea were investigated for 17 enteropathogens with multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: The median age of children was 10...
September 6, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884454/prevalence-of-patient-reported-gastrointestinal-symptoms-and-agreement-with-clinician-toxicity-assessments-in-radiation-therapy-for-anal-cancer
#17
Ashlyn Tom, Antonia V Bennett, Diana Rothenstein, Ethel Law, Karyn A Goodman
PURPOSE: Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms pose a significant burden to patients receiving chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for anal cancer; however, the impact of symptoms from the patient perspective has not been quantified. This retrospective study examined and compared patient and clinician reports of acute GI toxicity during CRT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients treated with definitive RT using intensity-modulated radiation therapy for anal cancer between 9/09 and 11/12 were reviewed...
September 7, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883983/antibiotic-resistance-in-campylobacter-and-other-diarrheal-pathogens-isolated-from-us-military-personnel-deployed-to-thailand-in-2002-2004-a-case-control-study
#18
Carl J Mason, Siriporn Sornsakrin, Jessica C Seidman, Apichai Srijan, Oralak Serichantalergs, Nucharee Thongsen, Michael W Ellis, Viseth Ngauy, Brett E Swierczewski, Ladaporn Bodhidatta
BACKGROUND: Campylobacter continues to be an important cause of diarrheal disease worldwide and a leading cause in Southeast Asia. Studies of US soldiers and marines deployed to Thailand for a 2 to 3 week field exercise provide a unique population in which to study traveler's diarrhea. METHODS: A case-control study of 217 deployed military personnel was conducted from 2002 through 2004. Of these, 155 subjects who presented to a field medical unit with acute diarrhea were enrolled as cases...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878816/a-child-with-anorexia-nervosa-presenting-with-severe-infection-with-cytopenia-and-hemophagocytosis-a-case-report
#19
Masao Suda, Shinichiro Nagamitsu, Masahiro Kinosita, Michiko Matsuoka, Shuichi Ozono, Yasushi Otsu, Yushiro Yamashita, Toyojiro Matsuishi
BACKGROUND: Patients with anorexia nervosa in the acute phase have physical complications, such as infectious disease. Although hemophagocytic syndrome due to infection is a rare complication in anorexia nervosa, early identification for hemophagocytosis is important for avoiding a life-threatening condition. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 12-year-old girl with anorexia nervosa presenting with infection with cytopenia and hemophagocytosis during initial nutritional therapy...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869727/-research-progress-in-rotavirus-vp4-subunit-vaccine
#20
Lianzhi Jia, Tingdong Li, Shengxiang Ge
Rotaviruses are leading causes of worldwide acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years old, with severe consequence of social and economic burden. Vaccination is the most effective way to control rotavirus infection, however, the licensed rotavirus vaccines are ineffective in some low-income countries of Africa and Asia, where the mortality caused by rotavirus is higher than other areas. In addition, there are also safety concerns such as increased risk of intussusception. Therefore, it is urgent to improve the efficiency and safety of rotavirus vaccine to reduce the morbidity and mortality caused by rotavirus...
July 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
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