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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781902/study-on-lesion-assessment-of-cerebello-thalamo-cortical-network-in-wilson-s-disease-with-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#1
Anqin Wang, Hongli Wu, Chunsheng Xu, Lanfeng Tang, Jaeyoun Lee, Min Wang, Man Jiang, Chuanfu Li, Qi Lu, Chunyun Zhang
Wilson's disease (WD) is a genetic disorder of copper metabolism with pathological copper accumulation in the brain and any other tissues. This article aimed to assess lesions in cerebello-thalamo-cortical network with an advanced technique of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in WD. 35 WD patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited to accept diffusion-weighted images with 15 gradient vectors and conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The DTI parameters, including fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD), were calculated by diffusion kurtosis estimator software...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743454/convergence-of-primary-sensory-cortex-and-cerebellar-nuclei-pathways-in-the-whisker-system
#2
REVIEW
Carmen B Schäfer, Freek E Hoebeek
To safely maneuver through the environment the brain needs to compare active sensory information with ongoing motor programs. This process occurs at various levels in the brain: at the lower level, i.e., in the spinal cord, reflexes are generated for the most primitive motor responses; at the intermediate level, i.e., in the brainstem, various nuclei co-process sensory- and motor-related inputs; and, at the higher level cerebellum and thalamo-cortical networks individually compute suitable commands for fine-tuned motor output...
July 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735798/the-etiology-of-essential-tremor-genes-versus-environment
#3
Franziska Hopfner, Rick C Helmich
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is characterized by bilateral upper limb action tremor. Here we review the pathophysiology (cerebral mechanisms) and etiology (genetic and environmental risk factors) of ET. METHODS: We reviewed the literature (until June 2017) by searching PubMed for relevant papers. RESULTS: The pathophysiology of ET involves oscillatory activity in the cortico-olivo-cerebello-thalamic circuit, evidenced by electrophysiological and metabolic imaging...
July 17, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730570/structural-connectivity-differences-in-essential-tremor-with-and-without-resting-tremor
#4
Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Gennarina Arabia, Gaetano Barbagallo, Angela Lupo, Maurizio Morelli, Rita Nisticò, Fabiana Novellino, Andrea Quattrone, Maria Salsone, Basilio Vescio, Andrea Cherubini, Aldo Quattrone
In this work, we investigated motor network structure in patients affected by essential tremor (ET) with or without resting tremor, using probabilistic tractography of the cerebello-thalamo-basal ganglia-cortical loop. Twenty-five patients with ET, twenty-two patients with ET associated with resting tremor (rET), and twenty-five age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent whole-brain 3D T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI, and DAT-SPECT. Probabilistic tractography was performed on diffusion data in network mode, reconstructing connections between the different structures of the cerebello-thalamo-basal ganglia-cortical loop...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708110/cognitive-changes-in-the-spinocerebellar-ataxias-due-to-expanded-polyglutamine-tracts-a-survey-of-the-literature
#5
REVIEW
Evelyn Lindsay, Elsdon Storey
The dominantly-inherited ataxias characterised by expanded polyglutamine tracts-spinocere bellar ataxias (SCAs) 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 17, dentatorubral pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) and, in part, SCA 8-have all been shown to result in various degrees of cognitive impairment. We survey the literature on the cognitive consequences of each disorder, attempting correlation with their published neuropathological, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical features. We suggest several psychometric instruments for assessment of executive function, whose results are unlikely to be confounded by visual, articulatory or upper limb motor difficulties...
July 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700967/eosinophilic-granuloma-at-the-cerebellopontine-angle-in-an-adult-a-rare-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Arash Safarian, Nima Derakhshan, Mousa Taghipour, Amirreza Dehghanian
INTRODUCTION: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare immunologic disorder, identified by immature proliferation of histiocytes which may present as systemic or focal lesions. Eosinophilic granuloma (EG) is localized from of LCH mainly involving bones such as skull, femur, spine, ribs, mandible and pelvis. Cerebello-pontine (CP) angle is a rare anatomic location for involvement by EG. PRESENTATION OF CASE: A 32 year old man was being evaluated in our neuro-oncology clinic due to diplopia since 4 months ago...
