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Cancer predisposition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643286/identifying-primary-care-physicians-continuing-education-needs-by-examining-clinical-practices-attitudes-and-barriers-to-screening-across-multiple-cancers
#1
Brenna Lynn, Alexandra Hatry, Chloe Burnett, Lisa Kan, Tunde Olatunbosun, Bob Bluman
Population-based cancer screening for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancers improves patient outcomes, yet screening rates remain low for some cancers. Despite studies investigating physician perceptions and practices for screening, many have focused on individual cancers and lack primary care physicians' (PCPs) realities around screening for multiple cancers. We surveyed 887 PCPs in British Columbia (BC) to examine practices, beliefs, barriers, and learning needs towards cancer screening across breast, cervical, colorectal, prostate, as well as hereditary predisposition to cancer...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640700/cns-tumors-in-neurofibromatosis
#2
Jian Campian, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis (NF) encompasses a group of distinct genetic disorders in which affected children and adults are prone to the development of benign and malignant tumors of the nervous system. The purpose of this review is to discuss the spectrum of CNS tumors arising in individuals with NF type 1 (NF1) and NF type 2 (NF2), their pathogenic etiologies, and the rational treatment options for people with these neoplasms. This article is a review of preclinical and clinical data focused on the treatment of the most common CNS tumors encountered in children and adults with NF1 and NF2...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639428/relationship-between-pancreatic-intraepithelial-neoplasias-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinomas-and-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-autopsied-elderly-patients
#3
Yoko Matsuda, Masashi Tanaka, Motoji Sawabe, Seijiro Mori, Masaaki Muramatsu, Makiko Naka Mieno, Toru Furukawa, Tomio Arai
A growing body of evidence shows that the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influences individual predisposition to pancreatic cancer. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed serially autopsied, elderly Japanese patients (n = 2,205) with pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) on the basis of their pancreatic lesions, clinical information, and SNPs. The incidence of PanIN-1, -2, -3, and PDACs in these patients was 55%, 12%, 1.4%, and 2...
June 22, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639054/a-strong-relationship-between-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-dna-repair-genes
#4
Hakan Avci, Arzu Ergen, Elif Sinem Bireller, Baris Ertugrul, Bedia Cakmakoglu
Single nucleotide polymorphisms of DNA repair genes alter protein function and modulate DNA repair efficiency in various cancers. The X-ray repair cross-complementing group (XRCC) is responsible for the repair of DNA base damage and single-strand breaks. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of XRCC1 Arg399Gln and XRCC3 Thr241Met polymorphisms with the susceptibility to develop oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Turkish subjects. One hundred eleven patients with OSCC and 148 healthy controls were recruited for the study...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637624/etv6-in-hematopoiesis-and-leukemia-predisposition
#5
REVIEW
Hanno Hock, Akiko Shimamura
The ETV6 (also known as TEL) gene encodes a transcriptional repressor that plays a critical role in hematopoiesis and in embryonic development. While somatic ETV6 translocations and missense mutations are frequently observed in human cancers, the role of ETV6 in malignant transformation was unclear. Recently, autosomal dominant germline ETV6 mutations were discovered in families with inherited thrombocytopenia and a propensity to develop hematological malignancy, unequivocally demonstrating a role for ETV6 in leukemogenesis...
April 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637619/practical-considerations-for-diagnosis-and-management-of-patients-and-carriers
#6
REVIEW
Charlotte M Niemeyer, Cristina Mecucci
Newly diagnosed children and adults with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) need to be screened for presence of a genetic predisposition syndrome because the information on the genetic status is likely to influence clinical care and management of the patient and the family. Scenarios in which genetic counseling is advised include presence of a mutation on somatic screen that can be associated with a germline predisposition, hematologic or cytogenetic characteristics suggestive of an underlying susceptibility syndrome, non-hematological phenotype suspicious for a familial condition, history of previous malignancy, or a family history of cancer, cytopenia, autoimmunity, or organ-system manifestation fitting a predisposition syndrome...
