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Veeren M Chauhan, David J Scurr, Thomas Christie, Gary Telford, Jonathan W Aylott, David I Pritchard
Necator americanus, a haematophagous hookworm parasite, infects ~10% of the world's population and is considered to be a significant public health risk. Its lifecycle has distinct stages, permitting its successful transit from the skin via the lungs (L3) to the intestinal tract (L4 maturing to adult). It has been hypothesised that the L3 larval sheath, which is shed during percutaneous infection (exsheathment), diverts the immune system to allow successful infection and reinfection in endemic areas. However, the physicochemical properties of the L3 larval cuticle and sheath, which are in direct contact with the skin and its immune defences, are unknown...
December 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Guillaume Chatté, Jean Comtet, Antoine Niguès, Lydéric Bocquet, Alessandro Siria, Guylaine Ducouret, François Lequeux, Nicolas Lenoir, Guillaume Ovarlez, Annie Colin
We study the flow of suspensions of non-Brownian particles dispersed into a Newtonian solvent. Combining capillary rheometry and conventional rheometry, we evidence a succession of two shear thinning regimes separated by a shear thickening one. Through X-ray radiography measurements, we show that during each of those regimes, the flow remains homogeneous and does not involve particle migration. Using a quartz-tuning fork based atomic force microscope, we measure the repulsive force profile and the microscopic friction coefficient μ between two particles immersed into the solvent, as a function of normal load...
December 7, 2017: Soft Matter
Mohammed A A Alhassan, Fathelrahman E Ahmed, Abdolmoneim A Bannaga
This was a prospective, descriptive, cross sectional study that was conducted in 9 major paediatric hospitals accredited for training of residents in Sudan to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of residents in paediatrics on issues related to pain assessment and pain management in children A semi-structured and validated questionnaire was distributed to 174 residents working in these hospitals. One hundred and twenty residents, out of 174, responded by filling the questionnaire, with a response rate of 68%...
2017: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
Troels Røn, Navin J Patil, Fatemeh Ajalloueian, Sankaranarayanan Rishikesan, Bruno Zappone, Ioannis S Chronakis, Seunghwan Lee
Mucus is a viscous slime that plays a vital role in protecting and lubricating biological tissues, in particular, soft epithelium interfaces such as in the stomach, intestines, and esophagus. Previous attempts to generate mucus models that mimick or simulate its characteristics have been predominantly focused on the rheological properties. This study investigates both rheological and tribological shear properties of thin films of gastric mucus from a porcine source and its mimics at compliant soft interfaces...
December 5, 2017: Biointerphases
Mohamed S El Afify, Esmat A Zein El Dein, Bakheet E M Elsadek, Mostafa A Mohamed, Sanaa A El-Gizawy
Objective The goal of this study is to improve the transdermal delivery of phosphatidylcholine (PC) via constructing a novel nanolipid vesicular system (NLVS) with high level of permeability through the stratum corneum (SC). Significance In our study, a novel drug free NLVS was developed. The system depends on PC boundary cartilage lubrication to relieve osteoarthritic pain without developing gastrointestinal problems associated with anti-inflammatory drug. Materials and methods Full 23 factorial design is applied to optimize the quality of the prepared NLVS...
December 6, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Ajay Chouhan, Harshal P Mungse, Om P Sharma, Raj K Singh, Om P Khatri
Shear-induced transfer of graphene on the contact interfaces was studied by microscopic and spectroscopic analyses of steel balls lubricated with chemically functionalized graphene-based mineral lube base oil (SN-150). The 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (DtBHBA) grafted-graphene (Gr-DtBHBA) was prepared by two-steps approach using graphene oxide as a precursor. Chemical and structural features of Gr-DtBHBA are probed by FTIR, XPS, Raman, TGA, and HRTEM analyses. The van der Waals interaction between the tertiary-butyl group in the Gr-DtBHBA and hydrocarbon chains of mineral lube base oil facilitates the dispersion of Gr-DtBHBA in the SN-150 lube base oil, which is very important for the optimized performance of Gr-DtBHBA as a lubricant additive...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Stephanie S Faubion, Richa Sood, Ekta Kapoor
Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), previously known as atrophic vaginitis or vulvovaginal atrophy, affects more than half of postmenopausal women. Caused by low estrogen levels after menopause, it results in bothersome symptoms, including vaginal dryness, itching, dyspareunia, urinary urgency and increased frequency, and urinary tract infections. Even though women with GSM can have sexual dysfunction that interferes with partner relationships, women are often embarrassed to seek treatment, and health care professionals do not always actively screen for GSM...
