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Pharmacoepidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097680/development-of-a-novel-algorithm-for-detecting-glucocorticoid-induced-diabetes-mellitus-using-a-medical-information-database
#1
T Imatoh, K Sai, K Hori, K Segawa, J Kawakami, M Kimura, Y Saito
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Glucocorticoid-induced diabetes mellitus (GIDM) increases the risk of diabetes mellitus (DM)-related complications but is generally difficult to detect in clinical settings. The criteria for diagnosing GIDM have not been established. Recently, medical information databases (MIDs) have been used in post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies. We conducted a pharmacoepidemiological study to develop an algorithm for detecting GIDM using MID. METHODS: We selected 1214 inpatients who were newly prescribed with a typical glucocorticoid, prednisolone, during hospitalization from 2008 to 2014 from an MID of Hamamatsu University Hospital in Japan...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093722/triptan-use-in-australia-1997-2015-a-pharmacoepidemiological-study
#2
B L K D Eyre, M J Eadie, M L van Driel, L Ross-Lee, S A Hollingworth
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the use of triptan derivatives in Australia between 1997 and 2015, based on a national drug reimbursement database, and compared patterns of use with available international data. METHODS: We obtained publically available data on the number of prescriptions for triptans marketed in Australia (sumatriptan, eletriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan). Dispensed use was measured as defined daily dose (DDD per 1000 population per day) for Australia's concessional beneficiaries (low-income earners, people with disabilities, and seniors)...
January 16, 2017: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079518/angiotensin-receptor-blockers-and-the-risk-of-cancer-data-mining-of-a-spontaneous-reporting-database-and-a-claims-database%C3%A2
#3
Mai Fujimoto, Migiwa Kanou, Kouichi Hosomi, Mitsutaka Takada
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and the risk of 10 major cancers by employing different pharmacoepidemiological assessments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the first quarter of 2004 through 2012 were downloaded from the US Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The reporting odds ratio (ROR) and information component (IC) were used to detect the signals...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068462/extent-time-course-and-moderators-of-antipsychotic-treatment-in-youth-with-mood-disorders-results-of-a-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-analyses
#4
Chiara Cervesi, Su Young Park, Britta Galling, Silvia Molteni, Gabriele Masi, Tobias Gerhard, Mark Olfson, Christoph U Correll
OBJECTIVE: To meta-analytically examine the trends and correlates of antipsychotic use in youth with mood disorders. METHODS: Systematic literature search without language restriction in PubMed/MEDLINE/PsycINFO from database inception through March 2015 using the following search terms: (antipsychotic* OR neuroleptic* OR "dopamine blocker*" OR antidopaminergic) AND (child* OR adolescen* OR pediatric OR youth) AND (prescription* OR prescrib* OR use OR utilization OR database OR pharmacoepidemiolog* OR frequency OR rate OR rates)...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017849/diffusion-of-innovations-model-helps-interpret-the-comparative-uptake-of-two-methodological-innovations-co-authorship-network-analysis-and-recommendations-for-the-integration-of-novel-methods-in-practice
#5
Suzanne M Cadarette, Joann K Ban, Giulia P Consiglio, Cody D Black, Mina Tadrous, Alexandra Marin, David Dubins
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the diffusion of methodological innovation. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Comparative case study analysis of the diffusion of two methods that summarize confounder information into a single score: disease risk score (DRS), and high-dimensional propensity score (hdPS). We completed systematic searches to identify DRS and hdPS papers in the field of pharmacoepidemiology through to the end of 2013, plotted the number of papers and unique authors over time, and created sociograms and animations to visualize co-authorship networks...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005253/diverging-conclusions-from-the-same-meta-analysis-in-drug-safety-source-of-data-primary-versus-secondary-takes-a-toll
#6
Guillermo Prada-Ramallal, Bahi Takkouche, Adolfo Figueiras
INTRODUCTION: Meta-analyses of observational studies represent an important tool for assessing efficacy and safety in the pharmacoepidemiologic field. The data from the individual studies are either primary (i.e., collected through interviews or self-administered questionnaires) or secondary (i.e., collected from databases that were established for other purposes). So far, the origin of the data (primary vs. secondary) has not been systematically assessed as a source of heterogeneity in pharmacoepidemiologic meta-analyses...
