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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873828/fuzzy-logic-to-determine-the-likelihood-of-survival-for-trauma-injury-patients
#1
Mohammed Saleh, Reza Saatchi, Fiona Lecky, Derek Burke
A system to determine the likelihood of survival for trauma injury patients is being developed. It uses a fuzzy logic approach that can model complex processes without reliance on sophisticated mathematical formulations and may have the potential to be more accurate than the existing approaches. The outline operation of the system that is currently in a prototype stage is described.
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804267/mathematical-and-computational-modelling-of-skin-biophysics-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Georges Limbert
The objective of this paper is to provide a review on some aspects of the mathematical and computational modelling of skin biophysics, with special focus on constitutive theories based on nonlinear continuum mechanics from elasticity, through anelasticity, including growth, to thermoelasticity. Microstructural and phenomenological approaches combining imaging techniques are also discussed. Finally, recent research applications on skin wrinkles will be presented to highlight the potential of physics-based modelling of skin in tackling global challenges such as ageing of the population and the associated skin degradation, diseases and traumas...
July 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685210/lifetime-cost-of-abusive-head-trauma-at-ages-0-4-usa
#3
Ted R Miller, Ryan Steinbeigle, Bruce A Lawrence, Cora Peterson, Curtis Florence, Marilyn Barr, Ronald G Barr
This paper aims to estimate lifetime costs resulting from abusive head trauma (AHT) in the USA and the break-even effectiveness for prevention. A mathematical model incorporated data from Vital Statistics, the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database, and previous studies. Unit costs were derived from published sources. From society's perspective, discounted lifetime cost of an AHT averages $5.7 million (95% CI $3.2-9.2 million) for a death. It averages $2.6 million (95% CI $1.0-2.9 million) for a surviving AHT victim including $224,500 for medical care and related direct costs (2010 USD)...
July 6, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677081/the-role-of-impairment-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-function-in-osteoporotic-bone-fracture-healing
#4
Lihai Zhang, Saeed Miramini, Martin Richardson, Priyan Mendis, Peter Ebeling
With demographic change and increasing life expectancy, osteoporotic fractures have become one of the most prevalent trauma conditions seen in daily clinical practice. A variety of factors are known to affect the rate of healing in osteoporotic conditions (e.g. both biochemical and biomechanical environment of callus cells). However, the influence of impairment of mesenchymal stem cell function in the osteoporotic condition on bone fracture healing has not been fully understood. In the present study, we develop a mathematical model that quantifies the change in biological processes within the fracture callus as a result of osteoporosis...
July 4, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641984/bi-objective-approach-for-placing-ground-and-air-ambulance-base-and-helipad-locations-in-order-to-optimize-ems-response
#5
Milad Shahriari, Ali Bozorgi-Amiri, Shayan Tavakoli, Abolghasem Yousefi-Babadi
Shortening the travel time of patient transfer has clinical implications for many conditions such as cardiac arrest, trauma, stroke and STEMI. As resources are often limited precise calculations are needed. In this paper we consider the location problem for both ground and aerial emergency medical services. Given the uncertainty of when patients are in need of prompt medical attention we consider these demand points to be uncertain. We consider various ways in which ground and helicopter ambulances can work together to make the whole process go faster...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395008/derivation-and-validation-of-a-serum-biomarker-panel-to-identify-infants-with-acute-intracranial-hemorrhage
#6
Rachel Pardes Berger, Brian J Pak, Mariya D Kolesnikova, Janet Fromkin, Richard Saladino, Bruce E Herman, Mary Clyde Pierce, David Englert, Paul T Smith, Patrick M Kochanek
Importance: Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of death from physical abuse. Missing the diagnosis of abusive head trauma, particularly in its mild form, is common and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may have potential as quantitative point-of-care screening tools to alert physicians to the possibility of intracranial hemorrhage. Objective: To identify and validate a set of biomarkers that could be the basis of a multivariable model to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants using the Ziplex System...
June 5, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238406/the-effect-of-trauma-on-neanderthal-culture-a-mathematical-analysis
#7
W Nakahashi
Traumatic lesions are often observed in ancient skeletal remains. Since ancient medical technology was immature, severely traumatized individuals may have frequently lost the physical ability for cultural skills that demand complex body movements. I develop a mathematical model to analyze the effect of trauma on cultural transmission and apply it to Neanderthal culture using Neanderthal fossil data. I estimate from the data that the proportion of adult individuals who suffered traumatic injuries before death was approximately 0...
