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urinary infection child

M J Davies, A R Rumbold, J L Marino, K Willson, L C Giles, M J Whitrow, W Scheil, L J Moran, J G Thompson, M Lane, V M Moore
OBJECTIVE: To assess the contribution of maternal factors to major birth defects after in vitro fertilisation (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and natural conception. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study in South Australia for the period January 1986 to December 2002. SETTING: A whole of population study. POPULATION: A census of all IVF and ICSI linked to registries for births, pregnancy terminations, and birth defects (diagnosed before a child's fifth birthday)...
October 17, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Ersan Arda, Basri Cakiroglu, David T Thomas
CONTEXT: Nocturnal enuresis or bedwetting is the most common type of urinary incontinence in children. It has significant psychological effects on both the child and the family. Enuresis nocturna is defined as the inability to hold urine during the night in children who have completed toilet training. It is termed as being "primary" if no continence has ever been achieved or "secondary if it follows at least 6 months of dry nights. The aim of this review was to assemble the pathophysiological background and general information about nocturnal enuresis...
July 2016: Nephro-urology Monthly
Michael J Biles, Julia B Finkelstein, Mark V Silva, Sarah M Lambert, Pasquale Casale
INTRODUCTION: Robotic technology has been increasingly utilized for complicated reconstructive surgeries in pediatric urology, such as ureteroureterostomy (UU). The literature is limited regarding the performance of minimally invasive UU in children, and the existing published series utilize indwelling ureteral stents. We sought to report on our pediatric experience with robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL)-UU using a temporary ureteral catheter in duplex systems with ureteral ectopia. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of all pediatric patients who underwent RAL-UU at a single institution over a 2-year period...
October 2016: Journal of Endourology
Jonathan Kaufman, Patrick Fitzpatrick, Shidan Tosif, Sandy M Hopper, Penelope A Bryant, Susan M Donath, Franz E Babl
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in young children. Urine sample collection is required to diagnose or exclude UTI; however, current collection methods for pre-continent children all have limitations and guidelines vary. Clean catch urine (CCU) collection is a common and favoured non-invasive collection method, despite its high contamination rates and time-consuming nature. This study aims to establish whether gentle suprapubic cutaneous stimulation with cold fluid-soaked gauze can improve the rate of voiding for CCU within 5 min in young pre-continent children...
2016: BMJ Open
Jonathan C Routh, Earl Y Cheng, J Christopher Austin, Michelle A Baum, Patricio C Gargollo, Richard W Grady, Adrienne R Herron, Steven S Kim, Shelly J King, Chester J Koh, Pangaja Paramsothy, Lisa Raman, Michael S Schechter, Kathryn A Smith, Stacy T Tanaka, Judy K Thibadeau, William O Walker, M Chad Wallis, John S Wiener, David B Joseph
PURPOSE: Care of children with spina bifida has significantly advanced in the last half century, resulting in gains in longevity and quality of life for affected children and caregivers. Bladder dysfunction is the norm in patients with spina bifida and may result in infection, renal scarring and chronic kidney disease. However, the optimal urological management for spina bifida related bladder dysfunction is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2012 the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened a working group composed of pediatric urologists, nephrologists, epidemiologists, methodologists, community advocates and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention personnel to develop a protocol to optimize urological care of children with spina bifida from the newborn period through age 5 years...
July 27, 2016: Journal of Urology
Nader Shaikh, Tej K Mattoo, Ron Keren, Anastasia Ivanova, Gang Cui, Marva Moxey-Mims, Massoud Majd, Harvey A Ziessman, Alejandro Hoberman
IMPORTANCE: Existing data regarding the association between delayed initiation of antimicrobial therapy and the development of renal scarring are inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether delay in the initiation of antimicrobial therapy for febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) is associated with the occurrence and severity of renal scarring. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study that combined data from 2 previously conducted longitudinal studies (the Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux trial and the Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation Study)...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Kevin M Wymer, Blake B Anderson, Ashley A Wilkens, Mohan S Gundeti
INTRODUCTION: Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis (MMIHS) is a rare disorder characterized by distended nonobstructed bladder, microcolon, and decreased intestinal peristalsis. MMIHS has a particularly poor prognosis; however, when appropriately managed, survival can be prolonged. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review (1996-2016) was performed with the key words "megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome." In addition, a case series of four patients is presented as well as algorithms for the diagnosis and treatment of MMIHS...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Grażyna Krzemień, Agnieszka Szmigielska, Katarzyna Jankowska-Dziadak, Małgorzata Pańczyk-Tomaszewska
Urolithiasis in children occurs with the incidence of 0.1-5%. Risk factors such as metabolic disorders, recurrent urinary tract infections and/or congenital abnormalities of urinary tract are detected in 75-85% of children with urolithiasis. Staghorn calculi is associated with delayed diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infection caused by specific organisms, which produce the enzyme urease, promoting generation of ammonia and hydroxide from urea. We present two boys with staghorn calculi recognized in 8th and 31st month of age...