December 22, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995959/a-nationwide-cross-sectional-survey-on-prevalence-management-and-pharmacoepidemiology-patterns-on-hypertension-in-chinese-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#7
Wen Zhang, Wei Shi, Zhangsuo Liu, Yong Gu, Qinkai Chen, Weijie Yuan, Yanlin Zhang, Li Gong, Rong Zhou, Mingxu Li, Hong Cheng, Jian Liu, Jun Cen, Chaoxing Huang, Yeping Ren, Peiju Mao, Changying Xing, Fuyuan Hong, Dongsheng Jiang, Li Wang, Gang Xu, Jianshe Liu, Nan Chen
Limited data are available on epidemiology and drug use in Chinese hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We determined the prevalence; awareness, treatment, and control rates of hypertension; anti-hypertensive use, expenditure pattern; and factors associated with hypertension prevalence and control in Chinese patients with CKD. This was one of the largest cross-sectional surveys that enrolled 6079 CKD participants (mean age, 51.0 ± 16.37 years) with or without hypertension from 22 centres across China...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984423/evaluation-of-medication-mediated-effects-in-pharmacoepidemiology
#8
Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Kelesitse Phiri
Medical conditions such as epilepsy or infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are known to be associated with a spectrum of adverse health outcomes if not appropriately managed by efficacious treatment and care. Medications for such conditions can be potent, and their use might sometimes have unintended health consequences. Prominent examples have emerged in HIV perinatal research in which use of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy to treat maternal HIV infection and prevent transmission of the virus to the fetus have been shown to be associated with adverse birth outcomes...
December 12, 2016: Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981373/-combined-treatment-of-bps-with-tamsulosin-and-finasteride-literature-review-and-prescription-data
#9
K Höfner, S Ulrich, R Berges
Combined therapy of benign prostatic syndrome (BPS) with α1-blockers and 5α-reductase (5AR)-inhibitors is recommended according to two leading studies on doxazosin/finasteride and tamsulosin/dutasteride for all 10 in Germany possible combinations (five α1-blockers and two 5AR inhibitors). Because tamsulosin and finasteride predominate in the treatment of BPS in Germany, the role of the combination tamsulosin/finasteride and its scientific basis from clinical studies has been investigated. A pharmacoepidemiological extrapolation from receipts of pharmacy data centres showed a strong increase of the combination tamsulosin/finasteride since 2003...
December 15, 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27972747/quinolones-utilization-in-two-tertiary-hospitals-in-nigeria-a-pharmacoepidemiological-survey
#10
B Ogbonna, L Eze, C Ogbonna, C Ejim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957745/exploring-new-zealand-prescription-data-using-sequence-symmetry-analyses-for-predicting-adverse-drug-reactions
#11
P S Nishtala, T-Y Chyou
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Prescription sequence symmetry analyses (PSSA) is a ubiquitous tool employed in pharmacoepidemiological research to predict adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Several studies have reported the advantage of PSSA as a method that can be applied to a large prescription database with computational ease. The objective of this study was to validate New Zealand (NZ) prescription database as a potential source for identifying ADRs using the PSSA method. METHODS: We analysed de-identified individual-level prescription data for people aged 65 years and above for the period 2005 to 2014 from the pharmaceutical collections supplied by the NZ Ministry of Health...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943125/identifying-high-risk-medications-associated-with-acute-kidney-injury-in-critically-ill-patients-a-pharmacoepidemiologic-evaluation
#12
Morgan B Slater, Andrea Gruneir, Paula A Rochon, Andrew W Howard, Gideon Koren, Christopher S Parshuram
BACKGROUND: Nephrotoxic medications are a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Critically ill children receive more medication than other inpatients; however, the risk of nephrotoxic medication-induced AKI in these children is not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between exposure to nephrotoxic medications in the intensive care unit (ICU) and the development of AKI amongst critically ill children, adjusting for differences in underlying risk...
December 9, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930495/risk-of-gambling-disorder-and-impulse-control-disorder-with-aripiprazole-pramipexole-and-ropinirole-a-pharmacoepidemiologic-study
#13
Mahyar Etminan, Mohit Sodhi, Ali Samii, Ric M Procyshyn, Michael Guo, Bruce C Carleton
BACKGROUND: Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration issued a warning regarding the potential risk of gambling disorder, but large epidemiologic studies are lacking. METHODS: We used a large health claims database from the United States and conducted a nested case-control study. Cases were defined as subjects newly diagnosed with gambling disorder or impulse control disorder. For each case, 10 controls were selected and matched to cases by age and follow-up time and calendar time...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906047/propranolol-and-survival-from-breast-cancer-a-pooled-analysis-of-european-breast-cancer-cohorts
#14
Chris R Cardwell, Anton Pottegård, Evelien Vaes, Hans Garmo, Liam J Murray, Chris Brown, Pauline A J Vissers, Michael O'Rorke, Kala Visvanathan, Deirdre Cronin-Fenton, Harlinde De Schutter, Mats Lambe, Des G Powe, Myrthe P P van Herk-Sukel, Anna Gavin, Søren Friis, Linda Sharp, Kathleen Bennett
BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated that propranolol inhibits several pathways involved in breast cancer progression and metastasis. We investigated whether breast cancer patients who used propranolol, or other non-selective beta-blockers, had reduced breast cancer-specific or all-cause mortality in eight European cohorts. METHODS: Incident breast cancer patients were identified from eight cancer registries and compiled through the European Cancer Pharmacoepidemiology Network...
