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Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Lilla Bonanno, Silvia Marino, Pietro Ciolli, Margherita Russo, Daniele Bruschetta, Antonio Duca, Fabio Trimarchi, Angelo Quartarone, Giuseppe Anastasi
According to the classical view, the cerebellum has long been confined to motor control physiology; however, it has now become evident that it exerts several non-somatic features other than the coordination of movement and is engaged also in the regulation of cognition and emotion. In a previous diffusion-weighted imaging-constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) tractography study, we demonstrated the existence of a direct cerebellum-hippocampal pathway, thus reinforcing the hypothesis of the cerebellar role in non-motor domains...
October 24, 2016: Cerebellum
Judy A Kipping, Ta Ahn Tuan, Marielle V Fortier, Anqi Qiu
Evidence from clinical studies shows that early cerebellar injury can cause abnormal development of the cerebral cortex in children. Characterization of normative development of the cerebellar and cerebello-cortical organization in early life is of great clinical importance. Here, we analyzed cerebellar, cerebello-cortical, and cortico-cortical functional networks using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data of healthy infants (6 months, n = 21), children (4-10 years, n = 68), and adults (23-38 years, n = 25)...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Nordeyn Oulad Ben Taib, Mario Manto
BACKGROUND: Low-frequency electrical stimulation to the motor cortex (LFSMC) depresses the excitability of motor circuits by long-term depression (LTD)-like effects. The interactions between LFSMC and cathodal direct current stimulation (cDCS) over the cerebellum are unknown. METHODS: We assessed the corticomotor responses and the afferent facilitation of corticomotor responses during a conditioning paradigm in anaesthetized rats. We applied LFSMC at a frequency of 1 Hz and a combination of LFSMC with cDCS...
2016: Cerebellum & Ataxias
Kay Pieterman, Dafnis Batalle, Jeroen Dudink, J-Donald Tournier, Emer J Hughes, Madeleine Barnett, Manon J Benders, A David Edwards, Freek E Hoebeek, Serena J Counsell
Disrupted cerebellar development and injury is associated with impairments in both motor and non-motor domains. Methods to non-invasively characterize cerebellar afferent and efferent connections during early development are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of delineating cortico-ponto-cerebellar (CPC) and cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) white matter tracts during brain development using high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI). HARDI data were obtained in 24 infants born between 24(+6) and 39 weeks gestational age (median 33(+4) weeks) and scanned between 29(+1) and 44 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) (median 37(+1) weeks)...
August 29, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Frank Van Overwalle, Elien Heleven, Ning Ma, Peter Mariën
This multi-study analysis (6 fMRI studies; 142 participants) explores the functional activation and connectivity of the cerebellum with the cerebrum during repeated behavioral information uptake informing about personality traits of different persons. The results suggest that trait repetition recruits activity in areas belonging to the mentalizing and executive control networks in the cerebrum, and the executive control areas in the cerebellum. Cerebral activation was observed in the executive control network including the posterior medial frontal cortex (pmFC), the bilateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and bilateral inferior parietal cortex (IPC), in the mentalizing network including the bilateral middle temporal cortex (MTC) extending to the right superior temporal cortex (STC), as well as in the visual network including the left cuneus (Cun) and the left inferior occipital cortex...
August 23, 2016: NeuroImage
F Gövert, J S Becktepe, G Deuschl
Essential tremor is clinically defined but there is increasing evidence that it is not a unique entity. Its pathophysiology has been studied with many methods but may also vary between subtypes. Neurophysiologically, there is strong evidence that a specific cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop is abnormally oscillating. The cause of its uncontrolled oscillation is not yet understood. The clear proof of a degenerative cause is still lacking and abnormal receptors or other causes of altered non-progressive functional disturbance cannot be excluded...
