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Neonatal MRI

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905410/association-between-preterm-brain-injury-and-exposure-to-chorioamnionitis-during-fetal-life
#1
Devasuda Anblagan, Rozalia Pataky, Margaret J Evans, Emma J Telford, Ahmed Serag, Sarah Sparrow, Chinthika Piyasena, Scott I Semple, Alastair Graham Wilkinson, Mark E Bastin, James P Boardman
Preterm infants are susceptible to inflammation-induced white matter injury but the exposures that lead to this are uncertain. Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) reflects intrauterine inflammation, can trigger a fetal inflammatory response, and is closely associated with premature birth. In a cohort of 90 preterm infants with detailed placental histology and neonatal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data at term equivalent age, we used Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data and computational morphometry analysis to compute the volumes of whole brain, tissue compartments and cerebrospinal fluid, to test the hypothesis that HCA is an independent antenatal risk factor for preterm brain injury...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902983/perinatal-asphyxia-and-erythropoietin-and-vegf-serial-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-responses
#2
Deirdre U Sweetman, Chike Onwuneme, William R Watson, John F A Murphy, Eleanor J Molloy
BACKGROUND: Infants with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) of hypoxic-ischaemic origin are at risk of oxidative and ischaemia-reperfusion injury, which may induce abnormal inflammatory responses involving excessive cytokine production and release in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Systemic inflammation is found in infants with NE, and we therefore were interested in cytokines associated with hypoxia, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and erythropoietin (Epo). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between Epo, VEGF levels, brain injury and outcome in a group of term infants exposed to perinatal asphyxia (PA) compared to controls...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885356/magnetization-transfer-and-amide-proton-transfer-mri-of-neonatal-brain-development
#3
Yang Zheng, Xiaoming Wang, Xuna Zhao
Purpose. This study aims to evaluate the process of brain development in neonates using combined amide proton transfer (APT) imaging and conventional magnetization transfer (MT) imaging. Materials and Methods. Case data were reviewed for all patients hospitalized in our institution's neonatal ward. Patients underwent APT and MT imaging (a single protocol) immediately following the routine MR examination. Single-slice APT/MT axial imaging was performed at the level of the basal ganglia. APT and MT ratio (MTR) measurements were performed in multiple brain regions of interest (ROIs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873310/neonatal-critical-illness-and-development-white-matter-and-hippocampus-alterations-in-school-age-neonatal-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-survivors
#4
Raisa M Schiller, Gerbrich E van den Bosch, Ryan L Muetzel, Marion Smits, Jeroen Dudink, Dick Tibboel, Hanneke Ijsselstijn, Tonya White
AIM: To examine the neurobiology of long-term neuropsychological deficits after neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). METHOD: This cross-sectional study assessed white matter integrity and hippocampal volume of ECMO survivors (8-15y) and healthy children (8-17y) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) respectively. Neuropsychological outcome was evaluated in ECMO survivors. Included clinical predictors of white matter integrity: age start ECMO, ECMO duration, highest oxygenation index before ECMO, highest mean airway pressure, and mechanical ventilation duration...
November 21, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872874/preterm-neonatal-lateral-ventricle-volume-from-three-dimensional-ultrasound-is-not-strongly-correlated-to-two-dimensional-ultrasound-measurements
#5
Jessica Kishimoto, Sandrine de Ribaupierre, Fateme Salehi, Walter Romano, David S C Lee, Aaron Fenster
The aim of this study is to compare longitudinal two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound (US) estimates of ventricle size in preterm neonates with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) using quantitative measurements of the lateral ventricles. Cranial 2-D US and 3-D US images were acquired from neonatal patients with diagnosed PHVD within 10 min of each other one to two times per week and analyzed offline. Ventricle index, anterior horn width, third ventricle width, and thalamo-occipital distance were measured on the 2-D images and ventricle volume (VV) was measured from 3-D US images...
