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Gary Whelan, Ross Johnston, Charles Millward, Darren J Edwards
BACKGROUND: Neurodynamics is a clinical medium for testing the mechanical sensitivity of peripheral nerves which innervate the tissues of both the upper and lower limb. Currently, there is paucity in the literature of neurodynamic testing in osteopathic research, and where there is research, these are often methodologically flawed, without the appropriate comparators, blinding and reliability testing. AIMS: This study aimed to assess the physiological effects (measured through Range of Motion; ROM), of a commonly utilized cervical mobilization treatment during a neurodynamic test, with the appropriate methodology, i...
April 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Harsha Shanthanna
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain conditions are associated with neuroplasticity within the central nervous system. In most patients the maladaptive consequence of neuroplasticity supports prolonged course of chronic pain, despite the absence of a commensurate etiology. From a pain neuromatrix perspective it can involve three different circuits within the central nervous system; the classical sensory pathway, the limbic system pathway, and the associative pathways involving the parietal cortical connections...
January 26, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Henning Matthias Reimann, Mihail Todiras, Russ Hodge, Till Huelnhagen, Jason Michael Millward, Robert Turner, Erdmann Seeliger, Michael Bader, Andreas Pohlmann, Thoralf Niendorf
The neuromatrix, or "pain matrix", is a network of cortical brain areas which is activated by noxious as well as salient somatosensory stimulation. This has been studied in mice and humans using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI. Here we demonstrate that BOLD effects observed in the murine neuromatrix in response to salient somatosensory stimuli are prone to reflect mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) changes, rather than neural activity. We show that a standard electrostimulus typically used in murine somatosensory fMRI can induce substantial elevations in MABP...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Fu-Chi Yang, Kun-Hsien Chou, Chen-Yuan Kuo, Yung-Yang Lin, Ching-Po Lin, Shuu-Jiun Wang
Background Cluster headache is a disorder characterized by intermittent, severe unilateral head pain accompanied by cranial autonomic symptoms. Most cases of CH are episodic, manifesting as "in-bout" periods of frequent headache separated by month-to-year-long "out-of-bout" periods of remission. Previous imaging studies have implicated the hypothalamus and pain matrix in the pathogenesis of episodic CH. However, the pathophysiology driving the transition between in- and out-of-bout periods remains unclear...
April 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Akihiko Wada, Takashi Shizukuishi, Junko Kikuta, Haruyasu Yamada, Yusuke Watanabe, Yoshiki Imamura, Takahiro Shinozaki, Ko Dezawa, Hiroki Haradome, Osamu Abe
PURPOSE: Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic intraoral pain syndrome featuring idiopathic oral pain and burning discomfort despite clinically normal oral mucosa. The etiology of chronic pain syndrome is unclear, but preliminary neuroimaging research has suggested the alteration of volume, metabolism, blood flow, and diffusion at multiple brain regions. According to the neuromatrix theory of Melzack, pain sense is generated in the brain by the network of multiple pain-related brain regions...
May 2017: Neuroradiology
Huynh Giao Ly, Patrick Dupont, Koen Van Laere, Inge Depoortere, Jan Tack, Lukas Van Oudenhove
BACKGROUND: Rapid gastric balloon distension to discomfort threshold activates the "pain neuromatrix" and deactivates exteroceptive sensory and "default mode network" regions. However, little is known about brain mechanisms underlying tolerance of meal-induced gastric distension. We aimed to directly compare brain responses to gradual balloon distension and intragastric nutrient infusion and to explore the role of differential gut peptide release in these responses...
January 1, 2017: NeuroImage
Enrico Facco
Hypnosis is a physiological mind activity characterized by focused attention, absorption, dissociation and plastic imagination. In the early 19th century, several hundred surgical interventions were described with hypnosis as the sole anesthetic, in an epoch when no anesthetic drugs were available; then hypnosis was prejudicially abandoned and forgotten after its introduction. In the past two decades, an increasing number of studies on hypnosis has shown its capacity to modify the activity of the prefrontal cortex, default mode network and pain neuromatrix (including the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, thalamus, insula and somatosensory cortex) and increase pain threshold up to the level of surgical anesthesia...
December 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Daniele Di Lernia, Silvia Serino, Pietro Cipresso, Giuseppe Riva
Pain is a complex and multidimensional perception, embodied in our daily experiences through interoceptive appraisal processes. The article reviews the recent literature about interoception along with predictive coding theories and tries to explain a missing link between the sense of the physiological condition of the entire body and the perception of pain in chronic conditions, which are characterized by interoceptive deficits. Understanding chronic pain from an interoceptive point of view allows us to better comprehend the multidimensional nature of this specific organic information, integrating the input of several sources from Gifford's Mature Organism Model to Melzack's neuromatrix...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
N Sousa
Stressful stimuli in healthy subjects trigger activation of a consistent and reproducible set of brain regions; yet, the notion that there is a single and constant stress neuromatrix is not sustainable. Indeed, after chronic stress exposure there is activation of many brain regions outside that network. This suggests that there is a distinction between the acute and the chronic stress neuromatrix. Herein, a new working model is proposed to understand the shift between these networks. The understanding of the factors that modulate these networks and their interplay will allow for a more comprehensive and holistic perspective of how the brain shifts 'back and forth' from a healthy to a stressed pattern and, ultimately, how the latter can be a trigger for several neurological and psychiatric conditions...