February 4, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224290/pediatric-ocular-trauma-score-as-a-prognostic-tool-in-the-management-of-pediatric-traumatic-cataracts
#8
Mehul A Shah, Rupesh Agrawal, Ryan Teoh, Shreya M Shah, Kashyap Patel, Satyam Gupta, Siddharth Gosai
OBJECTIVE: To introduce and validate the pediatric ocular trauma score (POTS) - a mathematical model to predict visual outcome trauma in children with traumatic cataract METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records of consecutive children with traumatic cataracts aged 18 and below were retrieved and analysed. Data collected included age, gender, visual acuity, anterior segment and posterior segment findings, nature of surgery, treatment for amblyopia, follow-up, and final outcome was recorded on a precoded data information sheet...
May 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642666/the-effect-of-piston-diameter-in-stapedotomy-for-otosclerosis-a-temporal-bone-model
#9
Inge Wegner, Mostafa M A S Eldaebes, Thomas G Landry, Wilko Grolman, Manohar L Bance
HYPOTHESIS: The use of larger-diameter pistons in stapedotomy leads to better hearing outcomes compared with the use of smaller-diameter pistons. There is an interaction between stapes piston diameter and fenestration diameter. BACKGROUND: Otosclerosis can be treated surgically by removing part of the stapes and bypassing the stapes footplate with a prosthesis. Available piston shaft diameters range between 0.3 and 0.8 mm. There has been a tendency toward the use of smaller-diameter pistons, because of a suspected decreased risk of cochlear trauma and subsequent sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with smaller pistons...
December 2016: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552712/simple-mathematical-model-of-sacroiliac-screws-safe-zone-easy-to-implement-by-pelvic-inlet-and-outlet-views
#10
Amir Herman, Emily Keener, Candice Dubose, Jason A Lowe
Percutaneous sacral screw fixation is the mainstay of posterior pelvic ring fixation. This study quantifies the accuracy of fluoroscopic screw placement using post-operative CT scans and redefines the fluoroscopic safe zone using a mathematical calculation obtained from Inlet and outlet images. The authors hypothesized that a mathematical calculation of screw placement within the ala will improve accuracy of screw placement. A retrospective review of consecutive patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center with pelvic fractures fixed with iliosacral screws from January 2011 to December 2014 was performed...
July 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27442918/modelling-the-failure-precursor-mechanism-of-lamellar-fibrous-tissues-example-of-the-annulus-fibrosus
#11
Marlène Mengoni, Alison C Jones, Ruth K Wilcox
The aims of this study were to assess the damage and failure strengths of lamellar fibrous tissues, such as the anterior annulus fibrosus (AF), and to develop a mathematical model of damage propagation of the lamellae and inter-lamellar connections. This level of modelling is needed to accurately predict the effect of damage and failure induced by trauma or clinical interventions. 26 ovine anterior AF cuboid specimens from 11 lumbar intervertebral discs were tested in radial tension and mechanical parameters defining damage and failure were extracted from the in-vitro data...
October 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087777/mathematical-modeling-of-fixation-of-a-bone-fragment-in-a-new-double-needle-external-fixator-compared-to-hoffmann-ii-fixator
#12
M Pitkin, Y Shukeylo, A Gritsanov
The outcome of rehabilitation after multiple bone fractures can be improved, and the reduction of the rate of amputation due to severe trauma can be achieved with the early use of external fixators [1, 2]. Effectiveness of the fixator depends on the stability of the bone fragments during the evacuation of a patient to specialized facilities [3, 4]. The paper is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the stability of a bone fragment in an external fixator. The vertical displacement of the end of a bone fragment loaded with a standardized force and moment is suggested to be the measure of stability...
December 2007: Series on Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26577480/blood-flow-versus-hematocrit-in-optimization-of-oxygen-transfer-to-tissue-during-fluid-resuscitation
#13
Jamal Siam, Marwa Kadan, Ron Flaishon, Ofer Barnea
The effectiveness of fluid resuscitation regimens in hemorrhagic trauma is assessed based on its ability to increase oxygen concentration in tissue. Fluid resuscitation using both crystalloids and colloids fluids, creates a dilemma due to its opposing effects on oxygen transfer. It increases blood flow thereby augmenting oxygen transport but it also dilutes the blood simultaneously and reduces oxygen concentration thereby reducing oxygen transport. In this work we have studied these two opposing effects of fluid therapy on oxygen delivery to tissue...
December 2015: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26394339/auto-stop-drilling-device-for-implant-site-preparation-in-vitro-test-of-eccentric-sensor-position
#14
Linda Schwarz, Bernhard Pommer, Manfred Bijak, Georg Watzek, Ewald Unger
PURPOSE: To quantify the reliability of a new drilling system for implant osteotomy characterized by an eccentric sensor that automatically stops the drill upon contact with soft tissue. This safety mechanism aims to minimize surgical trauma to nerves, vessels, and the maxillary sinus mucosa. The benefits of the eccentric sensor position on planar and angulated surfaces were tested in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Predicted drill protrusion after auto-stop was validated against experiments on four human cadaver mandibles (30 osteotomies with varying angles)...