October 2016: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865668/a-small-pons-as-a-characteristic-finding-in-down-syndrome-a-quantitative-mri-study
#6
Yuta Fujii, Noriko Aida, Tetsu Niwa, Mikako Enokizono, Kumiko Nozawa, Tomio Inoue
BACKGROUND: Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal aberration, but the characteristics of the brainstem component in this condition during childhood (from newborn to preteen stages) have not been clarified. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the morphological features of the brainstem in DS on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: MRIs for 32 children with DS (16 boys and girls each; age range, 0-11years) without major brain insults, and 32 age-matched controls (16 boys and girls each) were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857788/ultrasonography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-evaluation-of-pediatric-spinal-anomalies
#7
Dhaval Durlabhbhai Dhingani, Deb Kumar Boruah, Hemonta Kumar Dutta, Rudra Kanta Gogoi
CONTEXT: Spinal dysraphisms are congenital abnormalities of the spine due to imperfect fusion of midline mesenchymal, bony and neural structures. Imaging plays a vital role in their evaluation as significant portion of patients may present with concurrent anomalies that need to be corrected simultaneously to avoid repeat surgeries. AIMS: The aims of the study were to evaluate Spinal dysraphisms using USG and MRI and to correlate imaging findings with operative findings in patients undergoing surgery...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857456/magnetic-resonance-imaging-spectrum-of-perinatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#8
Binoj Varghese, Rose Xavier, V C Manoj, M K Aneesh, P S Priya, Ashok Kumar, V K Sreenivasan
Perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury results in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and serious long-term neurodevelopmental sequelae. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain is an ideal and safe imaging modality for suspected hypoxic-ischemic injury. The pattern of injury depends on brain maturity at the time of insult, severity of hypotension, and duration of insult. Time of imaging after the insult influences the imaging findings. Mild to moderate hypoperfusion results in germinal matrix hemorrhages and periventricular leukomalacia in preterm neonates and parasagittal watershed territory infarcts in full-term neonates...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856333/novel-homozygous-missense-mutation-in-aldh7a1-causes-neonatal-pyridoxine-dependent-epilepsy
#9
Emanuele G Coci, Luca Codutti, Christian Fink, Sophie Bartsch, Gunnar Grüning, Thomas Lücke, Ingo Kurth, Joachim Riedel
Pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (PDE) (OMIM#266100) is a neonatal form of epilepsy, caused by dysfunction of the enzyme α-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH7A1 or Antiquitin). This enzyme converts α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (α-AASA) into α-aminoadipate (AAA), a critical step in the lysine metabolism of the brain. ALDH7A1 dysfunction causes an accumulation of α-AASA and δ(1)-piperideine-6-carboxylic acid (P6C), which are in equilibrium with each other. P6C binds and inactivates pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the active form of pyridoxine...
November 14, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Probes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853661/cell-therapy-with-human-dermal-fibroblasts-enhances-intervertebral-disk-repair-and-decreases-inflammation-in-the-rabbit-model
#10
Ana Chee, Peng Shi, Thomas Cha, Ting-Hsien Kao, Shu-Hua Yang, Jun Zhu, Ding Chen, Yejia Zhang, Howard S An
Study Design Pilot study using the rabbit model. Objective Low back pain is often associated with disk degeneration. Cell therapy for degenerating disks may promote tissue regeneration and repair. Human dermal fibroblasts, obtained from the patient's skin tissue or donated tissue, may be a promising cell therapy option for degenerating disks. The objective of these studies is to determine the effects of intradiscal transplantation of neonatal human dermal fibroblasts (nHDFs) on intervertebral disk (IVD) degeneration by measuring disk height, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity, gene expression, and collagen immunostaining...
