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Neonatal MRI

Anand Pandey, Vipin Gupta, Shailendra P Singh, Vijendra Kumar, Rajesh Verma
A trophic ulcer is a pressure ulcer caused by external trauma to a part of the body that is compromised due to disease, vascular insufficiency, or loss of afferent nerve fibers. Spinal dysraphism (ie, neural tube defects [NTD]) such as meningomyelocele is a risk factor for developing these ulcers in adults and pediatric patients. Information regarding the occurrence of trophic ulcers in pediatric patients with NTD is lacking. A review of the English-language literature on skin/neuropathic ulcers in patients with NTDs, irrespective of study design, published between 1975 and 2014, was undertaken using the PubMed database...
December 2015: Ostomy/wound Management
Bryn Putbrese, Anne Kennedy
Ventriculomegaly (VM) is a nonspecific finding on fetal imaging. Identification of the specific etiology is important as it affects prognosis and may even change the course of current or future pregnancies. In this review we will focus on the application of fetal MRI to demonstrate intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and ischemic brain injury as opposed to other causes of VM. MRI is able to identify the specific etiology of ventriculomegaly with much more sensitivity and specificity than ultrasound and should be considered whenever VM is identified on obstetric ultrasound...
October 13, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
Gabrielle Martel, Charles-André Couture, Guillaume Gilbert, Stéphane Bancelin, Hélène Richard, Thomas Moser, Sabrina Kiss, François Légaré, Sheila Laverty
Osteochondrosis is an ischemic chondronecrosis of epiphyseal growth cartilage that results in focal failure of endochondral ossification and osteochondritis dissecans at specific sites in the epiphyses of humans and animals, including horses. The upstream events leading to the focal ischemia remain unknown. The epiphyseal growth cartilage matrix is composed of proteoglycan and collagen macromolecules and encases its vascular tree in canals. The matrix undergoes major dynamic changes in early life that could weaken it biomechanically and predispose it to focal trauma and vascular failure...
October 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Ursula I Tuor, Min Qiao, Manasi Sule, Melissa Morgunov, Tadeusz Foniok
Stroke is a major cause of disability in adults and children. Recently, we have developed an adult rat model of minor stroke containing a peri-infarct region with a modest T2 increase and mild ischemic damage. We hypothesized that a neonatal minor stroke with mild peri-ischemic changes could also be produced, but with potential ontogenic differences. Using our minor photothrombosis method, we produced a range of severities of ischemic lesions (mini, minor, moderate and severe) within magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) slices of adult and neonatal rats...
October 12, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Bonnie Alexander, Andrea L Murray, Wai Yen Loh, Lillian G Matthews, Chris Adamson, Richard Beare, Jian Chen, Claire E Kelly, Sandra Rees, Simon K Warfield, Peter J Anderson, Lex W Doyle, Alicia J Spittle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Marc L Seal, Deanne K Thompson
Investigating neonatal brain structure and function can offer valuable insights into behaviour and cognition in healthy and clinical populations; both at term age, and longitudinally in comparison with later time points. Parcellated brain atlases for adult populations are readily available, however warping infant data to adult template space is not ideal due to morphological and tissue differences between these groups. Several parcellated neonatal atlases have been developed, although there remains strong demand for manually parcellated ground truth data with detailed cortical definition...
October 7, 2016: NeuroImage
Ursula I Tuor, Manasi Sule, Min Qiao
PURPOSE: To determine whether damage to neonatal brain is exacerbated with multiple mild cerebral insults as detected with MRI and corroborated using histology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The combined brain injury produced by multiple procedures was compared in neonatal rats having: Sham surgery at P5, Sham surgery at P5 plus a diffuse mild transient unilateral cerebral hypoxia ischemia (HI) at P7, HI alone, and a minor photothrombotic (PT) stroke at P5 followed by HI...
