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tilt lvor

Martin Westhofen
Caloric testing in prone/supine position and constant velocity off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) in yaw axis (rotate-then-tilt paradigm) can evaluate labyrinth function and vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) behaviour before and after endolymphatic shunt surgery (ESS). Preoperative and postoperative otolith dysfunction can be documented by constant velocity OVAR, before the VOR is modulated by the vestibular compensation. Vestibulo-ocular responses in prone/supine position and linear VOR (lVOR) OVAR responses were observed in 10 patients before and after ESS...
2007: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Yoshiro Wada, Yasushi Kodaka, Kenji Kawano
A major function of the otolith organ is to detect linear acceleration generated by two different head conditions, dynamic linear translation and static tilt relative to gravity. To investigate these sensory functions of the otolith organ, we analyzed vertical eye position in response to steady-state sinusoidal fore-aft translation over a range of frequencies (0.5-4 Hz) and amplitudes (0.10-0.33 g) in three monkeys. Vertical vestibuloocular reflexes elicited by linear acceleration (LVORs) during sinusoidal fore-aft translation were divided into translational LVOR component and tilt LVOR component taking vertical gaze-dependent properties into account...
February 2008: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Yoshiro Wada, Yasushi Kodaka, Kenji Kawano
We examined the vertical linear vestibuloocular reflexes (LVORs) elicited by constant linear acceleration (0-0.5 g for >95 ms) during transient fore-aft translation in three monkeys. In the dark condition, small but consistent downward ocular responses to forward translation were observed (latencies >41 ms) when the initial vertical eye positions were at 0 degrees , although eye movements following backward translation were inconsistent among animals. These downward ocular responses showed the following three characteristics: they were independent of vertical gaze eccentricities, their magnitudes were almost proportional to the forward acceleration, and they were reduced by the large-field (not the spot) visual information...
February 2007: Neuroscience Research
Keisuke Kushiro, Mingjia Dai, Mikhail Kunin, Sergei B Yakushin, Bernard Cohen, Theodore Raphan
Nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) about a head yaw axis is composed of a yaw bias velocity and modulations in eye position and velocity as the head changes orientation relative to gravity. The bias velocity is dependent on the tilt of the rotational axis relative to gravity and angular head velocity. For axis tilts <15 degrees, bias velocities increased monotonically with increases in the magnitude of the projected gravity vector onto the horizontal plane of the head. For tilts of 15-90 degrees, bias velocity was independent of tilt angle, increasing linearly as a function of head velocity with gains of 0...
November 2002: Journal of Neurophysiology
Mark Shelhamer, Grace C Y Peng, Stefano Ramat, Vivek Patel
Previous studies established that vestibular and oculomotor behaviors can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for the oculomotor response to interaural translation (which we term "linear vestibulo-ocular reflex" or LVOR even though it may have extravestibular components). Subjects sat upright on a linear sled and were translated at 0...
October 2002: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Gary D Paige
The major challenge in developing a robust test of otolith function, particularly with regard to linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR) and perceptual measures, is to find a way in which graded lesions are reflected in graded response properties and abnormalities. The ability of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) to compensate and adapt to dysfunction and pathology presents formidable challenges for registering localizing clinical findings, whether in the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR), the LVOR, or both...
April 2002: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
G D Paige, S H Seidman
The primate linear VOR (LVOR) includes two forms. First, eye-movement responses to translation [e.g., horizontal responses to interaural (i.a.) motion] help maintain binocular fixation on targets, and therefore a stable bifoveal image. The translational LVOR is strongly modulated by fixation distance, and operates with high-pass dynamics (> 1 Hz). Second, other LVOR responses occur that cannot be compensatory for translation and instead seem compensatory for head tilt. This reflects an otolith response ambiguity--that is, an inability to distinguish head translation from head tilt relative to gravity...
May 28, 1999: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
S Wearne, T Raphan, B Cohen
Effects of tilt of the gravito-inertial acceleration vector on the angular vestibuloocular reflex during centrifugation. Interaction of the horizontal linear and angular vestibuloocular reflexes (lVOR and aVOR) was studied in rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys during centered rotation and off-center rotation at a constant velocity (centrifugation). During centered rotation, the eye velocity vector was aligned with the axis of rotation, which was coincident with the direction of gravity. Facing and back to motion centrifugation tilted the resultant of gravity and linear acceleration, gravito-inertial acceleration (GIA), inducing cross-coupled vertical components of eye velocity...
May 1999: Journal of Neurophysiology
L Telford, S H Seidman, G D Paige
Horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements were recorded using the magnetic search-coil technique during linear accelerations along the interaural (IA) and dorsoventral (DV) head axes. Four squirrel monkeys were translated sinusoidally over a range of frequencies (0.5-4.0 Hz) and amplitudes (0.1-0.7 g peak acceleration). The linear vestibuloocular reflex (LVOR) was recorded in darkness after brief presentations of visual targets at various distances from the subject. With subjects positioned upright or nose-up relative to gravity, IA translations generated conjugate horizontal (IA horizontal) eye movements, whereas DV translations with the head nose-up or right-side down generated conjugate vertical (DV vertical) responses...
October 1997: Journal of Neurophysiology
B J Hess, N Dieringer
1. The spatial properties of linear vestibuloocular reflexes (LVOR) were studied in pigmented rats in response to sinusoidal linear acceleration on a sled. The orientation of the animal on the sled was altered in 15 degrees steps over the range of 360 degrees. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional components of eye movements were recorded with the magnetic field search coil technique in complete darkness. Conjugacy of the two eyes was studied in the horizontal movement plane. 2. Acceleration along the optic axis of one eye (approximately 50 degrees lateral) induced maximal vertical responses in the ipsilateral eye and, at the same time, maximal torsional responses in the contralateral eye...
December 1991: Journal of Neurophysiology
B J Hess
Afferent signals from the otolith organs can produce compensatory eye position and velocity signals which has been described as linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR). The afferent otolith signals carry information about head orientation and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. A head orientation (tilt) related position signal can be obtained from population vector coding of tonic otolith afferent signals during static or dynamic head tilts, which in turn could produce compensatory eye position signals in the LVOR...
1992: Biological Cybernetics
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