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Sue W Goldstein, Ashley G Winter, Irwin Goldstein
INTRODUCTION: Ospemifene, an oral selective estrogen receptor modulator approved for the treatment of mild to moderate dyspareunia from menopause, has been shown to moderate sexual pain and vaginal epithelial cell characteristics. However, no prospective vulvoscopic studies have been performed. AIM: To examine, in menopausal women taking ospemifene 60 mg daily, changes to the vulva, vestibule, urethral meatus, and vaginal region over 20 weeks using vulvoscopy in a prospective open-label pilot study...
April 17, 2018: Sexual Medicine
A Wollenberg, S Barbarot, T Bieber, S Christen-Zaech, M Deleuran, A Fink-Wagner, U Gieler, G Girolomoni, S Lau, A Muraro, M Czarnecka-Operacz, T Schäfer, P Schmid-Grendelmeier, D Simon, Z Szalai, J C Szepietowski, A Taïeb, A Torrelo, T Werfel, J Ring
This guideline was developed as a joint interdisciplinary European project, including physicians from all relevant disciplines as well as patients. It is a consensus-based guideline, taking available evidence from other guidelines, systematic reviews and published studies into account. This first part of the guideline covers methods, patient perspective, general measures and avoidance strategies, basic emollient treatment and bathing, dietary intervention, topical anti-inflammatory therapy, phototherapy and antipruritic therapy, whereas the second part covers antimicrobial therapy, systemic treatment, allergen-specific immunotherapy, complementary medicine, psychosomatic counselling and educational interventions...
May 2018: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Shiva Kumar, Pijakala Dinesha, Marc A Rosen
Two-stroke petrol engines find wide applications in the areas like chain saws, weed cutters, and power sprayers because of their compactness and higher power to weight ratio. In the present study, the feasibility of using vegetable-based lubricant instead of ordinary mineral 2 T oil is investigated. M15 (85% petrol + 15% methanol) and E15 (85% petrol + 15% ethanol) blend with gasoline are used as the fuel. Experiments were carried out in a two-stroke air-cooled engine equipped with a rope brake dynamometer...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
R M Hazarbassanov, N G T Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, J N Barros, J A P Gomes
Background: Dry eye disease (DED) is one of the most common complications following refractive surgery. Purpose: Evaluate the efficacy of an osmoprotective eye drop (Optive®) for the management of induced DED in refractive surgery patients. Design: Double-masked randomised controlled trial. Methods: Twenty-two refractive surgery patients oriented to apply FreshTears (FT; n = 13) or Optive (Op; n = 9), topically, QID, for 3 months...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Gary N Frishman
A comprehensive review by the World Health Organization reported that 8-22% of women have pain with intercourse (Latthe P, et al. BMC Public Health 2006;6:177-83). In addition, intercourse for the purpose of procreation can be quite stressful. Putting these facts together, it is no surprise that approximately 1 in 4 couples trying to conceive use a lubricant (Ellington J. Fertil Steril 2003;79 (Suppl 2):21-2). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
April 19, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Xiangyu Ge, Jinjin Li, Chenhui Zhang, Zhongnan Wang, Jianbin Luo
The robust liquid superlubricity of a room-temperature ionic liquid induced by tribochemical reactions is explored in this study. Here, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([EMIM]TFS) could realize stable superlubricity (μ<0.01) with water at the interfaces of Si3N4/SiO2. A superlow and steady friction coefficient of 0.002-0.004 could be achieved under neutral conditions (pH of 6.9±0.1) after 600 s of running-in process. Various factors that could affect superlubricity were explored, including concentration of [EMIM]TFS, sliding speed, applied load, and lubricant's volume...
April 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Konstantin L Firestein, Dmitry G Kvashnin, Andrey M Kovalskii, Zakhar I Popov, Pavel B Sorokin, Dmitri V Golberg, Dmitry V Shtansky
Due to their excellent mechanical properties, nanoparticles have great potential as reinforcing phases in composite materials, friction modifiers in liquid lubricants, catalysts and drug-delivery agents. In the present study, the mechanical analysis of individual spherical hollow BN nanoparticles (BNNPs) using a combination of in situ compression tests inside a high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) and theoretical modelling was conducted. It was found that BNNPs display high mechanical stiffness and a large value of elastic recovery...
