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Cancer predisposition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822109/consumer-attitudes-towards-the-establishment-of-a-national-australian-familial-cancer-research-database-by-the-inherited-cancer-connect-iccon-partnership
#1
Laura Forrest, Gillian Mitchell, Letitia Thrupp, Lara Petelin, Kate Richardson, Lyon Mascarenhas, Mary-Anne Young
Clinical genetics units hold large amounts of information which could be utilised to benefit patients and their families. In Australia, a national research database, the Inherited Cancer Connect (ICCon) database, is being established that comprises clinical genetic data held for all carriers of mutations in cancer predisposition genes. Consumer input was sought to establish the acceptability of the inclusion of clinical genetic data into a research database. A qualitative approach using a modified nominal group technique was used to collect data through consumer forums conducted in three Australian states...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Community Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820908/ribosomopathy-like-properties-of-murine-and-human-cancers
#2
Sucheta Kulkarni, James M Dolezal, Huabo Wang, Laura Jackson, Jie Lu, Brian P Frodey, Atinuke Dosunmu-Ogunbi, Youjun Li, Marc Fromherz, Audry Kang, Lucas Santana-Santos, Panayiotis V Benos, Edward V Prochownik
Ribosomopathies comprise a heterogeneous group of hematologic and developmental disorders, often characterized by bone marrow failure, skeletal and other developmental abnormalities and cancer predisposition. They are associated with mutations and/or haplo-insufficiencies of ribosomal proteins (RPs) and inefficient ribosomal RNA (rRNA) processing. The resulting ribosomal stress induces the canonical p19ARF/Mdm2/p53 tumor suppressor pathway leading to proliferative arrest and/or apoptosis. It has been proposed that this pathway is then inactivated during subsequent neoplastic evolution...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819443/predictive-value-of-primary-tumor-site-for-loco-regional-recurrence-in-early-breast-cancer-patients-with-one-to-three-positive-axillary-lymphadenophy
#3
Shaoqing Niu, Ge Wen, Yufeng Ren, Yiyang Li, Lingling Feng, Chengtao Wang, Xiaobo Huang, Bixiu Wen, Yujing Zhang
Introduction: It remains controversial on high risks for early breast cancer patients with one to three axillary nodes after mastectomy who is predisposition to locoregional recurrence. The present study is to investigate the relationship between primary tumor site and loco-regional recurrence (LRR) and explore the predictive value of clinicopathological characteristics in LRR for early breast cancer patients with one to three positive axillary lymph nodes after mastectomy. Methods: We reviewed the clinical data of 656 consecutively diagnosed patients with pT1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center with radical operation without postoperative radiotherapy between March 1998 and December 2010...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819183/distribution-bias-and-biochemical-characterization-of-top1mt-single-nucleotide-variants
#4
Hongliang Zhang, Yeonee Seol, Keli Agama, Keir C Neuman, Yves Pommier
Mitochondrial topoisomerase I (TOP1MT) is a type IB topoisomerase encoded in the nucleus of vertebrate cells. In contrast to the other five human topoisomerases, TOP1MT possesses two high frequency single nucleotide variants (SNVs), rs11544484 (V256I, Minor Allele Frequency = 0.27) and rs2293925 (R525W, MAF = 0.45), which tend to be mutually exclusive across different human ethnic groups and even more clearly in a cohort of 129 US patients with breast cancer and in the NCI-60 cancer cell lines. We expressed these two TOP1MT variants and the double-variant (V256I-R525W) as recombinant proteins, as well as a less common variant E168G (rs200673353, MAF = 0...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815178/stem-cell-manipulation-gene-therapy-and-the-risk-of-cancer-stem-cell-emergence
#5
REVIEW
Flora Clément, Elodie Grockowiak, Florence Zylbersztejn, Gaëlle Fossard, Stéphanie Gobert, Véronique Maguer-Satta
Stem cells (SCs) have been extensively studied in the context of regenerative medicine. Human hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based therapies have been applied to treat leukemic patients for decades. Handling of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has also raised hopes and concerns in the field of tissue engineering. Lately, discovery of cell reprogramming by Yamanaka's team has profoundly modified research strategies and approaches in this domain. As we gain further insight into cell fate mechanisms and identification of key actors and parameters, this also raises issues as to the manipulation of SCs...
