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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910997/paediatric-nuclear-medicine-imaging
#1
Lorenzo Biassoni, Marina Easty
Background: Nuclear medicine imaging explores tissue viability and function by using radiotracers that are taken up at cellular level with different mechanism. This imaging technique can also be used to assess blood flow and transit through tubular organs. Nuclear medicine imaging has been used in paediatrics for decades and this field is continuously evolving. Sources of data: The data presented comes from clinical experience and some milestone papers on the subject...
September 1, 2017: British Medical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892967/bilateral-single-system-orthotopic-ureterocele-with-bilateral-multiple-calculi-presented-with-retention-of-urine-an-urological-emergency
#2
Rupesh Gupta, Sweta Gupta, Dawood Khan, Supriya Basu
The ureterocele is an uncommon congenital anomaly of the lower ureter. Ureterocele with a single pelvicalyceal system, bilateral, and orthotopic variety is less common. Calculi within bilateral ureterocele are a rare occurrence. To the best of our knowledge, only a few similar cases have been reported in the literature. Among the all reported presentations of this type of ureterocele, presentation with Acute Urinary Retention (AUR) has not been described in the literature. We present a case of nine-year-old child having bilateral, single system orthotopic ureterocele with calculi in bilateral ureterocele and presented with AUR due to obstructive bulbar urethral calculus...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888814/primary-and-secondary-enuresis-pathophysiology-diagnosis-and-treatment
#3
REVIEW
Bernhard Haid, Serdar Tekgül
CONTEXT: Enuresis is a common and possibly underestimated condition. While 5-10% of school-aged children suffer from the condition, a lack of background knowledge may impede timely child-adapted and successful therapy. OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive overview of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of enuresis. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Guideline and position papers from the European Society of Pediatric Urology, the European Association of Urology, and the International Children's Continence Society were acquired...
September 6, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875437/child-with-dysuria-and-or-hematuria
#4
REVIEW
Ankit Mehta, Vijai Williams, Biraj Parajuli
Dysuria and/or hematuria are common and worrisome symptoms for most parents. Dysuria results from excessive bladder muscle contraction and peristaltic activity of the edematous and inflamed urethral mucosa. Though urinary tract infection remains the commonest cause for dysuria, non-infectious causes should also be kept in mind. Equating all cases of dysuria to urinary infection is not incorrect. Hematuria can be both macroscopic and microscopic and an important sign of genitourinary tract disease. However, systemic causes like bleeding disorder or malignancy can also present with hematuria...
September 6, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855226/antibiotics-for-performing-voiding-cystourethrogram-a-randomised-control-trial
#5
Rajiv Sinha, Subhasis Saha, Biplab Maji, Yincent Tse
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether antibiotic reduces voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG)-associated urinary tract infection (UTI). DESIGN: Open-labelled randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary paediatric nephrology centre. PATIENTS: 120 children (age 2 months-5 years) undergoing VCUG. INTERVENTIONS: Children were randomised into group A (antibiotic, n=72) or group B (no antibiotic, n=48) in 3:2 ratio...
August 30, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836933/intracerebral-hemorrhage-related-with-penicillium-species-following-deceased-donor-liver-transplant
#6
Huseyin Yonder, Sami Akbulut, Huseyin Kocaaslan, Volkan Ince, Nese Karadag, Gokhan Demirtas, Ayse Selimoglu, Sezai Yilmaz
Early or late posttransplant opportunistic infections are among the leading complications after liver transplant. The source of early posttransplant opportunistic infections is usually the patient, the implantation of an infected graft, contamination during a surgical procedure, or invasive interventions performed at the intensive care unit. A 10-year-old male patient with Wilson disease (Pediatric End-Stage Liver Disease Score of 42, Child-Pugh score of 12, total bilirubin 40 mg/dL, platelet count 55?000/mL, hemoglobin level 6...
August 24, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804006/vitamin-d-deficiency-is-a-risk-factor-for-infections-in-patients-affected-by-hcv-related-liver-cirrhosis
#7
Antonio Riccardo Buonomo, Emanuela Zappulo, Riccardo Scotto, Biagio Pinchera, Giuseppe Perruolo, Pietro Formisano, Guglielmo Borgia, Ivan Gentile
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its impact on infections in HCV-related liver cirrhosis. METHODS: We enrolled 291 patients affected by HCV-related liver cirrhosis. Serum vitamin D levels were dosed at enrolment. The presence of infection was assessed at baseline and during follow-up based on physical examination and laboratory analyses. RESULTS: Vitamin D deficiency (<20ng/mL) was diagnosed in 68.3% of patients, and a total of 102 infections were detected...