December 1, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905352/-future-perspective-of-pharmacoepidemiology-in-the-big-data-era-and-the-growth-of-information-sources
#15
Diego Macías Saint-Gerons, César de la Fuente Honrubia, Fernando de Andrés Trelles, Ferrán Catalá-López Catalá-López
The arrival of new drug into the market requires many years of previous research along with the need of continuous evaluation throughout the lifetime of the drug. This warrants pharmacoepidemiological research which may be defined as the study of the use and the effects of drugs in large populations. Nowadays this type of research seems more feasible thanks to the massive expansion of the information sources and data (e.g: clinical patient registries, electronic medical records). However there is a risk of information overload, fragmented evidence and given the enthusiasm aroused by the "Big Data", it must be emphasized that its nature is mainly observational, and therefore subject to bias and confusion...
December 1, 2016: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894223/-oncology-medications-prescription-in-a-cancer-service-appropriateness-to-clinical-practice-guidelines
#16
Valeria Palchik, María Luz Traverso, Marisel Colautti, Mariela Bianchi, Lucía Dolza, José María Catena, Mercedes Salamano
OBJECTIVE: To assess prescription of oncology medications in municipal public health network of Rosario for its appropriateness to clinical practice guidelines. METHODS: Descriptive pharmacoepidemiological study in adult patients in an Oncology Service between January and June 2012. Compliance requirements with clinical practice guidelines were evaluated. RESULTS: 51.8% of diagnoses had at least one prescription medication that did not match recommendation by at least one of the guides considered...
November 1, 2016: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891526/comparative-effectiveness-research-using-observational-data-active-comparators-to-emulate-target-trials-with-inactive-comparators
#17
Anders Huitfeldt, Miguel A Hernan, Mette Kalager, James M Robins
INTRODUCTION: Because a comparison of noninitiators and initiators of treatment may be hopelessly confounded, guidelines for the conduct of observational research often recommend using an "active" comparator group consisting of people who initiate a treatment other than the medication of interest. In this paper, we discuss the conditions under which this approach is valid if the goal is to emulate a trial with an inactive comparator. IDENTIFICATION OF EFFECTS: We provide conditions under which a target trial in a subpopulation can be validly emulated from observational data, using an active comparator that is known or believed to be inactive for the outcome of interest...
2016: EGEMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889931/new-use-of-prescription-drugs-prior-to-a-cancer-diagnosis
#18
Anton Pottegård, Jesper Hallas
PURPOSE: Cancers often have considerable induction periods. This confers a risk of reverse causation bias in studies of cancer risk associated with drug use, as early symptoms of a yet undiagnosed cancer might lead to drug treatment in the period leading up to the diagnosis. This bias can be alleviated by disregarding exposure for some time before the cancer diagnosis (lag time). We aimed at assessing the duration of lag time needed to avoid reverse causation bias. METHODS: We identified all Danish patients with incident cancer between 2000 and 2012 (n = 353 087)...
November 27, 2016: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880853/risk-of-stroke-after-herpes-zoster-evidence-from-a-german-self-controlled-case-series-study
#19
Tania Schink, Sigrid Behr, Kathrin Thöne, Hélène Bricout, Edeltraut Garbe
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is caused by reactivation of the latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV). A severe complication of HZ is VZV vasculopathy which can result in ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. The aims of our study were to assess the risk of stroke after the onset of HZ and to investigate the roles of stroke subtype, HZ location and the time interval between HZ onset and stroke. METHODS: A self-controlled case-series study was performed on a cohort of patients with incident stroke recorded in the German Pharmacoepidemiological Research Database (GePaRD), which covers about 20 million persons throughout Germany...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860332/ezetimibe-use-costs-and-adverse-events-in-australia
#20
Samantha A Hollingworth, Remo Ostino, Michael C David, Jennifer H Martin, Susan E Tett
AIM: To analyze the subsidized use and reported adverse events of ezetimibe, used to lower cholesterol, in Australia over the 11 years following its inclusion on the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) in 2004. METHODS: Pharmacoepidemiological analysis of dispensed prescriptions from Medicare Australia. Adverse event data were obtained from the Therapeutic Goods Administration. Use was measured by the defined daily dose (DDD) per 1000 population per day for each calendar year...
February 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
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