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Surgical and Simulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334230/guided-bayesian-imputation-to-adjust-for-confounding-when-combining-heterogeneous-data-sources-in-comparative-effectiveness-research
#1
Joseph Antonelli, Corwin Zigler, Francesca Dominici
In comparative effectiveness research, we are often interested in the estimation of an average causal effect from large observational data (the main study). Often this data does not measure all the necessary confounders. In many occasions, an extensive set of additional covariates is measured for a smaller and non-representative population (the validation study). In this setting, standard approaches for missing data imputation might not be adequate due to the large number of missing covariates in the main data relative to the smaller sample size of the validation data...
March 3, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333831/deployed-skills-training-for-whole-blood-collection-by-a-special-operations-expeditionary-surgical-team
#2
Linda C Benavides, Iain M Smith, Jerome M Benavides, Douglas M Bowley, Heidi A Doughty, Jonathan B Lundy
BACKGROUND: Non-compressible hemorrhage is the leading cause of potentially preventable battlefield death. Combining casualty retrieval from the battlefield and damage control resuscitation (DCR) within the "golden hour" increases survival. However, transfusion requirements may exceed the current blood component stocks held by forward surgical teams. Warm fresh whole blood (WFWB) is an alternative. We report WFWB transfusion training developed by and delivered to a US Golden Hour Offset Surgical Treatment Team (GHOST-T) and the resulting improvement in confidence with WFWB transfusion...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332593/injections-through-skin-colonized-with-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-introduce-contamination-despite-standard-antimicrobial-preparation-procedures
#3
Yi Wang, Valery Leng, Viraj Patel, K Scott Phillips
While surgical site preparation has been extensively studied, there is little information about resistance of skin microbiota in the biofilm form to antimicrobial decontamination, and there are no quantitative models to study how biofilm might be transferred into sterile tissue/implant materials during injections for joint spine and tendon, aspiration biopsies and dermal fillers (DF). In this work, we develop two in vitro models to simulate the process of skin preparation and DF injection using pig skin and SimSkin (silicone) materials, respectively...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332445/dynamic-virtual-simulation-of-the-occurrence-and-severity-of-edge-loading-in-hip-replacements-associated-with-variation-in-the-rotational-and-translational-surgical-position
#4
Joanna Leng, Mazen Al-Hajjar, Ruth Wilcox, Alison Jones, David Barton, John Fisher
Variation in the surgical positioning of total hip replacement can result in edge loading of the femoral head on the rim of the acetabular cup. Previous work has reported the effect of edge loading on the wear of hip replacement bearings with a fixed level of dynamic biomechanical hip separation. Variations in both rotational and translational surgical positioning of the hip joint replacement combine to influence both the biomechanics and the tribology including the severity of edge loading, the amount of dynamic separation, the force acting on the rim of the cup and the resultant wear and torque acting on the cup...
April 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332159/electromagnetically-tracked-personalized-templates-for-surgical-navigation
#5
Andrew W L Dickinson, Michelle L Zec, David R Pichora, Brian J Rasquinha, Randy E Ellis
PURPOSE: An electromagnetic (EM) surgical tracking system was developed for orthopedic navigation. The reportedly poor accuracy of point-based EM navigation was improved by using anatomical impressions, which were EM-tracked personalized templates. Lines, rather than points, were consistently used for calibration and error evaluation. METHODS: Technical accuracy was tested using models derived from CT scans of ten cadaver shoulders. Tracked impressions were first designed, calibrated, and tested using lines as fiducial objects...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332149/biomechanical-cadaveric-comparison-of-patellar-ligament-suture-protected-by-a-steel-cable-versus-a-synthetic-cable
#6
P Bouget, C Breque, J S Beranger, J P Faure, F Khiami, T Vendeuvre
BACKGROUND: Purpose and hypothesis: Patellar ligament rupture is a rare disabling pathology requiring a surgical ligament suture protected by a frame. The gold standard is the steel cable, but its rigidity and the necessity of a surgical re-intervention for its removal render it unsatisfactory. The objective of this paper is to quantify the mechanical protection provided by the terylene® in comparison with steel. METHODS: Twenty-four knees of 12 fresh frozen cadaveric subjects were divided into 2 homogeneous groups (terylene and steel) of 12 knees (mean age = 69...
December 2017: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327195/does-rating-the-operation-videos-with-a-checklist-score-improve-the-effect-of-e-learning-for-bariatric-surgical-training-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Javier Rodrigo De La Garza, Karl-Friedrich Kowalewski, Mirco Friedrich, Mona Wanda Schmidt, Thomas Bruckner, Hannes Götz Kenngott, Lars Fischer, Beat-Peter Müller-Stich, Felix Nickel
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic training has become an important part of surgical education. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure performed. Surgeons must be well trained prior to operating on a patient. Multimodality training is vital for bariatric surgery. E-learning with videos is a standard approach for training. The present study investigates whether scoring the operation videos with performance checklists improves learning effects and transfer to a simulated operation...