April 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637618/recognition-of-familial-myeloid-neoplasia-in-adults
#7
REVIEW
Anna L Brown, Jane E Churpek, Luca Malcovati, Hartmut Döhner, Lucy A Godley
Hereditary hematologic malignancy (HM) syndromes are increasingly recognized as causative of adult hematopoietic cancers, and the advent of next-generation sequencing has accelerated the discovery of new syndromes based on dense clustering of these diseases in particular families. Updated classifications schemes for myeloid malignancies will now include recommendations for taking a family history on all patients diagnosed with hematopoietic malignancies and for genetic counseling and testing of appropriate individuals and families...
April 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637615/cancer-predisposition-syndromes-associated-with-myeloid-malignancy
#8
REVIEW
Emily Quinn, Kim E Nichols
The majority of myeloid malignancies are caused by sporadic somatic events rather than cancer predisposition. Nonetheless, the identification of hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes is critical when caring for patients with myeloid malignancies since detection may direct decisions related to cancer treatment and surveillance. A positive genetic test result also has important implications for other family members who can use this information to undergo their own testing to determine their cancer risk. We review the demographics, genetic mechanisms of disease, diagnostic approach, malignancy risk, and management for the following five cancer predisposition syndromes associated with myeloid malignancies: Li-Fraumeni, constitutional mismatch repair deficiency, Werner, Bloom, and Nijmegen breakage...
April 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637487/the-nf1-somatic-mutational-landscape-in-sporadic-human-cancers
#9
REVIEW
Charlotte Philpott, Hannah Tovell, Ian M Frayling, David N Cooper, Meena Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1: Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) #162200) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumour predisposition syndrome. Heritable constitutional mutations in the NF1 gene result in dysregulation of the RAS/MAPK pathway and are causative of NF1. The major known function of the NF1 gene product neurofibromin is to downregulate RAS. NF1 exhibits variable clinical expression and is characterized by benign cutaneous lesions including neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules, as well as a predisposition to various types of malignancy, such as breast cancer and leukaemia...
June 21, 2017: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634180/a-mutyh-germline-mutation-is-associated-with-small-intestinal-neuroendocrine-tumors
#10
Jan P Dumanski, Chiara Rasi, Peyman Björklund, Hanna Davies, Abir Salwa Ali, Malin Grönberg, Staffan Welin, Halfdan Sorbye, Henning Grønbæk, Janet Cunningham, Lars A Forsberg, Lars Lind, Erik Ingelsson, Peter Stalberg, Per Hellman, Eva Tiensuu Janson
The genetics behind predisposition to small intestinal neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) is largely unknown, but there is growing awareness of a familial form of the disease. We aimed to identify germline mutations involved in the carcinogenesis of SI-NETs. The strategy included next-generation sequencing of exome- and/or whole-genome of blood DNA, and in selected cases tumor DNA, from 24 patients from 15 families with the history of SI-NETs. We identified seven candidate mutations in six genes that were further studied using 215 sporadic SI-NET patients...
June 20, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630945/the-icr96-exon-cnv-validation-series-a-resource-for-orthogonal-assessment-of-exon-cnv-calling-in-ngs-data
#11
Shazia Mahamdallie, Elise Ruark, Shawn Yost, Emma Ramsay, Imran Uddin, Harriett Wylie, Anna Elliott, Ann Strydom, Anthony Renwick, Sheila Seal, Nazneen Rahman
Detection of deletions and duplications of whole exons (exon CNVs) is a key requirement of genetic testing. Accurate detection of this variant type has proved very challenging in targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) data, particularly if only a single exon is involved. Many different NGS exon CNV calling methods have been developed over the last five years. Such methods are usually evaluated using simulated and/or in-house data due to a lack of publicly-available datasets with orthogonally generated results...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630214/patient-derived-interstitial-fluids-and-predisposition-to-aggressive-sporadic-breast-cancer-through-collagen-remodeling-and-inactivation-of-p53
#12
Timothy Kenny, Hank Schmidt, Kerin Adelson, Yujin Hoshida, Anna P Koh, Nagma Shah, John P Mandeli, Jess Ting, Doris Germain
Despite the fact that interstitial fluid (IF) represents a third of our body fluid, it is the most poorly understood body fluid in medicine. Increased IF pressure is thought to result from the increased deposition of extracellular matrix in the affected tissue preventing its reabsorption. In the cancer field, increased rigidity surrounding a cancerous mass remains the main reason that palpation and radiological examination, such as mammography, are used for cancer detection. While the pressure produced by IF has been considered, the biochemical composition of IF has not been considered in its effect on tumors...
