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Pharmacoepidemiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329338/pharmacoepidemiological-assessment-of-adherence-and-influencing-co-factors-among-primary-open-angle-glaucoma-patients-an-observational-cohort-study
#1
Stefanie Frech, Daniel Kreft, Rudolf F Guthoff, Gabriele Doblhammer
The goal of this study was to assess the adherence of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients to medication, and to determine co-factors influencing adherence, using a representative sample of members of the largest German public health insurer. The observational cohort study was based on a longitudinal data set from 2010-2013 and included 250,000 insured persons aged 50 and older with 10,120 diagnosed POAG patients. Uni- and multivariate analysis was performed to investigate several aspects of glaucoma, such as prevalence, adherence, and co-factors influencing adherence...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327451/strengthening-standards-transparency-and-collaboration-to-support-medicine-evaluation-ten-years-of-the-european-network-of-centres-for-pharmacoepidemiology-and-pharmacovigilance-encepp
#2
Xavier Kurz, Susana Perez-Gutthann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321922/longitudinal-pharmacoepidemiological-and-health-services-research-for-substance-users-in-treatment-protocol-of-the-belgian-tdi-ima-linkage
#3
Luk Van Baelen, Karin De Ridder, Jérôme Antoine, Lies Gremeaux
Background: Not much is known about the health seeking behavior of people with substance use disorders before they enter specialized treatment and afterwards. This paper explains in detail the protocol that has been followed to establish the Belgian TDI-IMA-database, which is linking two separate databases: the Treatment Demand Indicator (TDI) and the database of the Intermutualistic Agency (IMA). The Treatment Demand Indicator is measuring incidence of people with substance use disorders entering drug treatment...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310575/a-comparison-of-estimators-from-self-controlled-case-series-case-crossover-design-and-sequence-symmetry-analysis-for-pharmacoepidemiological-studies
#4
Yoshinori Takeuchi, Tomohiro Shinozaki, Yutaka Matsuyama
BACKGROUND: Despite the frequent use of self-controlled methods in pharmacoepidemiological studies, the factors that may bias the estimates from these methods have not been adequately compared in real-world settings. Here, we comparatively examined the impact of a time-varying confounder and its interactions with time-invariant confounders, time trends in exposures and events, restrictions, and misspecification of risk period durations on the estimators from three self-controlled methods...
January 8, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287033/impact-of-new-medications-and-4-generic-programs-on-overactive-bladder-treatment-among-older-adults-in-the-united-states-2000-2015
#5
Alan C Kinlaw, Michele Jonsson Funk, Mitchell M Conover, Virginia Pate, Alayne D Markland, Jennifer M Wu
BACKGROUND: Despite several new medications being Food and Drug Administration-approved for overactive bladder (OAB) and new prescription drug payment programs, there are limited population-based data regarding OAB medication use among older adults. OBJECTIVES: To examine: (1) impacts of new medications and $4 generic programs on time trends for OAB-related medication dispensing for older adults in the United States; (2) differences by age and sex; and (3) temporal changes in OAB-related medication payments...
December 28, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285840/methods-for-time-varying-exposure-related-problems-in-pharmacoepidemiology-an-overview
#6
REVIEW
Laura Pazzagli, Marie Linder, Mingliang Zhang, Emese Vago, Paul Stang, David Myers, Morten Andersen, Shahram Bahmanyar
PURPOSE: Lack of control for time-varying exposures can lead to substantial bias in estimates of treatment effects. The aim of this study is to provide an overview and guidance on some of the available methodologies used to address problems related to time-varying exposure and confounding in pharmacoepidemiology and other observational studies. The methods are explored from a conceptual rather than an analytical perspective. METHODS: The methods described in this study have been identified exploring the literature concerning to the time-varying exposure concept and basing the search on four fundamental pharmacoepidemiological problems, construction of treatment episodes, time-varying confounders, cumulative exposure and latency, and treatment switching...