April 19, 2018: Nanoscale
Christopher Ness, Romain Mari, Michael E Cates
The viscosity of suspensions of large (≥10 μm) particles diverges at high solid fractions due to proliferation of frictional particle contacts. Reducing friction, to allow or improve flowability, is usually achieved by tuning the composition, either by changing particle sizes and shapes or by adding lubricating molecules. We present numerical simulations that demonstrate a complementary approach whereby the viscosity divergence is shifted by driven flow tuning, using superimposed shear oscillations in various configurations to facilitate a primary flow...
March 2018: Science Advances
Xianming Dai, Nan Sun, Steven O Nielsen, Birgitt Boschitsch Stogin, Jing Wang, Shikuan Yang, Tak-Sing Wong
Multifunctional surfaces that are favorable for both droplet nucleation and removal are highly desirable for water harvesting applications but are rare. Inspired by the unique functions of pitcher plants and rice leaves, we present a hydrophilic directional slippery rough surface (SRS) that is capable of rapidly nucleating and removing water droplets. Our surfaces consist of nanotextured directional microgrooves in which the nanotextures alone are infused with hydrophilic liquid lubricant. We have shown through molecular dynamics simulations that the physical origin of the efficient droplet nucleation is attributed to the hydrophilic surface functional groups, whereas the rapid droplet removal is due to the significantly reduced droplet pinning of the directional surface structures and slippery interface...
March 2018: Science Advances
Samira Bagheri, Nadia Jamal, Ahmed Halilu, Amin TermehYousefi
Process equipment and facilities are constantly facing the dilemmas of tear and wear. This manuscript introducing functionalized reduced graphene oxide with triazole moiety via click chemistry as a anti-wear additive. While this has been achieved successfully, full characterization of the new anti-wear additive material revealed it to be promising in ameliorating issues of wears. One of the merits of the synthesized material includes reduction of contact asperity as the lipophilic alkyl chain length increases...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xinghao Hu, Sri Ramulu Torati, Jonghwan Yoon, Byeonghwa Lim, Kunwoo Kim, CheolGi Kim
We demonstrate an efficient approach for quantifying frictional forces (sub-pN) at nano-bio interfaces by controlled magnetic forces, which is based on simultaneous measurements of critical frequencies for streptavidin-coupled magnetic particles. The maximum phase angle, being corresponded with the critical frequency, is formulated in terms of magnetic, frictional and viscous forces of the particles on DNA and SiO2 functionalized micromagnet arrays. The streptavidin/DNA interface shows lower friction as an enhanced lubrication than the streptavidin/SiO2 interface, which is indicated by the lower transition field of quasi-static motion, the larger ratio of dynamic particles, and also the higher velocity of the particles...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhiyuan He, Kai Liu, Jianjun Wang
Ice formation, mainly consisting of ice nucleation, ice growth, and ice recrystallization, is ubiquitous and crucial in wide-ranging fields from cryobiology to atmospheric physics. Despite active research for more than a century, the mechanism of ice formation is still far from satisfactory. Meanwhile, nature has unique ways of controlling ice formation and can provide resourceful avenues to unravel the mechanism of ice formation. For instance, antifreeze proteins (AFPs) protect living organisms from freezing damage via controlling ice formation, for example, tuning ice nucleation, shaping ice crystals, and inhibiting ice growth and recrystallization...
April 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Yusuf Kanca, Piers Milner, Daniele Dini, Andrew A Amis
This research investigated the in-vitro wear and friction performance of polycarbonate urethane (PCU) 80A as they interact with articular cartilage, using a customised multidirectional pin-on-plate tester. Condyles were articulated against PCU 80A discs (Bionate® I and Bionate® II) (configuration 1) and the results arising from these tests were compared to those recorded during the sliding of PCU pins against cartilage plates (configuration 2). Configuration 1 produced steadily increasing coefficient of friction (COF) (up to 0...