December 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Yohannes Teka Mazeingia, Lemessa Olijjira, Yadeta Dessie
Background: Female sex workers have been disproportionately affected with HIV and anal sexual experience elevate their vulnerability. Anal intercourse has more risk of HIV transmission than vaginal intercourse for receptors that coupled with low condom and proper lubricant use behavior during anal sex. Besides majority of them did not understand HIV transmission risk of anal intercourse. In Ethiopia, studies on anal sexual experience is almost none existent, so the purpose of this study is to explored anal sexual experience and HIV transmission risk awareness among female sex worker in Dire Dawa, Eastern Ethiopia...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
Kendrick Co Shih, Christie Nicole Lun, Vishal Jhanji, Bernard Yu-Hor Thong, Louis Tong
Primary Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by dry eye and dry mouth. We systematically reviewed all the randomized controlled clinical trials published in the last 15 years that included ocular outcomes. We found 22 trials involving 9 topical, 10 oral, 2 intravenous and 1 subcutaneous modalities of treatment. Fluoromethalone eye drops over 8 weeks were more effective than topical cyclosporine in the treatment of dry eye symptoms and signs; similarly, indomethacin eye drops over 1 month were more efficacious than diclofenac eye drops...
2017: Journal of Inflammation
Janusz Nowicki, Julia Woch, Małgorzata Mościpan, Andrzej Robaszkiewicz, Rafał Grabowski, Izabela Semeniuk, Karol Erfurt
The synthesis of selected polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (poloxamer) fatty acid monoesters is presented. Organotin homogeneous catalyst Sn bis(2-ethylhexanoate) effectively catalyzed the esterification reaction of (EO)-(PO)-(EO) block copolymer (poloxamer) with fatty acids. The reaction proceeded in high yield and high selectivity to monoesters. Content of diesters in final products was below 1 wt%. The new protocol opened up a high yield and high selective method for the synthesis of poloxamer fatty acid monoesters...
2017: Journal of Surfactants and Detergents
Jaana Koskela, David A V Morton, Peter J Stewart, Anne M Juppo, Satu Lakio
Mechanofusion is a dry coating method that can be used to improve the flowability of cohesive powder by coating host particles with a lubricant, for example magnesium stearate (MgSt). It has been shown previously that fragmenting material can under some circumstances be mechanofused with MgSt without impairing compactibility of the powder and without reducing the dissolution rate of the resulting tablets. However, the effects on material with viscoelastic behaviour, known to be sensitive for the negative effects of MgSt, is not known...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Tammary Esho, Samuel Kimani, Isaac Nyamongo, Violet Kimani, Samuel Muniu, Christine Kigondu, Patrick Ndavi, Jaldesa Guyo
BACKGROUND: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) has been implicated in sexual complications among women, although there is paucity of research evidence on sexual experiences among married women who have undergone this cultural practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the sexual experiences among married women in Mauche Ward, Nakuru County. METHODS: Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used. Quantitative data were obtained from 318 married women selected through multistage sampling...
December 2, 2017: Reproductive Health
Laura Laguna, Anwesha Sarkar, Michael G Bryant, Andrew R Beadling, Begoña Bartolomé, M Victoria Moreno-Arribas
Wine creates a group of oral-tactile stimulations not related to taste or aroma, such as astringency or fullness; better known as mouthfeel. During wine consumption, mouthfeel is affected by ethanol content, phenolic compounds and their interactions with the oral components. Mouthfeel arises through changes in the salivary film when wine is consumed. In order to understand the role of each wine component, eight different model wines with/without ethanol (8%), glycerol (10g/L) and commercial tannins (1g/L) were described using a trained panel...