August 10, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716320/evaluation-and-lifetime-management-of-the-urinary-tract-in-patients-with-myelomeningocele
#8
REVIEW
Diana Cardona-Grau, George Chiang
In the United States, there are an estimated 25,000 children ages 0 to 19 years and about 166,000 of all ages currently affected by spina bifida. Management is multimodal and can be complex. Management techniques vary throughout a child's lifetime, but the goals remain the same: prevention of urinary tract infections and establishing acceptable continence. Continence is addressed as the child reaches school age. Additional considerations such as development of urolithiasis and the associated burden are highlighted in adolescence and into adulthood...
August 2017: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698733/chronic-renal-failure-secondary-to-unrecognized-neurogenic-bladder-in-a-child-with-myelodysplasia
#9
Shameem Ahmed, Siba Prosad Paul
Myelodysplasia includes a group of developmental anomalies resulting from defects that occur during neural tube closure. Urological morbidity in patients with myelodysplasia is significant and if not treated appropriately in a timely manner can potentially lead to progressive renal failure, requiring dialysis or transplantation. We report the case of a 13-year old girl with neurogenic bladder who presented chronic renal failure secondary to lipomyelomeningocele with retethering of cord. She was managed with urinary indwelling catheterization until optimization of renal function and then underwent detethering of cord with excision and repair of residual lipomeningomyelocele...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676956/roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-aggravates-vitamin-a-deficiency-in-the-mother-child-group
#10
Sabrina Pereira da Cruz, Andréa Matos, Silvia Pereira, Carlos Saboya, Suelem Pereira da Cruz, Andréa Ramalho
OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study are to compare the nutritional status of vitamin A in women who previously underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) who became pregnant or did not, in the same period after surgery, and to assess its effects on mother and child health. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective longitudinal study conducted with women who previously underwent RYGB, paired by age and BMI measured before surgery, divided into group 1 (G1) comprising 77 women who did not become pregnant and group 2 (G2) with 39 women in their third gestational trimester...
July 4, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666918/urinary-tract-infection-after-retrograde-urethrogram-in-children-a-multicenter-study
#11
Neha R Malhotra, Jared R Green, Cynthia K Rigsby, Jane L Holl, Earl Y Cheng, Emilie K Johnson
INTRODUCTION: The risk of post-procedural urinary tract infection (ppUTI) after retrograde urethrogram (RUG) has not been well quantified. Prophylactic antibiotics may reduce the risk, but must be weighed against the risks of antibiotic resistance. Prior research has shown that this risk is variable after voiding cystourethrogram (0-42% reported ppUTI rate) and appears to be low after urodynamics (0-4.8%) but this risk has not been well documented for patients undergoing RUG. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to (1) describe the rate of ppUTI after RUG, and (2) examine factors associated with use of antibiotics at the time of RUG...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637056/-urosepsis-in-children
#12
Josef Oswald
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common infectious diseases in children. Urosepsis in childhood, though rare, is the most complicated possible variant. In newborns and infants, unspecific symptoms are a significant barrier to a fast and reliable diagnosis, which is crucial to successful treatment. In addition to urine and laboratory tests as well as non-invasive examinations (ultrasound), there may be an indication for invasive examinations of the kidneys (DMSA scans) in cases of a severe infection...
September 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632946/emerging-biomarkers-of-illness-severity-urinary-metabolites-associated-with-sepsis-and-necrotizing-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#13
Lilliam Ambroggio, Todd A Florin, Samir S Shah, Richard Ruddy, Larisa Yeomans, Julie Trexel, Kathleen A Stringer
Our objective was to illustrate the potential of metabolomics to identify novel biomarkers of illness severity in a child with fatal necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). We present a case report with two control groups and a metabolomics analysis: an infant with fatal MRSA pneumonia, four children with influenza pneumonia (pneumonia control group), and seven healthy children with no known infections (healthy control group). Urine samples were collected from all children...