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809382/exposed-necrotic-bone-in-183-patients-with-bisphosphonate-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-associated-clinical-characteristics
#6
L Bagan, Y Jiménez, M Leopoldo, A Rubert, J Bagan
BACKGROUND: The main objective of our study was to identify oral symptoms and signs most likely to be associated with the exposure of necrotic bone in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 183 patients with BRONJ. We recorded data on the underlying disease, bisphosphonate used, location of osteonecrosis, symptoms, pain, fistula development, suppuration, infection, exposed necrotic bone, and BRONJ stage...
August 15, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808787/malignant-transformation-of-a-conservatively-managed-incidental-childhood-cerebral-mass-lesion-controversy-regarding-management-paradigm
#7
Jehuda Soleman, Jonathan Roth, Zvi Ram, Michal Yalon, Shlomi Constantini
BACKGROUND: Incidental findings on neuroimaging in the pediatric population are an emerging treatment challenge. Treatment options for these incidental childhood brain mass lesions, which radiologically may be assumed to be low-grade gliomas (LGG), vary, ranging from careful conservative "wait and scan" treatment to surgical biopsy, gross total resection, and upfront radiation and/or chemotherapy. As malignant transformation of LGG in children is extremely rare, some series advocate careful conservative management of these lesions; however, universal treatment protocols are not totally agreed upon...
August 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808044/germline-mutation-contribution-to-chromosomal-instability
#8
REVIEW
Sock Hoai Chan, Joanne Ngeow
Genomic instability is a feature of cancer that fuels oncogenesis through increased frequency of genetic disruption, leading to loss of genomic integrity and promoting clonal evolution as well as tumor transformation. A form of genomic instability prevalent across cancer types is chromosomal instability, which involves karyotypic changes including chromosome copy number alterations as well as gross structural abnormalities such as transversions and translocations. Defects in cellular mechanisms that are in place to govern fidelity of chromosomal segregation, DNA repair and ultimately genomic integrity are known to contribute to chromosomal instability...
September 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805194/-lung-cancer-and-copd-growing-clinical-problem
#9
EDITORIAL
Michal Tyl, Joanna Domagała-Kulawik
A spread of the addiction of tobacco smoking is valued on near 1 billion of people in the world, that involves growing number of morbidity and mortality by the reason of smoke related diseases. Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are the most serious and incurable diseases which are leading to a permanent disability as well as to premature death. There are factors that naturally increase the vulnerability of an individual on the coincidence of above disorders, such as pathophysiological conditions, systemic inflammation, bronchitis, emphysema, respiratory obstructive disease and precise genetic predispositions for COPD and lung cancer...
July 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801942/cancer-risk-in-different-generations-of-middle-eastern-immigrants-to-california-1988-2013
#10
Clara Ziadeh, Argyrios Ziogas, Hoda Anton-Culver
The objective of this study is to compare cancer risk among different generations of Middle Eastern (ME) immigrants and Non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) in California between 1988 and 2013. We used data from the California Cancer Registry to identify invasive primary incident cancer cases in three population groups: a) first generation ME immigrants, b) second or subsequent generations ME immigrants, and c) NHW. Proportional Incidence Ratio (PIR) was used to compare cancer risk of the 15 selected most common cancers in the 3 population groups taking into consideration time since immigration for first generation ME immigrants...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799406/a-polymorphic-ggc-repeat-in-the-npas2-gene-and-its-association-with-melanoma
#11
Alessandra Franzoni, Elitza Markova-Car, Sanja Dević-Pavlić, Davor Jurišić, Cinzia Puppin, Catia Mio, Marila De Luca, Giulia Petruz, Giuseppe Damante, Sandra Kraljević Pavelić