December 2017: Food Research International
M Medel-Marabolí, J L Romero, E Obreque-Slier, A Contreras, A Peña-Neira
Astringency is a tactile sensation that is generated by a reduction in lubrication in the oral cavity and is generally attributed to the interaction of procyanidins or condensed tannins with salivary proteins. Several factors influence tannin-protein interactions, such as pH, alcohol, sweetness, oxygen and polyphenol content. A scarcely studied factor is the effect of the tannin content on the perception of astringency. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of commercial oenological tannin (COT) on the timing of the perception of astringency...
December 2017: Food Research International
Anwesha Sarkar, Farah Kanti, Alessandro Gulotta, Brent S Murray, Shuying Zhang
Aqueous lubrication has emerged as an active research area in recent years due to its prevalence in nature in biotribological contacts and its enormous technological soft-matter applications. In this study, we designed aqueous dispersions of biocompatible whey-protein microgel particles (WPM) (10-80 vol%) cross-linked via disulfide bonding and focused on understanding their rheological, structural and biotribological properties (smooth polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) contacts, Ra < 50 nm, ball-on-disk set up)...
December 1, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Xue Li, Yan-Long Hong, Jie-Chen Xian, Yi Feng, Ya-Ping Zheng, Shi-Ci Chu
With lubricant and bonding effect simultaneously, wetting agent has direct effect on properties of wet mass and extrudate, thus affecting the forming quality of pellets in extrusion-spheronization process. In this research, 25 representative kinds of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) were selected as model drugs and 20%, 30% and 40% drug loading were set with MCC as their balling agent. The torque rheological curves were measured to get parameters such as maximum torque (Tmax) and corresponding water addition (WTmax) for these 75 raw materials by a mixer torque rheometer (MTR)...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Wu Jiayi, Huang Ruijie
Mechanical instrumentation preparation alone is insufficient to completely remove root canal infection, and chemical irrigation is essential to eliminate infected remnants. An ideal root canal irrigant should completely remove the smear layer, lubricate the root canal, efficiently kill bacteria, induce mild or no inflammatory response in the tissues, and avoid damaging the dentin structure. However, a commercial irrigant that meets all these requirements is currently lacking. QMix is a root canal irrigation mixture of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), chlorhexidine (CHX) and surfactant...
October 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
L F Escobar-Alvarado, M Vaca-Mier, R López, M N Rojas-Valencia
Used lubricant oils and metals can be common soil pollutants in abandoned sites. When soil is contaminated with various hazardous wastes, the efficiency of biological treatments could be affected. The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of combining phytoremediation and composting on the efficiency of hydrocarbon degradation and lead solubility in a soil contaminated with 31,823 mg/kg of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) from used motor oil and 8260 mg/kg of lead. Mexican cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) and yard trimmings were added in the composting process, and lucerne (Medicago sativa) was used in the phytoremediation process...
November 29, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Kwabena Owusu Danquah, Ernest Adjei, Solomon Quayson, Ernest Adankwah, Daniel Gyamfi, Paul Poku Sampene Ossei, Gideon Dzikunu, Portia Mensah, Cecilia Lepkor
Introduction: Myriad roles of mucins in normal tissues have been well documented, including lubrication of the epithelial surfaces; protection from physical damage; facilitation in cell-cell signaling and suppression of inflammatory activity. Pathological expression of mucins has been noted in cancer development and progression. This study sought to identify and quantify the types of mucins produced during various histological grades of colon cancer and to assess the diagnostic significance...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Lubna Kamani, Kailash Raj Makhejani, Baseer Sultan Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety of trans-nasal percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (TPEG) placement for nutrition in patients where oral approach is not possible. STUDY DESIGN: Case-series. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: April 2010 to April 2016 in the Department of Gastroenterology at Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi. METHODOLOGY: Patients underwent trans-nasal PEG placement and were included in this study. Inclusion criteria were either gender of any age and patients referred for PEG tube placement in whom oral PEG tube insertion was not possible...
December 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
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