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mathematical model trauma

Rachel Pardes Berger, Brian J Pak, Mariya D Kolesnikova, Janet Fromkin, Richard Saladino, Bruce E Herman, Mary Clyde Pierce, David Englert, Paul T Smith, Patrick M Kochanek
Importance: Abusive head trauma is the leading cause of death from physical abuse. Missing the diagnosis of abusive head trauma, particularly in its mild form, is common and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Serum biomarkers may have potential as quantitative point-of-care screening tools to alert physicians to the possibility of intracranial hemorrhage. Objective: To identify and validate a set of biomarkers that could be the basis of a multivariable model to identify intracranial hemorrhage in well-appearing infants using the Ziplex System...
April 10, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
W Nakahashi
Traumatic lesions are often observed in ancient skeletal remains. Since ancient medical technology was immature, severely traumatized individuals may have frequently lost the physical ability for cultural skills that demand complex body movements. I develop a mathematical model to analyze the effect of trauma on cultural transmission and apply it to Neanderthal culture using Neanderthal fossil data. I estimate from the data that the proportion of adult individuals who suffered traumatic injuries before death was approximately 0...
February 4, 2017: Homo: Internationale Zeitschrift Für die Vergleichende Forschung Am Menschen
Mehul A Shah, Rupesh Agrawal, Ryan Teoh, Shreya M Shah, Kashyap Patel, Satyam Gupta, Siddharth Gosai
OBJECTIVE: To introduce and validate the pediatric ocular trauma score (POTS) - a mathematical model to predict visual outcome trauma in children with traumatic cataract METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, medical records of consecutive children with traumatic cataracts aged 18 and below were retrieved and analysed. Data collected included age, gender, visual acuity, anterior segment and posterior segment findings, nature of surgery, treatment for amblyopia, follow-up, and final outcome was recorded on a precoded data information sheet...
February 22, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Inge Wegner, Mostafa M A S Eldaebes, Thomas G Landry, Wilko Grolman, Manohar L Bance
HYPOTHESIS: The use of larger-diameter pistons in stapedotomy leads to better hearing outcomes compared with the use of smaller-diameter pistons. There is an interaction between stapes piston diameter and fenestration diameter. BACKGROUND: Otosclerosis can be treated surgically by removing part of the stapes and bypassing the stapes footplate with a prosthesis. Available piston shaft diameters range between 0.3 and 0.8 mm. There has been a tendency toward the use of smaller-diameter pistons, because of a suspected decreased risk of cochlear trauma and subsequent sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) with smaller pistons...
December 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Amir Herman, Emily Keener, Candice Dubose, Jason A Lowe
Percutaneous sacral screw fixation is the mainstay of posterior pelvic ring fixation. This study quantifies the accuracy of fluoroscopic screw placement using post-operative CT scans and redefines the fluoroscopic safe zone using a mathematical calculation obtained from Inlet and outlet images. The authors hypothesized that a mathematical calculation of screw placement within the ala will improve accuracy of screw placement. A retrospective review of consecutive patients admitted to a level 1 trauma center with pelvic fractures fixed with iliosacral screws from January 2011 to December 2014 was performed...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Marlène Mengoni, Alison C Jones, Ruth K Wilcox
The aims of this study were to assess the damage and failure strengths of lamellar fibrous tissues, such as the anterior annulus fibrosus (AF), and to develop a mathematical model of damage propagation of the lamellae and inter-lamellar connections. This level of modelling is needed to accurately predict the effect of damage and failure induced by trauma or clinical interventions. 26 ovine anterior AF cuboid specimens from 11 lumbar intervertebral discs were tested in radial tension and mechanical parameters defining damage and failure were extracted from the in-vitro data...
October 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
M Pitkin, Y Shukeylo, A Gritsanov
The outcome of rehabilitation after multiple bone fractures can be improved, and the reduction of the rate of amputation due to severe trauma can be achieved with the early use of external fixators [1, 2]. Effectiveness of the fixator depends on the stability of the bone fragments during the evacuation of a patient to specialized facilities [3, 4]. The paper is devoted to the mathematical modeling of the stability of a bone fragment in an external fixator. The vertical displacement of the end of a bone fragment loaded with a standardized force and moment is suggested to be the measure of stability...