October 1, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Masahito Sato, Yoshinori Hamada, Miyuki Kohno, Kazuya Ise, Keiichi Uchida, Hiromi Ogata, Hiroaki Masuyama, Yoshiki Morotomi, Masao Yasufuku, Motoshi Wada
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to identify the current clinical features of neonatal gastrointestinal perforation in Japan. METHODS: A questionnaire about cases of neonatal gastrointestinal perforation treated in recent 5 years was sent to participating institutions of the Japanese Society of Pediatric Surgeons (JSPS). RESULTS: Five hundred and thirty-six neonates with gastrointestinal perforation were treated. They consisted of 42 patients with gastric rupture/perforation (GR), 33 patients with intestinal atresia/stenosis (IA), 3 patients with malrotation (ML), 118 patients with necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), 160 patients with focal intestinal perforation (FIP), 46 patients with meconium-related ileus (MRI), 77 patients with meconium peritonitis (MP), and 57 patients with other conditions...
September 30, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Monika Bekiesińska-Figatowska, Ewa Helwich, Magdalena Rutkowska, Joanna Stankiewicz, Iwona Terczyńska
INTRODUCTION: The authors present the first experience in neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations using an MR compatible incubator (INC) at the Institute of Mother and Child. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty-nine examinations of 47 newborns (20 girls, 27 boys) were performed using the GE Signa HDxt 1.5T system and INC Nomag IC 1.5. Demographic data, anesthetic methods and MRI findings in the INC in comparison with previously performed imaging were analyzed...
October 1, 2016: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Li-Xia Zhou, Su-Zhen Dong, Ming-Feng Zhang
PURPOSE: To present three fetal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAMs), which were diagnosed through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and highlight these cardiovascular findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed three fetuses with VGAM at 31, 32, and 33 weeks of gestation. Feeding arteries and draining veins were observed by MRI. Secondary changes in the brain and high-output heart failure caused by high blood flow in the lesion were evaluated...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
L Reaney, V Livingstone, C Bogue, E M Dempsey, P M Filan
Therapeutic hypothermia is now the standard of care for infants with moderate to severe hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy. Sixty-three infants received therapeutic hypothermia at Cork University Maternity Hospital (CUMH) from 2010-2014. Median gestational age was 40 weeks. Eighteen (29%) infants were Sarnat grade 3, 41(65%) grade 2 and 4(6%) grade 1. Nineteen outborn infants arrived in CUMH at a median (IQR) age of 310 (270, 420) minutes. Four (21%) outborn infants were within the target temperature range on arrival...
2016: Irish Medical Journal
M E Harvey, M E Redshaw
OBJECTIVE: To explore communication and interaction between parents and clinicians following neonatal ultrasound (US) and MRI of the brain of babies born preterm. SETTING: This qualitative study was undertaken as part of a larger UK study of neonatal brain imaging. 511 infants were cared for in 14 London neonatal units with MR and cerebral US imaging in a specialist centre. PARTICIPANTS: Parents with infants born at <33 weeks gestation were randomised to receive prognostic information based on either MRI or US findings on their infants at term-corrected age...
2016: BMJ Open
Lillian M Lai, Joseph Y Cheng, Marcus T Alley, Tao Zhang, Michael Lustig, Shreyas S Vasanawala
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of ferumoxytol-enhanced anesthesia-free cardiac MRI in neonates and young infants for complex congenital heart disease (CHD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: With Institutional Review Board approval, 21 consecutive neonates and young infants (1 day to 11 weeks old; median age of 3 days) who underwent a rapid two-sequence (MR angiography [MRA] and four-dimensional [4D] flow) MRI protocol with intravenous ferumoxytol without sedation (n = 17) or light sedation (n = 4) at 3 Tesla (T) (except one case at 1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
X Li, A Andres, K Shankar, R T Pivik, C M Glasier, R H Ramakrishnaiah, Y Zhang, T M Badger, X Ou
Recent studies have shown associations between maternal obesity at pre- or early pregnancy and long-term neurodevelopment in children, suggesting in utero effects of maternal obesity on offspring brain development. In this study, we examined whether brain functional connectivity to the prefrontal lobe network is different in newborns from normal-weight or obese mothers. Thirty-four full-term healthy infants from uncomplicated pregnancies were included, with 18 born to normal-weight and 16 born to obese mothers...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Mickaël Dinomais
Long-term motor performances after unilateral neonatal stroke are variable. The presence of motor deficits may be related to structural characteristic (size and location) of the infarct site but also in brain area remote from this injury (cerebellum and thalamus). Analyzing in functional MRI and structural MRI the relationship between long-term motor performance and motor system after neonatal stroke could provide cerebral target for therapy.