Circadian clock regulation in mammals is controlled by feedback loops of a set of circadian genes. One of these circadian genes, NPAS2, encodes for a member of the bHLH-PAS class of transcription factors and is expressed in the forebrain and in some peripheral organs such as liver and skin. Other biological processes are also regulated by circadian genes. For example, NPAS2 is involved in cell proliferation, DNA damage repair and malignant transformation. Aberrant expression of clock genes has been previously observed in melanoma which led to our effort to sequence the NPAS2 promoter region in this cancer type...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797570/genetic-variants-related-to-longer-telomere-length-are-associated-with-increased-risk-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#12
Mitchell J Machiela, Jonathan N Hofmann, Robert Carreras-Torres, Kevin M Brown, Mattias Johansson, Zhaoming Wang, Matthieu Foll, Peng Li, Nathaniel Rothman, Sharon A Savage, Valerie Gaborieau, James D McKay, Yuanqing Ye, Marc Henrion, Fiona Bruinsma, Susan Jordan, Gianluca Severi, Kristian Hveem, Lars J Vatten, Tony Fletcher, Kvetoslava Koppova, Susanna C Larsson, Alicja Wolk, Rosamonde E Banks, Peter J Selby, Douglas F Easton, Paul Pharoah, Gabriella Andreotti, Laura E Beane Freeman, Stella Koutros, Demetrius Albanes, Satu Mannisto, Stephanie Weinstein, Peter E Clark, Todd E Edwards, Loren Lipworth, Susan M Gapstur, Victoria L Stevens, Hallie Carol, Matthew L Freedman, Mark M Pomerantz, Eunyoung Cho, Peter Kraft, Mark A Preston, Kathryn M Wilson, J Michael Gaziano, Howard S Sesso, Amanda Black, Neal D Freedman, Wen-Yi Huang, John G Anema, Richard J Kahnoski, Brian R Lane, Sabrina L Noyes, David Petillo, Leandro M Colli, Joshua N Sampson, Celine Besse, Helene Blanche, Anne Boland, Laurie Burdette, Egor Prokhortchouk, Konstantin G Skryabin, Meredith Yeager, Mirjana Mijuskovic, Miodrag Ognjanovic, Lenka Foretova, Ivana Holcatova, Vladimir Janout, Dana Mates, Anush Mukeriya, Stefan Rascu, David Zaridze, Vladimir Bencko, Cezary Cybulski, Eleonora Fabianova, Viorel Jinga, Jolanta Lissowska, Jan Lubinski, Marie Navratilova, Peter Rudnai, Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Simone Benhamou, Geraldine Cancel-Tassin, Olivier Cussenot, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Federico Canzian, Eric J Duell, Börje Ljungberg, Raviprakash T Sitaram, Ulrike Peters, Emily White, Garnet L Anderson, Lisa Johnson, Juhua Luo, Julie Buring, I-Min Lee, Wong-Ho Chow, Lee E Moore, Christopher Wood, Timothy Eisen, James Larkin, Toni K Choueiri, G Mark Lathrop, Bin Tean Teh, Jean-Francois Deleuze, Xifeng Wu, Richard S Houlston, Paul Brennan, Stephen J Chanock, Ghislaine Scelo, Mark P Purdue
BACKGROUND: Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been evaluated as a potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in several studies, with conflicting findings. OBJECTIVE: We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with leukocyte telomere length to assess the relationship between telomere length and RCC risk using Mendelian randomization, an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations...
August 7, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797265/risk-and-predictors-of-psoriasis-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-swedish-population-based-cohort-study
#13
Haomin Yang, Judith S Brand, Jingmei Li, Jonas F Ludvigsson, Emilio Ugalde-Morales, Flaminia Chiesa, Per Hall, Kamila Czene
BACKGROUND: The risk of psoriasis in patients with breast cancer is largely unknown, as available evidence is limited to case findings. We systematically examined the incidence and risk factors of psoriasis in patients with breast cancer. METHODS: A Swedish nationwide cohort of 56,235 breast cancer patients (2001-2012) was compared to 280,854 matched reference individuals from the general population to estimate the incidence and hazard ratio (HR) of new-onset psoriasis...
August 11, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795204/-entitlement-to-prophylactic-treatment-in-cases-of-genetic-predisposition-for-breast-cancer-interdisciplinary-perspectives
#14
REVIEW
Friedhelm Meier, Jens Ried, Anke Harney, Kerstin Rhiem, Silke Neusser, Anja Neumann, Jürgen Wasem, Rita Schmutzler, Stefan Huster, Peter Dabrock
Genetic tests can detect the predisposition to various diseases. The demand for gene diagnostics and corresponding prophylactic measures is increasing steadily. In the German healthcare system, however, legal uncertainties exist as to whether a mere risk of disease is reason enough to bear the costs for prophylactic measures. When medically effective prophylactic measures are available in certain cancer diseases, such as in hereditary breast cancer, the current practice of deciding in individual cases appears to be insufficient...