December 28, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250905/validity-of-diagnostic-codes-to-identify-hospitalizations-for-infections-among-patients-treated-with-oral-anti-diabetic-drugs
#7
M Elle Saine, Mona Gizaw, Dena M Carbonari, Craig W Newcomb, Jason A Roy, Serena Cardillo, Daina B Esposito, Harshvinder Bhullar, Arlene M Gallagher, Brian L Strom, Vincent Lo Re
PURPOSE: Identification of hospitalizations for infection is important for post-marketing surveillance of drugs, but the validity of using diagnosis codes to identify these events is unknown. Differentiating between hospitalization for and with infection is important, as the latter is common and less likely to arise from pre-admission exposure to drugs. We determined positive predictive values (PPVs) of diagnostic coding-based algorithms to identify hospitalization for infection among patients prescribed oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs)...
December 18, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226327/medication-use-and-kidney-cancer-survival-a-population-based-study
#8
Madhur Nayan, David N Juurlink, Peter C Austin, Erin M Macdonald, Antonio Finelli, Girish S Kulkarni, Robert J Hamilton
Several studies demonstrate that use of commonly-prescribed medications is associated with improved survival in various malignancies. Methods of classifying medication use in many of these studies, however, do not account for intermittent or cumulative use. Moreover, there are limited data in kidney cancer. Therefore, we performed a population-based cohort study utilizing healthcare databases in Ontario, Canada. We identified patients aged ≥65 with an incident diagnosis of kidney cancer between 1997-2013 and examined use of nine putative anti-neoplastic medications using prescription claims...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226066/instrumental-variable-analyses-in-pharmacoepidemiology-what-target-trials-do-we-emulate
#9
REVIEW
Sonja A Swanson
Purpose of review: When leveraging observational data to estimate treatment effects, it is useful to explicitly specify the "target trial" the investigators aspire to emulate. One concern is whether a proposed analysis plan can address the realities of the differences between the available non-randomized observational study and the target trial. When large or unknown sources of unmeasured confounding are suspected, investigators might consider turning to instrumental variable (IV) methods...
2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224509/algorithms-used-to-identify-ventricular-arrhythmias-and-sudden-cardiac-death-in-retrospective-studies-a-systematic-literature-review
#10
Yizhou Ye, E Paul Larrat, Aisling R Caffrey
Drug-induced QT interval prolongation may increase the risk of sudden cardiac death or ventricular arrhythmias (SCD/VA), and therefore affects the safety profile of medications. Administrative databases can be used to inform pharmacoepidemiologic drug safety studies for such rare events. In order to compare event rates between studies, validated operational definitions of these events are needed. We conducted a systematic literature review in PubMed to identify algorithms for SCD/VA. Twenty-two studies were included in the review...
December 1, 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206336/claims-based-studies-of-oral-glucose-lowering-medications-can-achieve-balance-in-critical-clinical-parameters-only-observed-in-electronic-health-records
#11
E Patorno, C Gopalakrishnan, J M Franklin, K G Brodovicz, E Masso-Gonzalez, D B Bartels, J Liu, S Schneeweiss
BACKGROUND: Healthcare claims databases can provide information on the effects of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) medications as used in routine care, but often do not contain data on important clinical characteristics, which may be captured in electronic health records (EHR). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the extent to which balance in unmeasured patient characteristics was achieved in claims data, by comparing against more detailed information from linked EHR data. METHODS: Within a large US commercial insurance database and using a cohort design, we identified T2DM patients initiating linagliptin or a comparator agent within class (i...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205633/a-combined-connectivity-mapping-and-pharmacoepidemiology-approach-to-identify-existing-medications-with-breast-cancer-causing-or-preventing-properties
#12
John Busby, Liam Murray, Ken Mills, Shu-Dong Zhang, Fabio Liberante, Chris R Cardwell
PURPOSE: We applied a novel combined connectivity mapping and pharmacoepidemiological approach to identify medications that alter breast cancer risk. METHODS: The connectivity mapping process identified 6 potentially cancer-causing (meloxicam, azithromycin, rizatriptan, citalopram, rosiglitazone, and verapamil) and 4 potentially cancer-preventing (bendroflumethiazide, sertraline, fluvastatin, and budesonide) medications that were suitable for pharmacoepidemiological investigation...
December 4, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204332/estimating-effects-of-dynamic-treatment-strategies-in-pharmacoepidemiologic-studies-with-time-varying-confounding-a-primer
#13
Xiaojuan Li, Jessica G Young, Sengwee Toh
Purpose of review: Pharmacoepidemiologists are often interested in estimating the effects of dynamic treatment strategies, where treatments are modified based on patients' evolving characteristics. For such problems, appropriate control of both baseline and time-varying confounders is critical. Conventional methods that control confounding by including time-varying treatments and confounders in an outcome regression model may not have a causal interpretation, even when all baseline and time-varying confounders are measured...