December 2016: Global Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843092/rmnd1-related-leukoencephalopathy-with-temporal-lobe-cysts-and-hearing-loss-another-mendelian-mimicker-of-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection
#11
Nicole Ulrick, Amy Goldstein, Cas Simons, Ryan J Taft, Guy Helman, Amy Pizzino, Miriam Bloom, Julie Vogt, Karen Pysden, Daria Diodato, Diego Martinelli, Ahmad Monavari, Daniela Buhas, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Imen Dorboz, Odile Boespflug-Tanguy, Diana Rodriguez, Martine Tétreault, Jacek Majewski, Genevieve Bernard, Yi Shiau Ng, Robert McFarland, Adeline Vanderver
BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy with temporal lobe cysts may be associated with monogenetic conditions such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome or RNASET2 mutations and with congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus. In view of the fact that congenital cytomegalovirus is difficult to confirm outside the neonatal period, excluding a Mendelian disorder is extremely relevant, changing family planning and medical management in affected families. We performed diagnostic testing in individuals with leukoencephalopathy with temporal lobe cysts without a definitive diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection...
September 13, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834639/motion-robust-diffusion-weighted-brain-mri-reconstruction-through-slice-level-registration-based-motion-tracking
#12
Bahram Marami, Benoit Scherrer, Onur Afacan, Burak Erem, Simon K Warfield, Ali Gholipour
This work proposes a novel approach for motion-robust diffusion-weighted (DW) brain MRI reconstruction through tracking temporal head motion using slice-to-volume registration. The slice-level motion is estimated through a filtering approach that allows tracking the head motion during the scan and correcting for out-of-plane inconsistency in the acquired images. Diffusion-sensitized image slices are registered to a base volume sequentially over time in the acquisition order where an outlier-robust Kalman filter, coupled with slice-to-volume registration, estimates head motion parameters...
October 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832912/diffusion-restriction-in-the-corticospinal-tracts-and-the-corpus-callosum-in-neonates-after-cerebral-insult
#13
Monika Bekiesinska-Figatowska, Agnieszka Duczkowska, Sylwia Szkudlinska-Pawlak, Marek Duczkowski, Jaroslaw Madzik, Astra Cabaj, Katarzyna Krupa, Pawel Peczkowski, Hanna Bragoszewska
BACKGROUND: In neonatal brains diffusion restriction, which is not limited to the region of insult, but is also found in distant locations from it seems to be a frequent finding, called pre-Wallerian degeneration. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to describe these findings and to estimate the frequency of their occurrence with an attempt to determine their clinical significance. METHODS: 125 brain MRI examinations of neonates with confirmed brain damage performed or consulted in our Institute were retrospectively reviewed, focusing on the presence of restricted diffusion in corticospinal tracts (CST) and corpus callosum (CC)...
November 7, 2016: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818540/applicability-of-three-dimensional-imaging-techniques-in-fetal-medicine
#14
Heron Werner Júnior, Jorge Lopes Dos Santos, Simone Belmonte, Gerson Ribeiro, Pedro Daltro, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto, Edson Marchiori
OBJECTIVE: To generate physical models of fetuses from images obtained with three-dimensional ultrasound (3D-US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and, occasionally, computed tomography (CT), in order to guide additive manufacturing technology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used 3D-US images of 31 pregnant women, including 5 who were carrying twins. If abnormalities were detected by 3D-US, both MRI and in some cases CT scans were then immediately performed. The images were then exported to a workstation in DICOM format...
September 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809371/abnormal-neurodevelopmental-outcomes-are-very-likely-in-cases-of-bilateral-neonatal-arterial-ischaemic-stroke
#15
Ju Hyun Jin, Jeong Eun Shin, Soonmin Lee, Ho Sun Eun, Min Soo Park, Kook In Park, Ran Namgung
AIM: Neonatal arterial ischaemic stroke (AIS) is an important cause of severe neurological disability. This study aimed to analyse the clinical manifestations and outcomes of AIS patients. METHODS: We enrolled neonates with AIS admitted to Severance Children's Hospital and Gangnam Severance Hospital between 2008 and 2015. AIS was confirmed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We retrospectively reviewed the clinical manifestations, MRI findings, electroencephalography (EEG) findings and neurodevelopmental outcomes...