April 3, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Pengfei Zhang, Chen Huawei, Guang Liu, Liwen Zhang, Deyuan Zhang
Anti-adhesion surfaces with high-temperature resistance have a wide application potential in electrosurgical instruments, engines, and pipelines. A typical anti-wetting superhydrophobic surface easily fails when exposed to a high-temperature liquid. Recently, Nepenthes-inspired slippery surfaces demonstrated a new way to solve the adhesion problem. A lubricant layer on the slippery surface can act as a barrier between the repelled materials and the surface structure. However, the slippery surfaces in previous studies rarely showed high-temperature resistance...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
R S Prosser, P L Gillis, D Milani, E A M Holman, H Ikert, D Schissler, J Toito, V Palabrica, J L Parrott, A J Bartlett, V K Balakrishnan
Substituted phenylamine antioxidants (SPAs) are additives in a variety of commercial polymers (e.g., lubricants, plastics, etc.). Based on their physicochemical properties, if SPAs were to enter an aquatic system, they would likely partition into sediment and have the capacity to bioaccumulate in biota. This study investigated the potential of four sediment-associated SPAs, diphenylamine (DPA), N-phenyl-1-naphthalene (PNA), N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine (DPPDA), and 4,4'-methylene-bis[N-sec-butylaniline] (MBA) to accumulate in the tissues of freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and oligochaete worms (Tubifex tubifex)...
April 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Chareenun Chirapapaisan, Pinnita Prabhasawat, Sabong Srivannaboon, Vatookarn Roongpoovapatr, Piyada Chitsuthipakorn
Purpose: We report a rare case of ocular injury due to potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ) granules in a child. Methods: This is a retrospective case report. Results: A 2-year-old boy was transferred to our emergency room with severe pain in his right eye, inflamed eyelids, and brownish stains on his fingers. Chemical injury was suspected. Copious eye irrigation was immediately performed. Diffuse brownish splotches were then observed at the inferior bulbar conjunctiva...
January 2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
Andreas Wolk, Marta Rosenthal, Stephan Neuhaus, Klaus Huber, Katharina Brassat, Jörg K N Lindner, Richard Grothe, Guido Grundmeier, Wolfgang Bremser, René Wilhelm
Dodecyl amine edge functionalized few-layer graphene oxide quantum dots were synthesized in good yields. The covalent functionalization was demonstrated with NMR and AFM-IR. The resulting structure and particle size was measured with AFM and HRTEM. The thermal stability of the compound was investigated and showed a stability of up to 220 °C. The modified graphene oxide quantum dots showed excellent solubility in various organic solvents, including ethers, methanol, toluene, n-hexane, heptane, xylene, dichloromethane and toluene...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alessandro Ruggiero, Massimiliano Merola, Saverio Affatato
The hip joint replacement is one of the most successful orthopedic surgical procedures although it involves challenges to overcome. The patient group undergoing total hip arthroplasty now includes younger and more active patients who require a broad range of motion and a longer service lifetime for the replacement joint. It is well known that wear tests have a long duration and they are very expensive, thus studying the effects of geometry, loading, or alignment perturbations may be performed by Finite Element Analysis...
April 9, 2018: Materials
Rajkumar Thangaraj, Michael D Jones, Peter Theobald
Aim: Surface tribological properties of a tendon in terms of coefficient of friction and lubrication mechanism are expected to change with the progression of surface tears which can affect the optimal function of the tendon. This study investigated whether coefficient of friction proportionally increases with the progression of a surface tear in a bovine tendon model. Methods: The study was performed using a pin-on-glass tribometer and bovine tendon samples (n = 16) divided into 4 groups...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
A L Garcia-Garcia, M Alvarez-Vera, L A Montoya-Santiyanes, I Dominguez-Lopez, J L Montes-Seguedo, J C Sosa-Savedra, J D O Barceinas-Sanchez
Friction is the natural response of all tribosystems. In a total knee replacement (TKR) prosthetic device, its measurement is hindered by the complex geometry of its integrating parts and that of the testing simulation rig operating under the ISO 14243-3:2014 standard. To develop prediction models of the coefficient of friction (COF) between AISI 316L steel and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) lubricated with fetal bovine serum dilutions, the arthrokinematics and loading conditions prescribed by the ISO 142433: 2014 standard were translated to a simpler geometrical setup, via Hertz contact theory...
March 27, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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