August 2016: Revue Neurologique
Xiaojun Guan, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Xiaojun Xu, Peiyu Huang, Nian Wang, Zhujing Shen, Jingjing Xu, Wei Luo, Minming Zhang
PURPOSE: Because the roles of striatal-thalamo-cortical and cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuits in the heterogeneous motor impairments of Parkinson's disease (PD) are becoming recognized, this study was designed to investigate the relationships between regional iron in the cardinal subcortical nuclei in these circuits and the different motor impairments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-two PD patients and 40 normal subjects were included and accepted for Enhanced T2 -Star Weighted Angiography Scanning (3...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Onur Balaban, Joseph D Tobias
Gomez-Lopez-Hernandez syndrome, also known as cerebello-trigeminal dermal dysplasia, is a rare neurocutaneous syndrome classically characterized by the triad of rhombencephalosynapsis, trigeminal anesthesia, and bilateral parietal alopecia. Associated clinical features include a characteristic facial appearance (mid-face hypoplasia, hypertelorism, and low-set, posteriorly rotated ears), brachycephaly, strabismus, ataxia, developmental delay, short stature, and corneal opacities. Given the associated congenital anomalies, anesthetic care may be required for various surgical interventions...
June 2016: Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology
András Jakab, Beat Werner, Marco Piccirelli, Kázmér Kovács, Ernst Martin, John S Thornton, Tarek Yousry, Gabor Szekely, Ruth O'Gorman Tuura
Functional stereotactic neurosurgery by means of deep brain stimulation or ablation provides an effective treatment for movement disorders, but the outcome of surgical interventions depends on the accuracy by which the target structures are reached. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) based probabilistic tractography of deep brain structures that are commonly used for pre- and perioperative targeting for functional neurosurgery. Three targets were reconstructed based on their significance as intervention sites or as a no-go area to avoid adverse side effects: the connections propagating from the thalamus to (1) primary and supplementary motor areas, (2) to somatosensory areas and the cerebello-thalamic tract (CTT)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Muthuraman Muthuraman, Sergiu Groppa, Günter Deuschl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Yanbing Hou, Jing Yang, Chunyan Luo, Ruwei Ou, Wei Song, Wanglin Liu, Qiyong Gong, Huifang Shang
To map functional connectivity (FC) patterns of early onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD) and late onset PD (LOPD) in drug-naïve early stage. MRI was used to assess atrophy and resting-state FC focusing on striatal subregions of EOPD and LOPD in two subgroups of 18 patients matched for disease duration and severity, relative to age- and sex- matched healthy controls. Compared with controls, both PD subgroups showed FC alterations in cortico-striatal and cerebello-striatal loops but with different patterns in resting state...
October 2016: Journal of Neurology
C Srinivasan, G P Kurian, R Mariappan
The main goals of neuroanesthesia are the maintenance of adequate cerebral perfusion pressure, avoidance of hypercarbia, hypoxemia, and to provide better brain relaxation. Providing anesthesia for a patient with bronchiectasis needing lung isolation for craniotomy can be challenging. A 56-year-old male patient, case of right lung bronchiectasis with a right cerebello pontine angle tumor underwent excision in the left lateral position. Since he had severe bronchiectasis of the right lung, we had isolated the right lung using right-sided double lumen tube to avoid spillage...
July 2016: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Ramesh Teegala
BACKGROUND: Persistent or progressive hydrocephalus is one of the complex problems of posterior fossa tumors associated with hydrocephalus. The author evaluated the effectiveness of single-stage tumor decompression associated with a stent technique (trans aqueductal third ventricle - Cervical subarachnoid stenting) as an adjuvant cerebro spinal fluid (CSF) diversion procedure in controlling the midline posterior fossa tumors with hydrocephalus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective clinical case series of 15 patients was evaluated from July 2006 to April 2012...
July 2016: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Cécile Gallea, Traian Popa, Daniel García-Lorenzo, Romain Valabregue, André-Pierre Legrand, Emmanuelle Apartis, Lea Marais, Bertrand Degos, Cecile Hubsch, Sara Fernández-Vidal, Eric Bardinet, Emmanuel Roze, Stéphane Lehéricy, Sabine Meunier, Marie Vidailhet
SEE MUTHURAMAN ET AL DOI101093/AWW164 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Primary orthostatic tremor is characterized by high frequency tremor affecting the legs and trunk during the standing position. Cerebellar defects were suggested in orthostatic tremor without direct evidence. We aimed to characterize the anatomo-functional defects of the cerebellar motor pathways in orthostatic tremor. We used multimodal neuroimaging to compare 17 patients with orthostatic tremor and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers...