2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689261/investigation-of-cognitive-circuits-using-steady-state-cerebral-blood-volume-and-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-following-electrical-injury
#7
Chang-Hyun Park, Cheong Hoon Seo, Myung Hun Jung, So Young Joo, Soyeon Jang, Ho Young Lee, Suk Hoon Ohn
PURPOSE: We utilized cerebral blood volume (CBV) magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate changes in cognitive networks in patients experiencing cognitive dysfunction following electrical injury. METHODS: Cognitive function was assessed across various domains, including attention, verbal memory, executive function, and language. Depressive symptoms were also evaluated. CBV maps and DTI measures were obtained from 24 patients (age, 41...
July 8, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669908/modulation-of-cognitive-cerebello-cerebral-functional-connectivity-by-lateral-cerebellar-continuous-theta-burst-stimulation
#8
Anuj Rastogi, Robin Cash, Katharine Dunlop, Michael Vesia, Aaron Kucyi, Ayda Ghahremani, Jonathan Downar, Joyce Chen, Robert Chen
Network connectivity measured with resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) has revealed the contribution of distinct cerebellar lobules to an array of brain wide networks sub-serving motor and cognitive processes. As distinct cerebellar lobules form relatively accessible nodes of different brain networks, this raises the possibility for site-specific modulation of network connectivity using non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTBS) induces long-lasting inhibition of cortical areas...
June 29, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631404/structural-connectivity-differences-in-motor-network-between-tremor-dominant-and-nontremor-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Gaetano Barbagallo, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Gennarina Arabia, Andrea Cherubini, Angela Lupo, Rita Nisticò, Maria Salsone, Fabiana Novellino, Maurizio Morelli, Giuseppe Lucio Cascini, Domenico Galea, Aldo Quattrone
Motor phenotypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) are recognized to have different prognosis and therapeutic response, but the neural basis for this clinical heterogeneity remains largely unknown. The main aim of this study was to compare differences in structural connectivity metrics of the main motor network between tremor-dominant and nontremor PD phenotypes (TD-PD and NT-PD, respectively) using probabilistic tractography-based network analysis. A total of 63 PD patients (35 TD-PD patients and 28 NT-PD patients) and 30 healthy controls underwent a 3 T MRI...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559069/the-potential-for-intrathecal-baclofen-in-the-treatment-of-essential-tremor
#10
REVIEW
Mousa Hamad, Ryan Holland, Naveed Kamal, Robert Luceri, Antonios Mammis
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder of adults, affecting an estimated 7 million Americans.[1] Symptoms of ET range from slightly noticeable to debilitating, with one cohort study finding 15% of patients were forced into early retirement.[2] Additionally, depression has also been correlated with the severity of disability of ET. [3] Treatment options include propranolol and primidone.[4] Current treatment options are not very effective, with over half (56...
May 27, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555453/-a-phenotypic-description-of-26-patients-with-ritscher-schinzel-syndrome-cranio-cerebello-cardiac-dysplasia-or-3c-syndrome
#11
S M Pira-Paredes, J H Montoya-Villada, J L Franco-Restrepo, M Moncada-Velez, J W Cornejo
INTRODUCTION: Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (also known as cranio-cerebello-cardiac dysplasia or 3C syndrome) is a rare genetic syndrome that is mainly characterised by the association of cardiac and craniofacial anomalies together with others affecting the posterior fossa. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report on 26 patients with Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome at a hospital in Medellin, in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. RESULTS: Males account for 69% of this cohort...
June 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540401/white-matter-microstructure-damage-in-tremor-dominant-parkinson-s-disease-patients
#12
ChunYan Luo, Wei Song, Qin Chen, Jing Yang, QiYong Gong, Hui-Fang Shang
PURPOSE: Resting tremor is one of the cardinal motor features of Parkinson's disease (PD). Several lines of evidence suggest resting tremor may have different underlying pathophysiological processes from those of bradykinesia and rigidity. The current study aims to identify white matter microstructural abnormalities associated with resting tremor in PD. METHODS: We recruited 60 patients with PD (30 with tremor-dominant PD and 30 with nontremor-dominant PD) and 26 normal controls...