September 2017: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630017/vesicoureteral-reflux-is-a-phenotype-not-a-disease-a-population-centered-approach-to-pediatric-urinary-tract-infection
#14
REVIEW
Jathin Bandari, Steven G Docimo
We performed a review of the recent literature concerning urinary tract infection (UTI) evaluation and management. In modeling options for management, one overriding conclusion became apparent: in most affected children, the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is inconsequential since it has no bearing on optimal management or outcome. In fact, knowing that a child does not have reflux might bias the provider to withhold potentially helpful therapeutic modalities to decrease UTI morbidity, such as antibiotic prophylaxis...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545419/mild-encephalitis-encephalopathy-with-reversible-splenial-lesion-mers-in-adults-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Junliang Yuan, Shuna Yang, Shuangkun Wang, Wei Qin, Lei Yang, Wenli Hu
BACKGROUND: Mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with reversible splenial lesion (MERS) is a rare clinico-radiological entity characterized by the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) finding of a reversible lesion in the corpus callosum, sometimes involved the symmetrical white matters. Many cases of child-onset MERS with various causes have been reported. However, adult-onset MERS is relatively rare. The clinical characteristics and pathophysiologiccal mechanisms of adult-onset MERS are not well understood...
May 25, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540858/streptococcus-pneumoniae-urinary-tract-infection-in-pedeatrics
#16
Richard Pougnet, Jeanne Sapin, Loïc De Parscau, Laurence Pougnet
Streptococcus pneumoniae infections in children are most often lung infections or meningitis. Urinary tract infections are much rarer. We present the case of a urinary tract infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. The clinical picture was classical. The urine culture showed the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine (10(4) UFC/mL; with 2 × 10(4) leucocytes/mL). The literature mentions a few cases of such infections. In some studies, the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in urine of children is less than 1%...
June 1, 2017: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503416/a-case-of-raoultella-planticola-causing-a-urinary-tract-infection-in-a-pediatric-patient
#17
Cailly Howell, Joseph Fakhoury
Raoultella planticola (R. planticola) is an abundant environmental bacterium that rarely infects humans. There is only one known case of R. planticola causing a urinary tract infection (UTI) in a pediatric patient. This is a second case of R. planticola potentially causing a symptomatic UTI in a 2-month-old female child with no known medical problems.
April 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477320/controversies-regarding-management-of-vesico-ureteric-reflux
#18
Ramesh Babu, Sujit Chowdhary
The primary goal in the management of a child with urinary tract infection (UTI) is to prevent recurrence of UTI and acquired renal damage. Approximately 15% of children develop renal scarring after a first episode of febrile UTI. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) is diagnosed in 30-40% of children imaged after first febrile UTI. The 'top-down' approach involving ultrasound and dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (DMSA) first after an appropriate interval following UTI, can help in avoiding voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), an invasive test with higher radiation exposure...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476680/an-inguinal-approach-to-complex-extravesical-ureteral-reimplantation
#19
Adam S Howe, Lane S Palmer
OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in applying the Lich-Gregoir extravesical ureteral reimplantation (EVR) approach to complex cases (megaureter, duplex systems) through a small inguinal incision, with the goal of minimizing invasiveness. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent common sheath or tapered EVR through an inguinal incision. Patient characteristics and reflux grade were obtained, and outcomes were assessed. The technique involved a 2-cm incision made in the lowest inguinal skin crease, standard cord exposure and lateral retraction, and opening the floor of the canal to isolate the ureter...
August 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473093/acr-appropriateness-criteria-%C3%A2-urinary-tract%C3%A2-infection-child
#20
Boaz K Karmazyn, Adina L Alazraki, Sudha A Anupindi, Molly E Dempsey, Jonathan R Dillman, Scott R Dorfman, Matthew D Garber, Sheila G Moore, Craig A Peters, Henry E Rice, Cynthia K Rigsby, Nabile M Safdar, Stephen F Simoneaux, Andrew T Trout, Sjirk J Westra, Sandra L Wootton-Gorges, Brian D Coley
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in young children and may cause pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Long-term complications from renal scarring are low. The role of imaging is to evaluate for underlying urologic abnormalities and guide treatment. In neonates there is increased risk for underlying urologic abnormalities. Evaluation for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) may be appropriate especially in boys because of higher prevalence of VUR and to exclude posterior urethral valve. In children older than 2 months with first episode of uncomplicated UTI, there is no clear benefit of prophylactic antibiotic...
May 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
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