March 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Adriaan Louw, Stephen G Schmidt
In recent years there has been an increased interest in pain neuroscience in physical therapy.1,2 Emerging pain neuroscience research has challenged prevailing models used to understand and treat pain, including the Cartesian model of pain and the pain gate.2-4 Focus has shifted to the brain's processing of a pain experience, the pain neuromatrix and more recently, cortical reorganisation of body maps.2,3,5,6 In turn, these emerging theories have catapulted new treatments, such as therapeutic neuroscience education (TNE)7-10 and graded motor imagery (GMI),11,12 to the forefront of treating people suffering from persistent spinal pain...
July 2015: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
Ronald Melzack, Joel Katz
Pain has many valuable functions. It often signals injury or disease, generates a wide range of adaptive behaviors, and promotes healing through rest. Despite these beneficial aspects of pain, there are negative features that challenge our understanding of the puzzle of pain, including persistent phantom limb pain after amputation or total spinal cord transection. Pain is a personal, subjective experience influenced by cultural learning, the meaning of the situation, attention, and other psychological variables...
January 2013: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Ricardo Cárdenas Fernández
The gate control theory of pain, introduced by Melzack and Wall in 1965, led the way in pain research during the second half of the 20th century. Eventually, the observation of pain-related phenomena which the theory could not satisfactorily explain propelled Melzack to develop a new concept, the neuromatrix, which considers as participants in the pain transmission and modulation system, certain brain areas not traditionally associated with the pain experience. This concept places equal importance on the sensory, affective and cognitive aspects of pain, helping the advancement of novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in different clinical pain conditions...
June 2015: Investigación Clínica
B Vaseghi, M Zoghi, S Jaberzadeh
The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (c-tDCS) over cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix, including the primary motor (M1), sensory (S1) and dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) cortices on M1/S1 excitability, sensory (STh), and pain thresholds (PTh) in healthy adults. The secondary aim was to evaluate the placebo effects of c-tDCS on induced cortical and behavioural changes. Before, immediately after and 30 min after c-tDCS the amplitude of N20-P25 components of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and peak-to-peak amplitudes of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured under four different experimental conditions...
October 2015: European Journal of Neuroscience
R Gopalakrishnan, R C Burgess, E B Plow, D P Floden, A G Machado
Pain anticipation plays a critical role in pain chronification and results in disability due to pain avoidance. It is important to understand how different sensory modalities (auditory, visual or tactile) may influence pain anticipation as different strategies could be applied to mitigate anticipatory phenomena and chronification. In this study, using a countdown paradigm, we evaluated with magnetoencephalography the neural networks associated with pain anticipation elicited by different sensory modalities in normal volunteers...
September 24, 2015: Neuroscience
Bradford W Fenton, Elim Shih, Jessica Zolton
Pain is a significant national burden in terms of patient suffering, expenditure and lost productivity. Understanding pain is fundamental to improving evaluation, treatment and innovation in the management of acute and persistent pain syndromes. Pain perception begins in the periphery, and then ascends in several tracts, relaying at different levels. Pain signals arrive in the thalamus and midbrain structures which form the pain neuromatrix, a constantly shifting set of networks and connections that determine conscious perception...
2015: Pain Management
Ian E Wickramasekera
This article reviews a growing body of research and theory in hypnosis and neuroscience that supports the empathic involvement theory (EIT) of hypnosis (Wickramasekera II, 2001; Wickramasekera II & Szlyk, 2003; Wickramasekera II, 2007c). The EIT is a unified transpersonal theory of hypnosis and the self, which weaves together empathic elements of Dzogchen, neodissociative, neuroscience, psychoanalytic, sociocognitive, and other theories by proposing that hypnotic phenomena are inherently characterized by their deep involvement with processes of empathy and the self...
January 2015: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
Bita Vaseghi, Maryam Zoghi, Shapour Jaberzadeh
BACKGROUND: Integration of information between multiple cortical regions of the pain neuromatrix is thought to underpin pain modulation. Although altered processing in the primary motor (M1) and sensory (S1) cortices is implicated in separate studies, the simultaneous changes in and the relationship between these regions are unknown yet. The primary aim was to assess the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) over superficial regions of the pain neuromatrix on M1 and S1 excitability...
2015: PloS One
Fuad Ahmad Hazime, Diego Galace de Freitas, Renan Lima Monteiro, Rafaela Lasso Maretto, Nilza Aparecida de Almeida Carvalho, Renata Hydee Hasue, Silvia Maria Amado João
BACKGROUND: Chronic non-specific low back pain is a major socioeconomic public health issue worldwide and, despite the volume of research in the area, it is still a difficult-to-treat condition. The conservative analgesic therapy usually comprises a variety of pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. The neuromatrix pain model and the new findings on the process of chronicity of pain point to a higher effectiveness of treatments that address central rather than peripheral structures...
January 31, 2015: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
P Brugger, M Regard, T Landis
Autoscopic phenomena involve the illusory reduplication of one's own body. The literature on the topic is widely scattered and suffers from considerable terminological and conceptual inconsistencies. This article proposes a classification scheme based on phenomenological criteria. Along with examples of illustrative cases, we outline the main features of autoscopic hallucinations, heautoscopy proper, the feeling of a presence, the out-of-body experience, and negative and inner forms of autoscopic phenomena...
February 1, 1997: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Stuart W G Derbyshire
Functional imaging has comprehensively demonstrated that pain involves a number of cortical regions that are often collectively referred to as the pain neuromatrix. This neuromatrix is assumed to be necessary to process the sensory, affective, and cognitive components of pain. Patients who report pain in the apparent absence of injury or disease may experience their symptoms because of dysfunction in one or more components of the pain neuromatrix. Two articles in this edition of Psychosomatic Medicine explore that possibility and provide evidence of altered neural connectivity and activation within components of the pain neuromatrix in patients with low back pain and irritable bowel syndrome...
July 2014: Psychosomatic Medicine
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