December 2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204331/pharmacoepidemiology-in-the-era-of-real-world-evidence
#14
Sengwee Toh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Current Epidemiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202630/concurrent-new-drug-prescriptions-and-prognosis-of-early-breast-cancer-studies-using-the-danish-breast-cancer-group-clinical-database
#15
Deirdre Cronin-Fenton, Timothy L Lash, Thomas P Ahern, Per Damkier, Peer Christiansen, Bent Ejlertsen, Henrik T Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Myriad reports suggest that frequently used prescription drugs alter the viability of breast cancer cells in pre-clinical studies. Routine use of these drugs, therefore, may impact breast cancer prognosis, and could have important implications for public health. METHODS: The Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) clinical database provides high-quality prospectively collected data on breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and routine follow-up for breast cancer recurrence...
December 5, 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200891/conditioning-on-future-exposure-to-define-study-cohorts-can-induce-bias-the-case-of-low-dose-acetylsalicylic-acid-and-risk-of-major-bleeding
#16
Jennifer L Lund, Erzsébet Horváth-Puhó, Szimonetta Komjáthiné Szépligeti, Henrik Toft Sørensen, Lars Pedersen, Vera Ehrenstein, Til Stürmer
Background: A principle of cohort studies is that cohort membership is defined by current rather than future exposure information. Pharmacoepidemiologic studies using existing databases are vulnerable to violation of this principle. We evaluated the impact of using data on future redemption of prescriptions to determine cohort membership, motivated by a published example seeking to emulate a "per-protocol" association between continuous versus never use of low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and major bleeding (e...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200789/pharmacovigilance-a-public-health-priority-for-south-africa
#17
Ushma Mehta, Emma Kalk, Andrew Boulle, Portia Nkambule, Joey Gouws, Helen Rees, Karen Cohen
South Africa has been engaged in pharmacovigilance (PV) activities to assess the impact of adverse drug reactions on public safety and health for 40 years. Activities have evolved from passive regulatory reporting to encompass active surveillance systems. The HIV and AIDS and TB epidemics stimulated pharmacoepidemiological research into the risks associated with medicines used in the standardised regimens of mass treatment programmes. Specific safety concerns, supported by robust local cohort data, have prompted major changes to national and international treatment policies...
2017: South African Health Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198514/erectile-dysfunction-medications-and-treatment-for-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-a-pharmacoepidemiologic-study
#18
Sean C Skeldon, Lucy Cheng, Steven G Morgan, Allan S Detsky, S Larry Goldenberg, Michael R Law
BACKGROUND: Erectile dysfunction (ED) can be a sentinel marker for future cardiovascular disease and has been described as providing a "window of curability" for men to receive targeted cardiovascular risk assessment. AIM: To determine whether the prescription of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) for ED leads to the detection and treatment of previously undiagnosed cardiometabolic risk factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective population-based cohort study of residents of British Columbia, Canada using linked health care databases from 2004 to 2011...
December 2017: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197646/one-stage-and-two-stage-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data-led-to-consistent-summarized-evidence-lessons-learned-from-combining-multiple-databases
#19
Lorenza Scotti, Federico Rea, Giovanni Corrao
OBJECTIVE: Combining multiple healthcare databases allows comparing the effects of a wide variety of healthcare services. There is a growing interest in methods for combining the results from multiple databases. We attempted to learn lessons about the performance of one-stage and two-stage approaches from the re-analysis of data drawn from two studies of pharmacoepidemiology based on multiple databases. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Two nested case-control studies were carried out for estimating the tricyclic antidepressants-arrhythmia and etoricoxib-heart failure associations, respectively from the Italian I-GrADE and the European SOS programs...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195144/quantification-of-amlodipine-in-dried-blood-spot-samples-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Gaoyun Chen, Feras Jirjees, Abdel Al Bawab, James C McElnay
A sensitive and specific method, utilising high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitative determination of amlodipine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a Waters XBridge C18 column with gradient elution of a mixture of water and acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid (v/v). Amlodipine was quantified using a Waters Quattro Premier mass spectrometer coupled with an electro-spray ionization (ESI) source in positive ion mode...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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