December 2007: Series on Biomechanics
Jamal Siam, Marwa Kadan, Ron Flaishon, Ofer Barnea
The effectiveness of fluid resuscitation regimens in hemorrhagic trauma is assessed based on its ability to increase oxygen concentration in tissue. Fluid resuscitation using both crystalloids and colloids fluids, creates a dilemma due to its opposing effects on oxygen transfer. It increases blood flow thereby augmenting oxygen transport but it also dilutes the blood simultaneously and reduces oxygen concentration thereby reducing oxygen transport. In this work we have studied these two opposing effects of fluid therapy on oxygen delivery to tissue...
December 2015: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Linda Schwarz, Bernhard Pommer, Manfred Bijak, Georg Watzek, Ewald Unger
PURPOSE: To quantify the reliability of a new drilling system for implant osteotomy characterized by an eccentric sensor that automatically stops the drill upon contact with soft tissue. This safety mechanism aims to minimize surgical trauma to nerves, vessels, and the maxillary sinus mucosa. The benefits of the eccentric sensor position on planar and angulated surfaces were tested in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Predicted drill protrusion after auto-stop was validated against experiments on four human cadaver mandibles (30 osteotomies with varying angles)...
September 2015: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Jan O Jansen, Jonathan J Morrison, Handing Wang, Shan He, Robin Lawrenson, James D Hutchison, Marion K Campbell
BACKGROUND: The optimal geographic configuration of health care systems is key to maximizing accessibility while promoting the efficient use of resources. This article reports the use of a novel approach to inform the optimal configuration of a national trauma system. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study of all trauma patients, 15 years and older, attended to by the Scottish Ambulance Service, between July 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014. Patients underwent notional triage to one of three levels of care (major trauma center [MTC], trauma unit, or local emergency hospital)...
November 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Alberto Battaglia, Elisa Lanza, Andrea Battaglia, Francesca Collino, Edda Maria Capodaglio, Marcello Imbriani
In the aircraft productive sector, the risk assessment of repetitive occupational activities through the OCRA method presents some major obstacles: - high number of different tasks (more than 20) carried out during the work shift. - definite identification of the number of technical actions per cycle. Risk assessment through the traditional OCRA method provides in this sector a index which varies according to the sampling of the occupational tasks, rather than reflecting the effective risk level. The study raises an OCRA-based method which is applicable in the aircraft production sector and defines the overall ergonomic load for homogeneous groups of exposed workers, based on production data specified for each aircraft model...
January 2015: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
David Brown, Rami A Namas, Khalid Almahmoud, Akram Zaaqoq, Joydeep Sarkar, Derek A Barclay, Jinling Yin, Ali Ghuma, Andrew Abboud, Gregory Constantine, Gary Nieman, Ruben Zamora, Steven C Chang, Timothy R Billiar, Yoram Vodovotz
Trauma-induced critical illness is driven by acute inflammation, and elevated systemic interleukin-6 (IL-6) after trauma is a biomarker of adverse outcomes. We constructed a multicompartment, ordinary differential equation model that represents a virtual trauma patient. Individual-specific variants of this model reproduced both systemic inflammation and outcomes of 33 blunt trauma survivors, from which a cohort of 10,000 virtual trauma patients was generated. Model-predicted length of stay in the intensive care unit, degree of multiple organ dysfunction, and IL-6 area under the curve as a function of injury severity were in concordance with the results from a validation cohort of 147 blunt trauma patients...
April 29, 2015: Science Translational Medicine
L M Bilinsky, M C Reed, H F Nijhout
Marked alterations in systemic glutamate-glutamine metabolism characterize the catabolic state, in which there is an increased breakdown and decreased synthesis of skeletal muscle protein. Among these alterations are a greatly increased net release of glutamine (Gln) from skeletal muscle into blood plasma and a dramatic depletion of intramuscular Gln. Understanding the catabolic state is important because a number of pathological conditions with very different etiologies are characterized by its presence; these include major surgery, sepsis, trauma, and some cancers...