March 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327144/computational-medical-imaging-and-hemodynamics-framework-for-functional-analysis-and-assessment-of-cardiovascular-structures
#8
REVIEW
Kelvin K L Wong, Defeng Wang, Jacky K L Ko, Jagannath Mazumdar, Thu-Thao Le, Dhanjoo Ghista
Cardiac dysfunction constitutes common cardiovascular health issues in the society, and has been an investigation topic of strong focus by researchers in the medical imaging community. Diagnostic modalities based on echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, chest radiography and computed tomography are common techniques that provide cardiovascular structural information to diagnose heart defects. However, functional information of cardiovascular flow, which can in fact be used to support the diagnosis of many cardiovascular diseases with a myriad of hemodynamics performance indicators, remains unexplored to its full potential...
March 21, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326904/validation-of-psychomotor-tasks-by-simbionix-lap-mentor-simulator-and-identifying-the-target-group
#9
Mohamed Elessawy, Arne Wewer, Veronika Guenther, Thorsten Heilmann, Christel Eckmann-Scholz, Christian Schem, Nicolai Maass, Karl-Günter Noe, Liselotte Mettler, Ibrahim Alkatout
BACKGROUND: This study addresses target group reliability and task validity for training on a laparoscopic simulator. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected on 64 participants prospectively at the Department of OB/GYN, University Hospitals Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel. The Simbionix LAP Mentor for laparoscopic simulation was used to test trainees. Each participant received a questionnaire to clarify his/her medical position, surgical experience, and previous virtual reality (VR) experience, including video gaming experience...
March 22, 2017: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326032/a-dynamic-circuit-hypothesis-for-the-pathogenesis-of-blepharospasm
#10
David A Peterson, Terrence J Sejnowski
Blepharospasm (sometimes called "benign essential blepharospasm," BEB) is one of the most common focal dystonias. It involves involuntary eyelid spasms, eye closure, and increased blinking. Despite the success of botulinum toxin injections and, in some cases, pharmacologic or surgical interventions, BEB treatments are not completely efficacious and only symptomatic. We could develop principled strategies for preventing and reversing the disease if we knew the pathogenesis of primary BEB. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual framework and dynamic circuit hypothesis for the pathogenesis of BEB...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325539/n2-gas-egress-from-patients-airways-during-ln2-spray-cryotherapy
#11
John P O'Connor, Brian M Hanley, Thomas I Mulcahey, Ellen E Sheets, Kacey W Shuey
Spray cryotherapy using liquid nitrogen (LN2) is a general surgical tool used to ablate benign or malignant lesions. Adequate egress of the gaseous nitrogen (N2) generated during this process must be provided for safe use when LN2 is used within the body rather than topically. When delivered to either the gastrointestinal tract (requiring active venting via a suction tube) or body cavities open to room barometric pressure (such as lung airways) allowing for passive venting, the N2 gas generated from the boiling process must be evacuated...
March 18, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323704/minimizing-pedicle-screw-pullout-risks-a-detailed-biomechanical-analysis-of-screw-design-and-placement
#12
Rohan-Jean Bianco, Pierre-Jean Arnoux, Eric Wagnac, Jean-Marc Mac-Thiong, Carl-Éric Aubin
STUDY DESIGN: Detailed biomechanical analysis of the anchorage performance provided by different pedicle screw designs and placement strategies under pullout loading. OBJECTIVE: To biomechanically characterize the specific effects of surgeon-specific pedicle screw design parameters on anchorage performance using a finite element model. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Pedicle screw fixation is commonly used in the treatment of spinal pathologies...
April 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322125/anatomy-specific-virtual-reality-simulation-in-temporal-bone-dissection
#13
Garrett D Locketz, Justin T Lui, Sonny Chan, Kenneth Salisbury, Joseph C Dort, Patricia Youngblood, Nikolas H Blevins
Objective To evaluate the effect of anatomy-specific virtual reality (VR) surgical rehearsal on surgeon confidence and temporal bone dissection performance. Study Design Prospective pre- and poststudy of a novel virtual surgical rehearsal platform. Setting Academic otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residency training programs. Subjects and Methods Sixteen otolaryngology-head and neck surgery residents from 2 North American training institutions were recruited. Surveys were administered to assess subjects' baseline confidence in performing 12 subtasks of cortical mastoidectomy with facial recess...