June 19, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623070/commentary-on-inherited-dna-repair-gene-mutations-in-men-with-metastatic-prostate-cancer-pritchard-cc-mateo-j-walsh-mf-de-sarkar-n-abida-w-beltran-h-garofalo-a-gulati-r-carreira-s-eeles-r-elemento-o-rubin-ma-robinson-d-lonigro-r-hussain-m-chinnaiyan-a-vinson
#13
Stephen J Freedland, William J Aronson
BACKGROUND: Inherited mutations in DNA-repair genes such as BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of lethal prostate cancer. Although the prevalence of germline mutations in DNA-repair genes among men with localized prostate cancer who are unselected for family predisposition is insufficient to warrant routine testing, the frequency of such mutations in patients with metastatic prostate cancer has not been established. METHODS: We recruited 692 men with documented metastatic prostate cancer who were unselected for family history of cancer or age at diagnosis...
June 13, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620890/identification-and-characterization-of-a-new-brca2-rearrangement-in-an-italian-family-with-hereditary-breast-and-ovarian-cancer-syndrome
#14
Paola Concolino, Roberta Rizza, Karl Hackmann, Angelo Minucci, Giovanni Luca Scaglione, Maria De Bonis, Alessandra Costella, Cecilia Zuppi, Evelin Schrock, Ettore Capoluongo
INTRODUCTION: Many studies document the involvement of BRCA1/2 gene rearrangements in genetic predisposition to breast and ovarian cancer. Large genomic rearrangements (LGRs) of BRCA1 account for 0-27% of all disease-causing mutations in various populations, while LGRs in BRCA2 are rarer. Here, we describe a novel BRCA2 LGR, involving the duplication of exons 4-26, in an Italian family with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to provide an effective characterization of this variant using a combination of different methods able to establish the exact breakpoints of the duplication...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620009/recommendations-for-cancer-surveillance-in-individuals-with-rasopathies-and-other-rare-genetic-conditions-with-increased-cancer-risk
#15
REVIEW
Anita Villani, Mary-Louise C Greer, Jennifer M Kalish, Akira Nakagawara, Katherine L Nathanson, Kristian W Pajtler, Stefan M Pfister, Michael F Walsh, Jonathan D Wasserman, Kristin Zelley, Christian P Kratz
In October 2016, the American Association for Cancer Research held a meeting of international childhood cancer predisposition syndrome experts to evaluate the current knowledge of these syndromes and to propose consensus surveillance recommendations. Herein, we summarize clinical and genetic aspects of RASopathies and Sotos, Weaver, Rubinstein-Taybi, Schinzel-Giedion, and NKX2-1 syndromes as well as specific metabolic disorders known to be associated with increased childhood cancer risk. In addition, the expert panel reviewed whether sufficient data exist to make a recommendation that all patients with these disorders be offered cancer surveillance...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620008/pten-dicer1-fh-and-their-associated-tumor-susceptibility-syndromes-clinical-features-genetics-and-surveillance-recommendations-in-childhood
#16
REVIEW
Kris Ann P Schultz, Surya P Rednam, Junne Kamihara, Leslie Doros, Maria Isabel Achatz, Jonathan D Wasserman, Lisa R Diller, Laurence Brugières, Harriet Druker, Katherine A Schneider, Rose B McGee, William D Foulkes
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS), DICER1 syndrome, and hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) syndrome are pleiotropic tumor predisposition syndromes that include benign and malignant neoplasms affecting adults and children. PHTS includes several disorders with shared and distinct clinical features. These are associated with elevated lifetime risk of breast, thyroid, endometrial, colorectal, and renal cancers as well as melanoma. Thyroid cancer represents the predominant cancer risk under age 20 years...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620007/von-hippel-lindau-and-hereditary-pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma-syndromes-clinical-features-genetics-and-surveillance-recommendations-in-childhood