July 7, 2015: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Rupert Faltermeier, Martin A Proescholdt, Sylvia Bele, Alexander Brawanski
Although multimodal monitoring sets the standard in daily practice of neurocritical care, problem-oriented analysis tools to interpret the huge amount of data are lacking. Recently a mathematical model was presented that simulates the cerebral perfusion and oxygen supply in case of a severe head trauma, predicting the appearance of distinct correlations between arterial blood pressure and intracranial pressure. In this study we present a set of mathematical tools that reliably detect the predicted correlations in data recorded at a neurocritical care unit...
2015: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Johan Davidsson, Mårten Risling
Severe impacts to the head commonly lead to localized brain damage. Such impacts may also give rise to temporary pressure changes that produce secondary injuries in brain volumes distal to the impact site. Monitoring pressure changes in a clinical setting is difficult; detailed studies into the effect of pressure changes in the brain call for the development and use of animal models. The aim of this study is to characterize the pressure distribution in an animal model of penetrating traumatic brain injuries (pTBI)...
2015: Frontiers in Neurology
Matthew O'Toole, Phillip Lamoureux, Kyle E Miller
Forces are important for neuronal outgrowth during the initial wiring of the nervous system and after trauma, yet subcellular force generation over the microtubule-rich region at the rear of the growth cone and along the axon has never, to our knowledge, been directly measured. Because previous studies have indicated microtubule polymerization and the microtubule-associated proteins Kinesin-1 and dynein all generate forces that push microtubules forward, a major question is whether the net forces in these regions are contractile or expansive...
March 10, 2015: Biophysical Journal
Ralf Herwig, Manfred Bayerl
Peyronie's disease is a connective tissue disorder in the soft tissue of the penis. The underlying cause of Peyronie's disease is not well understood but is thought to be caused by trauma or injury to the penis during sexual intercourse. The purpose of the interdisciplinary cooperation between urological surgery and physics is the development of a physical simulation tool in order to give prognosis of possible tunica albuginea fibre rupture at a certain degree of deviation of the penis. For our group the first challenge was to translate the human organ of the penis into a physical model...
2015: BioMed Research International
G Păduraru, A Knieling, C Scripcaru, Diana Bulgaru Iliescu
Traffic accidents can have more or less dramatic consequences that involve penal and civil responsibility with amplitude extending over long periods of time. In many cases, substitution of the driver with the passenger in order to avoid criminal responsibility is often remarked. The substitution takes place with the passenger's agreement or, in cases with dramatic consequences (coma or death), without his/her consent. These situations are encountered in civil cases regarding insurance fraud. In addition to forensic medical expertise, to aid the experts, mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the dynamics of vehicle passengers is a tool that completes the criminal expertise of traffic accidents...
October 2014: Revista Medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti Din Iaş̧i
A A Vorona, Iu B Moiseev, S P Ryzhenkov
To prevention death and serious injuries personnel must be equipped with war materiel collective and individual antimine defence. The experience gained in the establishment of protective equipment shows that modern technology can prevent serious injuries and moderately severe blast injuries in the members of the crew an ensure injury prevention not less than 95%. The solution to this problem is achieved by exception of conditions for spinal compression fractures, ankle and foot fractures, severe and moderately severe brain contusions and eardrum ruptures...
September 2014: Voenno-medit︠s︡inskiĭ Zhurnal
Tobias Niebuhr, Mirko Junge, Stefanie Achmus
OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the effectiveness of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) plays a crucial role in accident research. A common way to evaluate the effectiveness of new systems is to determine the potentials for injury severity reduction. Because injury risk functions describe the probability of an injury of a given severity conditional on a technical accident severity (closing speed, delta V, barrier equivalent speed, etc.), they are predestined for such evaluations. METHODS: Recent work has stated an approach on how to model the pedestrian injury risk in pedestrian-to-passenger car accidents as a family of functions...
2015: Traffic Injury Prevention
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