March 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321805/introduction-of-a-computer-based-method-for-automated-planning-of-reduction-paths-under-consideration-of-simulated-muscular-forces
#14
Jan Buschbaum, Rainer Fremd, Tim Pohlemann, Alexander Kristen
PURPOSE: Reduction is a crucial step in the surgical treatment of bone fractures. Finding an optimal path for restoring anatomical alignment is considered technically demanding because collisions as well as high forces caused by surrounding soft tissues can avoid desired reduction movements. The repetition of reduction movements leads to a trial-and-error process which causes a prolonged duration of surgery. By planning an appropriate reduction path-an optimal sequence of target-directed movements-these problems should be overcome...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321432/a-novel-implant-system-for-unloading-the-medial-compartment-of-the-knee-by-lateral-displacement-of-the-iliotibial-band
#15
Vivek N Shenoy, Hanson S Gifford, John T Kao
BACKGROUND: Medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) typically occurs with excessive mechanical load within the medial compartment, resulting in degeneration of the articular cartilage. PURPOSE: A novel extracapsular implant (Latella Knee Implant) has been developed to unload the medial compartment of the knee. The implant displaces the iliotibial band (ITB) over the lateral femoral condyle, thereby increasing its effective moment arm, resulting in a transfer of load from the medial compartment to the lateral compartment of the knee...
March 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320625/low-osmolality-and-shear-stress-during-liposuction-impair-cell-viability-in-autologous-fat-grafting
#16
T Ismail, J Bürgin, A Todorov, R Osinga, N Menzi, R D Largo, M Haug, I Martin, A Scherberich, D J Schaefer
BACKGROUND: Liposuction and subsequent autologous fat grafting have become essential techniques for fat augmentation in plastic surgery. However, standard harvesting techniques that ensure the survival of adipocytes and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells and thus preserve the transplanted fat volume are lacking. In particular, the effect of different parameters of the tumescent solution has not been studied in this context. We hypothesized that the osmolality of the tumescent solution could have a significant effect on the survival of adipocytes and SVF cells...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320612/three-dimensional-image-fusion-of-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-and-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography-for-computer-assisted-planning-of-maxillectomy-of-recurrent-maxillary-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-defect-reconstruction
#17
Yao Yu, Wen-Bo Zhang, Xiao-Jing Liu, Chuan-Bin Guo, Guang-Yan Yu, Xin Peng
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe new technology assisted by 3-dimensional (3D) image fusion of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) for computer planning of a maxillectomy of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma and defect reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Treatment of recurrent maxillary squamous cell carcinoma usually includes tumor resection and free flap reconstruction...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320428/a-topology-based-method-to-mitigate-the-dosimetric-uncertainty-caused-by-the-positional-variation-of-the-boost-volume-in-breast-conservative-radiotherapy
#18
Peng-Yi Lee, Chih-Yuan Lin, Shang-Wen Chen, Chun-Ru Chien, Chun-Nan Chu, Hsiu-Ting Hsu, Ji-An Liang, Ying-Jun Lin, An-Cheng Shiau
BACKGROUND: To improve local control rate in patients with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy after breast conservative surgery, additional boost dose to the tumor bed could be delivered simultaneously via the simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) modulated technique. However, the position of tumor bed kept changing during the treatment course as the treatment position was aligned to bony anatomy. This study aimed to analyze the positional uncertainties between bony anatomy and tumor bed, and a topology-based approach was derived to stratify patients with high variation in tumor bed localization...
March 20, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318742/a-mobile-based-surgical-simulation-application-a-comparative-analysis-of-efficacy-using-a-carpal-tunnel-release%C3%A2-module
#19
Kamil M Amer, Taha Mur, Kamal Amer, Asif M Ilyas
PURPOSE: The utilization of surgical simulation continues to grow in medical training. The TouchSurgery application (app) is a new interactive virtual reality smartphone- or tablet-based app that offers a step-by-step tutorial and simulation for the execution of various operations. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of the app versus traditional teaching modalities utilizing the "Carpal Tunnel Surgery" module. We hypothesized that users of the app would score higher than those using the traditional education medium indicating higher understanding of the steps of surgery...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317159/surgical-planning-for-a-complex-double-outlet-right-ventricle-using-3d-printing
#20
Puneet Bhatla, Justin T Tretter, Sathish Chikkabyrappa, Sujata Chakravarti, Ralph S Mosca
Rapid prototyping may be beneficial in properly selected cases of complex congenital heart disease, providing detailed anatomical understanding that helps to guide potential surgical and cardiac catheterization interventions. We present a case of double-outlet right ventricle, where the decision to obtain a three-dimensional printed model helped for better understanding of the anatomy, with the additional advantage of surgical simulation in planning the surgical approach and type of surgical repair.
March 19, 2017: Echocardiography
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