August 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Zhi Wen, Jie Zhang, Jielan Li, Jiankun Dai, Fuchun Lin, Guangyao Wu
BACKGROUND: Ventral intermediate nucleus thalamotomy is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease tremor. However, its mechanism is still unclear. PURPOSE: We used resting-state fMRI to investigate short-term ReHo changes after unilateral thalamotomy in tremor-dominant PD, and to speculate about its possible mechanism on tremor suppression. METHODS: 26 patients and 31 healthy subjects (HS) were recruited. Patients were divided into two groups according to right- (rPD) and left-side (lPD) thalamotomy...
2016: PloS One
Changqing Wang, Judy Kipping, Chenglong Bao, Hui Ji, Anqi Qiu
The human cerebellum has recently been discovered to contribute to cognition and emotion beyond the planning and execution of movement, suggesting its functional heterogeneity. We aimed to identify the functional parcellation of the cerebellum using information from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). For this, we introduced a new data-driven decomposition-based functional parcellation algorithm, called Sparse Dictionary Learning Clustering (SDLC). SDLC integrates dictionary learning, sparse representation of rs-fMRI, and k-means clustering into one optimization problem...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Michiel F Dirkx, Hanneke den Ouden, Esther Aarts, Monique Timmer, Bastiaan R Bloem, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
UNLABELLED: Parkinson's resting tremor has been linked to pathophysiological changes both in the basal ganglia and in a cerebello-thalamo-cortical motor loop, but the role of those circuits in initiating and maintaining tremor remains unclear. Here, we test whether and how the cerebello-thalamo-cortical loop is driven into a tremor-related state by virtue of its connectivity with the basal ganglia. An internal replication design on two independent cohorts of tremor-dominant Parkinson patients sampled brain activity and tremor with concurrent EMG-fMRI...
May 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Tommaso Schirinzi, Francesco Di Lorenzo, Viviana Ponzo, Maria Giuseppina Palmieri, Anna Rita Bentivoglio, Orazio Schillaci, Antonio Pisani, Giacomo Koch
INTRODUCTION: Patients with Scans-Without-Evidence-of-Dopaminergic-Deficit (SWEDD) often present asymmetric rest tremor not responsive to levodopa. Although a dystonic origin of this tremor has been proposed, the underlying pathophysiology of such condition is still unclear. An abnormal activity in the Cerebello-Thalamo-Cortical circuit is involved in the pathogenesis of tremor and other movement disorders. Here we used different paradigms of cerebellar transcranial magnetic stimulation to evaluate the Cerebello-Thalamo-Cortical functioning in patients with normal scans...
July 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Eesha Maiodna, Faiz U Ahmad, Jacques J Morcos
BACKGROUND: Cavernous malformations (CMs) arising in the cranial nerves are rare. Only a few cases of facial nerve CMs have been reported in the literature. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 52-year old woman presented with headache, unilateral worsening facial weakness, and hearing loss. Imaging was suggestive of a CM of the cerebellopontine angle. Intraoperatively, a mulberry-shaped lesion was seen arising entirely within the seventh nerve. The patient underwent complete resection with sural nerve interposition graft...
July 2016: World Neurosurgery
Daniela Laricchiuta, Virve Cavallucci, Debora Cutuli, Paola De Bartolo, Paola Caporali, Francesca Foti, Carsten Finke, Marcello D'Amelio, Mario Manto, Laura Petrosini
The compensation that follows cerebellar lesions is based on synaptic modifications in many cortical and subcortical regions, although its cellular mechanisms are still unclear. Changes in glutamatergic receptor expression may represent the synaptic basis of the compensated state. We analyzed in rats the involvement of glutamatergic system of the cerebello-frontal network in the compensation following a right hemicerebellectomy. We evaluated motor performances, spatial competencies and molecular correlates in compensated hemicerebellectomized rats which in the frontal cortex contralateral to the hemicerebellectomy side received injections of anti-NMDA antibodies from patients affected by anti-NMDA encephalitis...
June 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
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