January 2016: Developmental Period Medicine
Alastair D Hay, Kate Birnie, John Busby, Brendan Delaney, Harriet Downing, Jan Dudley, Stevo Durbaba, Margaret Fletcher, Kim Harman, William Hollingworth, Kerenza Hood, Robin Howe, Michael Lawton, Catherine Lisles, Paul Little, Alasdair MacGowan, Kathryn O'Brien, Timothy Pickles, Kate Rumsby, Jonathan Ac Sterne, Emma Thomas-Jones, Judith van der Voort, Cherry-Ann Waldron, Penny Whiting, Mandy Wootton, Christopher C Butler
BACKGROUND: It is not clear which young children presenting acutely unwell to primary care should be investigated for urinary tract infection (UTI) and whether or not dipstick testing should be used to inform antibiotic treatment. OBJECTIVES: To develop algorithms to accurately identify pre-school children in whom urine should be obtained; assess whether or not dipstick urinalysis provides additional diagnostic information; and model algorithm cost-effectiveness...
July 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Véronique Hochart, Annie Lahoche, René-Hilaire Priso, Véronique Houfflin-Debarge, Alfred Bassil, Dyuti Sharma, Hélène Behal, Freddy Efraim Avni
BACKGROUND: Obstructive renal dysplasia as observed on US is associated with posterior urethral valves and is regarded as predicting poor renal functional outcome. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether any characteristic of urinary tract imaging at birth is predictive of renal function in children with prenatally diagnosed posterior urethral valves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed clinical data including renal function (at birth and up to 3 years of age) and clinical outcome (urinary infection, dialysis, renal transplantation)...
September 2016: Pediatric Radiology
Shakilu Iumanne, Aika Shoo, Larry Akoko, Patricia Scanlan
BACKGROUND: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a rare renal tumor that arises as a complication of chronic obstructive pyelonephritis of uncertain etiology. It is primarily an adult tumor seen occasionally in children associated with urinary tract obstruction due to congenital urological anomalies, nephrolithiasis, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Radiologically, it may show neoplastic features such as those seen in common pediatric renal malignancies like wilms' tumor and renal cell carcinoma...
2016: BMC Urology
Nader Shaikh, Russell B Spingarn, Stephanie W Hum
BACKGROUND: There is considerable interest in detecting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) because its presence, especially when severe, has been linked to an increased risk of urinary tract infections and renal scarring. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), also known as micturating cystourethrography, is the gold standard for the diagnosis of VUR, and the grading of its severity. Because VCUG requires bladder catheterisation and exposes children to radiation, there has been a growing interest in other screening strategies that could identify at-risk children without the risks and discomfort associated with VCUG...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Haci Polat, Umut Gulacti, Alper Gok, Mehmet Ozgur Yucel, Ali Cift, Ugur Lok, Can Benlioglu
PURPOSE: Hypospadias repair is rarely performed in adults. It is believed that the success rate is lower in adulthood. We aimed to compare the success rate of primary hypospadias repair with tubularized-incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty in adults and children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The databases of consecutive boys and adults who were treated with TIP urethroplasty for primary hypospadias between 2012 and 2015 were evaluated. All operations in the boys and adult patients were performed by a single surgeon...