September 2015: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26335775/access-to-specialist-care-optimizing-the-geographic-configuration-of-trauma-systems
#15
Jan O Jansen, Jonathan J Morrison, Handing Wang, Shan He, Robin Lawrenson, James D Hutchison, Marion K Campbell
BACKGROUND: The optimal geographic configuration of health care systems is key to maximizing accessibility while promoting the efficient use of resources. This article reports the use of a novel approach to inform the optimal configuration of a national trauma system. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of all trauma patients, 15 years and older, attended to by the Scottish Ambulance Service, between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014. Patients underwent notional triage to one of three levels of care (major trauma center [MTC], trauma unit, or local emergency hospital)...
November 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26193739/-criteria-of-the-ocra-method-in-evaluating-the-structural-assembly-of-aircrafts-preliminary-data
#16
Alberto Battaglia, Elisa Lanza, Andrea Battaglia, Francesca Collino, Edda Maria Capodaglio, Marcello Imbriani
In the aircraft productive sector, the risk assessment of repetitive occupational activities through the OCRA method presents some major obstacles: - high number of different tasks (more than 20) carried out during the work shift. - definite identification of the number of technical actions per cycle. Risk assessment through the traditional OCRA method provides in this sector a index which varies according to the sampling of the occupational tasks, rather than reflecting the effective risk level. The study raises an OCRA-based method which is applicable in the aircraft production sector and defines the overall ergonomic load for homogeneous groups of exposed workers, based on production data specified for each aircraft model...
January 2015: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25925680/trauma-in-silico-individual-specific-mathematical-models-and-virtual-clinical-populations
#17
David Brown, Rami A Namas, Khalid Almahmoud, Akram Zaaqoq, Joydeep Sarkar, Derek A Barclay, Jinling Yin, Ali Ghuma, Andrew Abboud, Gregory Constantine, Gary Nieman, Ruben Zamora, Steven C Chang, Timothy R Billiar, Yoram Vodovotz
Trauma-induced critical illness is driven by acute inflammation, and elevated systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6) after trauma is a biomarker of adverse outcomes. We constructed a multicompartment, ordinary differential equation model that represents a virtual trauma patient. Individual-specific variants of this model reproduced both systemic inflammation and outcomes of 33 blunt trauma survivors, from which a cohort of 10,000 virtual trauma patients was generated. Model-predicted length of stay in the intensive care unit, degree of multiple organ dysfunction, and IL-6 area under the curve as a function of injury severity were in concordance with the results from a validation cohort of 147 blunt trauma patients...
April 29, 2015: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25890031/the-role-of-skeletal-muscle-in-liver-glutathione-metabolism-during-acetaminophen-overdose
#18
L M Bilinsky, M C Reed, H F Nijhout
Marked alterations in systemic glutamate-glutamine metabolism characterize the catabolic state, in which there is an increased breakdown and decreased synthesis of skeletal muscle protein. Among these alterations are a greatly increased net release of glutamine (Gln) from skeletal muscle into blood plasma and a dramatic depletion of intramuscular Gln. Understanding the catabolic state is important because a number of pathological conditions with very different etiologies are characterized by its presence; these include major surgery, sepsis, trauma, and some cancers...
July 7, 2015: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25821507/windowed-multitaper-correlation-analysis-of-multimodal-brain-monitoring-parameters
#19
Rupert Faltermeier, Martin A Proescholdt, Sylvia Bele, Alexander Brawanski
Although multimodal monitoring sets the standard in daily practice of neurocritical care, problem-oriented analysis tools to interpret the huge amount of data are lacking. Recently a mathematical model was presented that simulates the cerebral perfusion and oxygen supply in case of a severe head trauma, predicting the appearance of distinct correlations between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. In this study we present a set of mathematical tools that reliably detect the predicted correlations in data recorded at a neurocritical care unit...
2015: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25821445/characterization-of-pressure-distribution-in-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injuries
#20
Johan Davidsson, Mårten Risling
Severe impacts to the head commonly lead to localized brain damage. Such impacts may also give rise to temporary pressure changes that produce secondary injuries in brain volumes distal to the impact site. Monitoring pressure changes in a clinical setting is difficult; detailed studies into the effect of pressure changes in the brain call for the development and use of animal models. The aim of this study is to characterize the pressure distribution in an animal model of penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBI)...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
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