#17
REVIEW
Surya P Rednam, Ayelet Erez, Harriet Druker, Katherine A Janeway, Junne Kamihara, Wendy K Kohlmann, Katherine L Nathanson, Lisa J States, Gail E Tomlinson, Anita Villani, Stephan D Voss, Joshua D Schiffman, Jonathan D Wasserman
Von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL) is a hereditary tumor predisposition syndrome that places affected individuals at risk for multiple tumors, which are predominantly benign and generally occur in the central nervous system or abdomen. Although the majority of tumors occur in adults, children and adolescents with the condition develop a significant proportion of vHL manifestations and are vulnerable to delayed tumor detection and their sequelae. Although multiple tumor screening paradigms are currently being utilized for patients with vHL, surveillance should be reassessed as the available relevant clinical information continues to expand...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620006/cancer-surveillance-in-gorlin-syndrome-and-rhabdoid-tumor-predisposition-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
William D Foulkes, Junne Kamihara, D Gareth R Evans, Laurence Brugières, Franck Bourdeaut, Jan J Molenaar, Michael F Walsh, Garrett M Brodeur, Lisa Diller
Gorlin syndrome and rhabdoid tumor predisposition syndrome (RTPS) are autosomal dominant syndromes associated with an increased risk of childhood-onset brain tumors. Individuals with Gorlin syndrome can manifest a wide range of phenotypic abnormalities, with about 5% of family members developing medulloblastoma, usually occurring in the first 3 years of life. Gorlin syndrome is associated with germline mutations in components of the Sonic Hedgehog pathway, including Patched1 (PTCH1) and Suppressor of fused (SUFU)SUFU mutation carriers appear to have an especially high risk of early-onset medulloblastoma...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620005/cancer-and-central-nervous-system-tumor-surveillance-in-pediatric-neurofibromatosis-2-and-related-disorders
#19
REVIEW
D Gareth R Evans, Hector Salvador, Vivian Y Chang, Ayelet Erez, Stephan D Voss, Harriet Druker, Hamish S Scott, Uri Tabori
The neurofibromatoses consist of at least three autosomal-dominant inherited disorders: neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis. For over 80 years, these conditions were inextricably tied together under generalized neurofibromatosis. In 1987, the localization of NF1 to chromosome 17q and NF2 (bilateral vestibular schwannoma) to 22q led to a consensus conference at Bethesda, Maryland. The two main neurofibromatoses, NF1 and NF2, were formally separated. More recently, the SMARCB1 and LZTR1 genes on 22q have been confirmed as causing a subset of schwannomatosis...
June 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617886/major-hereditary-gastrointestinal-cancer-syndromes-a-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Lakshmi Manogna Chintalacheruvu, Trudy Shaw, Avanija Buddam, Osama Diab, Thamer Kassim, Sandeep Mukherjee, Henry T Lynch
Gastrointestinal cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. Hereditary gastrointestinal cancer syndromes constitute about 5-10% of all cancers. About 20-25% of undiagnosed cases have a possible hereditary component, which is not yet established. In the last few decades, the advance in genomics has led to the discovery of multiple cancer predisposition genes in gastrointestinal cancer. Physicians should be aware of these syndromes to identify high-risk patients and offer genetic testing to prevent cancer death...
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
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