November 3, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797836/impact-of-demographic-and-obstetric-factors-on-infant-brain-volumes-a-population-neuroscience-study
#16
Rebecca C Knickmeyer, Kai Xia, Zhaohua Lu, Mihye Ahn, Shaili C Jha, Fei Zou, Hongtu Zhu, Martin Styner, John H Gilmore
Individual differences in neuroanatomy are associated with intellectual ability and psychiatric risk. Factors responsible for this variability remain poorly understood. We tested whether 17 major demographic and obstetric variables were associated with individual differences in brain volumes in 756 neonates assessed with MRI. Gestational age at MRI, sex, gestational age at birth, and birthweight were the most significant predictors, explaining 31% to 59% of variance. Unexpectedly, earlier born babies had larger brains than later born babies after adjusting for other predictors...
October 26, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788532/umbilical-artery-lactate-correlates-with-brain-lactate-in-term-infants
#17
Alison G Cahill, George A Macones, Christopher D Smyser, Julia D López, Terrie E Inder, Amit M Mathur
Objective The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between umbilical artery lactate with brain lactate in nonanomalous term infants. Study Design We performed a nested case-control study within an on-going prospective cohort of more than 8,000 consecutive singleton term (≥ 37 weeks) nonanomalous infants. Neonates underwent cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within the first 72 hours of life. Cases (umbilical artery pH ≤ 7.10) were gender and race matched 1:3 to controls (umbilical artery pH > 7...
October 27, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781299/mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-mri-identifiable-injury-protect-white-matter-and-improve-long-term-functional-outcomes-after-neonatal-focal-stroke-in-rats
#18
Cindy T van Velthoven, Mark Dzietko, Michael F Wendland, Nikita Derugin, Joel Faustino, Cobi J Heijnen, Donna M Ferriero, Zinaida S Vexler
Cell therapy has emerged as a potential treatment for many neurodegenerative diseases including stroke and neonatal ischemic brain injury. Delayed intranasal administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) after experimental hypoxia-ischemia and after a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) in neonatal rats has shown improvement in long-term functional outcomes, but the effects of MSCs on white matter injury (WMI) are insufficiently understood. In this study we used longitudinal T2-weighted (T2W) and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to characterize chronic injury after tMCAO induced in postnatal day 10 (P10) rats and examined the effects of delayed MSC administration on WMI, axonal coverage, and long-term somatosensory function...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769281/novel-homozygous-rars2-mutation-in-two-siblings-without-pontocerebellar-hypoplasia-further-expansion-of-the-phenotypic-spectrum
#19
S Lühl, H Bode, W Schlötzer, M Bartsakoulia, R Horvath, A Abicht, M Stenzel, J Kirschner, S C Grünert
BACKGROUND: Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 6 (PCH6) is a mitochondrial disease caused by mutations in the RARS2 gene. RARS2 encodes mitochondrial arginyl transfer RNA synthetase, an enzyme involved in mitochondrial protein translation. A total of 27 patients from 14 families have been reported so far. Characteristic clinical features comprise neonatal lactic acidosis, severe encephalopathy, intractable seizures, feeding problems and profound developmental delay. Most patients show typical neuroradiologic abnormalities including cerebellar hypoplasia and progressive pontocerebellar atrophy...
October 21, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763881/neuropathic-ulcers-among-children-with-neural-tube-defects-a-review-of-literature
#20
Anand Pandey, Vipin Gupta, Shailendra P Singh, Vijendra Kumar, Rajesh Verma
A trophic ulcer is a pressure ulcer caused by external trauma to a part of the body that is compromised due to disease, vascular insufficiency, or loss of afferent nerve fibers. Spinal dysraphism (ie, neural tube defects [NTD]) such as meningomyelocele is a risk factor for developing these ulcers in adults and pediatric patients. Information regarding the occurrence of trophic ulcers in pediatric patients with NTD is lacking. A review of the English-language literature on skin/neuropathic ulcers in patients with NTDs, irrespective of study design, published between 1975 and 2014, was undertaken using the PubMed database...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
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