August 9, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792655/multiple-pilomatrixomas-in-a-survivor-of-wnt-activated-medulloblastoma-leading-to-the-discovery-of-a-germline-apc-mutation-and-the-diagnosis-of-familial-adenomatous-polyposis
#15
Charles R Bendelsmith, Mary M Skrypek, Sachin R Patel, Dinel A Pond, Amy M Linabery, Anne E Bendel
Because children diagnosed with WNT-activated medulloblastoma have a 10-year overall survival rate of 95%, active long-term follow-up is critically important in reducing mortality from other causes. Here, we describe an 11-year-old adopted female who developed multiple pilomatrixomas 3 years after diagnosis of WNT-activated medulloblastoma, an unusual finding that prompted deeper clinical investigation. A heterozygous germline APC gene mutation was discovered, consistent with familial adenomatous polyposis...
August 9, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790484/inherited-predisposition-to-prostate-cancer-from-gene-discovery-to-clinical-impact
#16
Kathleen A Cooney
Family history of prostate cancer is one of the three most important risk factors for the disease in addition to age and race. Yet despite the recognition of this significant heritable component, it has been challenging to identify the genes associated with prostate cancer predisposition. Initial approaches focused on the collection of multiplex prostate cancer families. However, despite more than 20 years of linkage studies, few genes have been identified that account for a significant number of hereditary prostate cancer families...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790359/nijmegen-breakage-syndrome-fibroblasts-and-ipscs-cellular-models-for-uncovering-disease-associated-signaling-pathways-and-establishing-a-screening-platform-for-anti-oxidants
#17
Barbara Mlody, Wasco Wruck, Soraia Martins, Karl Sperling, James Adjaye
Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) is associated with cancer predisposition, premature aging, immune deficiency, microcephaly and is caused by mutations in the gene coding for NIBRIN (NBN) which is involved in DNA damage repair. Dermal-derived fibroblasts from NBS patients were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in order to bypass premature senescence. The influence of antioxidants on intracellular levels of ROS and DNA damage were screened and it was found that EDHB-an activator of the hypoxia pathway, decreased DNA damage in the presence of high oxidative stress...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789927/commentary-on-inherited-dna-repair-gene-mutations-in-men-with-metastatic-prostate-cancer-pritchard-cc-mateo-j-walsh-mf-de-sarkar-n-abida-w-beltran-h-garofalo-a-gulati-r-carreira-s-eeles-r-elemento-o-rubin-ma-robinson-d-lonigro-r-hussain-m-chinnaiyan-a-vinson
#18
Byron H Lee
BACKGROUND: Inherited mutations in DNA-repair genes such as BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of lethal prostate cancer. Although the prevalence of germline mutations in DNA-repair genes among men with localized prostate cancer who are unselected for family predisposition is insufficient to warrant routine testing, the frequency of such mutations in patients with metastatic prostate cancer has not been established. METHODS: We recruited 692 men with documented metastatic prostate cancer who were unselected for family history of cancer or age at diagnosis...
August 5, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782058/consistency-of-brca1-and-brca2-variant-classifications-among-clinical-diagnostic-laboratories
#19
Stephen E Lincoln, Shan Yang, Melissa S Cline, Yuya Kobayashi, Can Zhang, Scott Topper, David Haussler, Benedict Paten, Robert L Nussbaum
BACKGROUND: Genetic tests of the cancer predisposition genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 inform significant clinical decisions for both physicians and patients. Most uncovered variants are benign, and determining which few are pathogenic (disease-causing) is sometimes challenging and can potentially be inconsistent among laboratories. The ClinVar database makes de-identified clinical variant classifications from multiple laboratories publicly available for comparison and review, per recommendations of the American Medical Association (AMA), the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG), the National Society for Genetic Counselors (NSGC), and other organizations...
July 2017: JCO Precis Oncol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776284/breast-cancer-in-africa-prevalence-treatment-options-herbal-medicines-and-socioeconomic-determinants
#20
REVIEW
Kiven Erique Lukong, Yetunde Ogunbolude, Jean Paul Kamdem
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. GLOBOCAN estimated about 1.7 million new cases of breast cancer diagnoses worldwide and about 522,000 deaths in 2012. The burden of breast cancer mortality lies in the developing low-income and middle-income countries, where about 70% of such deaths occur. The incidence of breast cancer is also rising in low-income and middle-income countries in Africa as trend towards urbanization, and adoption of Western lifestyles increases. In general, the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype tends to be frequent in women of African ancestry...
August 4, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
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