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Floris Groenendaal, Linda S de Vries
In the past brain imaging of term infants with HIE was performed with cranial ultrasound (cUS) and computed tomography (CT). Both techniques have several disadvantages, sensitivity and specificity are limited compared to MRI, and CT makes use of radiation.At present MRI including diffusion weighted MRI during the first week of life, has become the method of choice for imaging infants with HIE. In addition to imaging, blood vessels and blood flow can be visualized using MR angiography, MR venography, and arterial spin labeling...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Research
Reeba M Jacob, Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Chron-Si Lai, Ryan N Dilger
INTRODUCTION: Provision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared (SR) or artificially reared (AR) in an artificial setting. METHODS: Over a 25-day feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Teruyoshi Kageji, Takeshi Miyamoto, Yumiko Kotani, Tsuyoshi Kaji, Yoshimi Bando, Yoshifumi Mizobuchi, Kohei Nakajima, Shinji Nagahiro
PURPOSE: Craniopharyngiomas are 5-10 % of all pediatric tumors, but are seldomly encountered in the perinatal period. Only seven instances of a truly antenatal diagnosis of a congenital craniopharyngioma that subsequently underwent radical surgery have been reported. We present the case of a patient who received the diagnosis of a suprasellar tumor during the prenatal period and received radical surgery. METHODS: We report a case of a neonatal craniopharyngioma treated surgically...
September 26, 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sevan A Vahanian, Anthony M Vintzileos
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Placental implantation abnormalities (PIAs) comprise a large group of disorders associated with significant maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity. RECENT FINDINGS: Risk factors include prior uterine surgery/myometrial scarring and the presence of placenta previa with or without prior cesarean delivery. Newly identified risk factors include previous prelabor cesarean delivery and previous postpartum hemorrhage. PIAs contribute substantially to preterm birth with prematurity rates ranging from 38 to 82%...
September 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Sachiko Iwata, Reiji Katayama, Masahiro Kinoshita, Mamoru Saikusa, Yuko Araki, Sachio Takashima, Toshi Abe, Osuke Iwata
Regional brain sizes of very-preterm infants at term-equivalent age differ from those of term-born peers, which have been linked with later cognitive impairments. However, dependence of regional brain volume loss on gestational age has not been studied in detail. To investigate the spatial pattern of brain growth in neonates without destructive brain lesions, head MRI of 189 neonates with a wide range of gestational age (24-42 weeks gestation) was assessed using simple metrics measurements. Dependence of MRI findings on gestational age at birth (Agebirth) and the corrected age at MRI scan (AgeMRI) were assessed...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ala Birca, Vasily A Vakorin, Prashob Porayette, Sujana Madathil, Vann Chau, Mike Seed, Sam M Doesburg, Susan Blaser, Dragos A Nita, Rohit Sharma, Emma G Duerden, Edward J Hickey, Steven P Miller, Cecil D Hahn
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether structural and microstructural brain abnormalities in neonates with congenital heart disease (CHD) correlate with neuronal network dysfunction measured by analysis of EEG connectivity. METHODS: We studied a prospective cohort of 20 neonates with CHD who underwent continuous EEG monitoring before surgery to assess functional brain maturation and network connectivity, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the presence of brain injury and structural brain development, and diffusion tensor MRI to assess brain microstructural development...
September 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
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