2016: SpringerPlus
Joan L Robinson, Nicole Le Saux
INTRODUCTION: Accurate diagnosis and appropriate use of antimicrobials for treatment and prevention of urinary tract infections (UTIs) is vital in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance. AREAS COVERED: The article reviews indications for and interpretation of urinalysis and urine culture results for diagnosis of UTI, choice of antibiotics for empiric and definitive UTI therapy, the rationale behind and indications for radiographic investigations, and prevention of UTIs including the complex decision as to whether antibiotic prophylaxis will benefit a child...
September 2016: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Nader Shaikh, Timothy R Shope, Alejandro Hoberman, Alyssa Vigliotti, Marcia Kurs-Lasky, Judith M Martin
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine factors associated with the absence of pyuria in symptomatic children whose urine culture was positive for a known uropathogen. METHODS: We obtained data on children evaluated at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh emergency department between 2007 and 2013 with symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI) who had paired urinalysis and urine cultures. We excluded children with an unknown or bag urine collection method, major genitourinary anomalies, immunocompromising conditions, or with multiple organisms on culture...
July 2016: Pediatrics
Leigh-Anne Cioffredi, Ravi Jhaveri
IMPORTANCE: Management of febrile children is an intrinsic aspect of pediatric practice. Febrile children account for 15% of emergency department visits and outcomes range from the presence of serious bacterial infection to benign self-limited illness. OBSERVATIONS: Studies from 1979 to 2015 examining febrile infants and children were included in this review. Management of febrile infants younger than 90 days has evolved considerably in the last 30 years. Increased rates of Escherichia coli urinary tract infections, increasing resistance to ampicillin, and advances in viral diagnostics have had an effect on the approach to caring for these patients...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Goran Roić, Andrea Cvitković Roić, Iva Palcić, Tonći Grmoja, Ana Tripalo Batos
Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the most common urinary tract anomalies in children and can be associated with reflux nephropathy (RN). Some patients with RN develop chronic kidney disease, hypertension and a small number of patients progress to end-stage renal disease. Early detection of children with these clinical characteristics should be the goal of clinical, biochemical, and radiological evaluation of patients presenting with prenatal hydronephrosis or febrile urinary tract infection. The goals of imaging procedure in general are to confirm the diagnosis suspected with a high degree of sensitivity and specificity, to aid treatment and allow prognosis...
January 2016: Lijec̆nic̆ki Vjesnik
Fredinah Namatovu, Cecilia Olsson, Marie Lindkvist, Anna Myléus, Ulf Högberg, Anneli Ivarsson, Olof Sandström
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is increasing worldwide, which might be due to the changing environmental and lifestyle exposures. We aimed to explore how conditions related to maternity, delivery and the neonatal period influence CD onset during childhood. METHODS: Using Sweden's national registers we had access to information on 1 912 204 children born between 1991 and 2009, 6 596 of whom developed CD before 15 years of age. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine how CD is associated with maternity, delivery and the neonatal period...
2016: BMC Pediatrics
Brechje de Gier, Tran Thuy Nga, Pattanee Winichagoon, Marjoleine A Dijkhuizen, Nguyen Cong Khan, Margot van de Bor, Maiza Campos Ponce, Katja Polman, Frank T Wieringa
Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and micronutrient deficiencies are closely related and often coexist among low-income populations. We studied the association between infections with specific STH species and micronutrient status in rural Vietnamese schoolchildren. Children (N = 510) aged 6-9 years were recruited from two primary schools. STH infections were determined in stool samples. Hemoglobin, ferritin, retinol, and zinc were measured in blood samples, as well as C-reactive protein to control for inflammation...
July 6, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
L Hua, R J Linke, H A P Boucaut, S Khurana
BACKGROUND: Micturating cystourethrograms (MCUG) are the gold standard for evaluating vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). There is a growing consensus for increasing the threshold for performing MCUGs following urinary tract infections (UTI) in children. There are several varying guidelines. It is important to detect high-grade reflux in the setting of an UTI because of potential long-term complications. OBJECTIVE: This audit aimed to retrospectively: (1) identify the conformance rate of local guidelines at the Women's and Children's Hospital (WCH); (2) assess predictors for an abnormal MCUG; and (3) compare local guidelines against the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne (RCH), National Institute for Healthcare and Excellence (NICE), and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for selectively detecting high-grade reflux...
April 16, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
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