July 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526888/brain-structural-networks-associated-with-intelligence-and-visuomotor-ability
#13
Youngwoo Bryan Yoon, Won-Gyo Shin, Tae Young Lee, Ji-Won Hur, Kang Ik K Cho, William Seunghyun Sohn, Seung-Goo Kim, Kwang-Hyuk Lee, Jun Soo Kwon
Increasing evidence indicates that multiple structures in the brain are associated with intelligence and cognitive function at the network level. The association between the grey matter (GM) structural network and intelligence and cognition is not well understood. We applied a multivariate approach to identify the pattern of GM and link the structural network to intelligence and cognitive functions. Structural magnetic resonance imaging was acquired from 92 healthy individuals. Source-based morphometry analysis was applied to the imaging data to extract GM structural covariance...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503139/a-pilot-study-on-the-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-brain-rhythms-and-entropy-during-self-paced-finger-movement-using-the-epoc-helmet
#14
Florian C A A Bodranghien, Margot Langlois Mahe, Serge Clément, Mario U Manto
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the cerebellum is emerging as a novel non-invasive tool to modulate the activity of the cerebellar circuitry. In a single blinded study, we applied anodal tDCS (atDCS) of the cerebellum to assess its effects on brain entropy and brain rhythms during self-paced sequential finger movements in a group of healthy volunteers. Although wearable electroencephalogram (EEG) systems cannot compete with traditional clinical/laboratory set-ups in terms of accuracy and channel density, they have now reached a sufficient maturity to envision daily life applications...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484556/clear-cell-meningioma-intraoperative-diagnosis-by-squash-cytology-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Vaishali Walke, Shantilal M Sisodia, Sanjay Bijwe, Purwa Patil
Clear-cell meningioma (CCM), an unusual subset of meningioma has prominent, clear-cell morphology. It is a wolf in sheep's clothing characterized by benign histologic attributes, but tendency for recurrence (61%) and metastasis. Therefore, WHO has classified it as grade II meningioma. Fine-needle aspiration cytology diagnosis is simple, rapid, cost-effective and reliable procedure primarily aimed at preoperative diagnosis of advanced and metastatic extracranial tumor. Preoperative and/or intraoperative cytodiagnosis of CCM demand expertise in the evaluation of cytology smears...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484132/unilateral-trans-cerebellomedullary-fissure-approach-for-occipital-artery-to-posterior-inferior-cerebellar-artery-bypass-during-aneurysmal-surgery
#16
Hiroshi Abe, Koichi Miki, Hiromasa Kobayashi, Toshiyasu Ogata, Mitsutoshi Iwaasa, Toshio Matsushima, Tooru Inoue
Occipital artery (OA) to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) bypass is indispensable for the management of complex aneurysms of the PICA that cannot be reconstructed with surgical clipping or coil embolization. Although OA-PICA bypass is a comparatively standard procedure, the bypass is difficult to perform in some cases because of the location and situation of the PICA. We describe the usefulness of the unilateral trans-cerebellomedullary fissure (CMF) approach for OA-PICA bypass. Thirty patients with aneurysms in the vertebral artery (VA) or PICA were treated using OA-PICA bypasses between 2010 and 2015...
May 9, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458383/efficacy-of-fiber-tractography-in-the-stereotactic-surgery-of-the-thalamus-for-patients-with-essential-tremor
#17
Susumu Sasada, Takashi Agari, Tatsuya Sasaki, Akihiko Kondo, Aiko Shinko, Takaaki Wakamori, Mihoko Okazaki, Ittetsu Kin, Ken Kuwahara, Masahiro Kameda, Takao Yasuhara, Isao Date
Several targets and targeting methods are utilized in stereotactic surgery to achieve tremor suppression for patients with intractable tremor. Recent developments in magnetic resonance imaging, including diffusion tensor imaging, have enabled the setting of appropriate targets in stereotactic surgery. In this retrospective study, the optimal target to suppress tremors in stereotactic surgery was explored using diffusion tensor image-based fiber tractography. Four tracts were focused on in this study, namely: the cerebello-thalamo-premotor cortical fiber tract, cerebello-thalamo-primary motor cortical fiber tract, spino-thalamo-somatosensory cortical fiber tract, and pyramidal tract...
May 1, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454042/cortical-plasticity-and-levodopa-induced-dyskinesias-in-parkinson-s-disease-connecting-the-dots-in-a-multicomponent-network
#18
REVIEW
Roopa Rajan, Traian Popa, Angelo Quartarone, Maria Felice Ghilardi, Asha Kishore
Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are motor complications following long term dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). Impaired brain plasticity resulting in the creation of aberrant motor maps intended to encode normal voluntary movement is proposed to result in the development of dyskinesias. Traditionally, the various nodes in the motor network like the striato-cortical and the cerebello-thalamic loops were thought to function independent of each other with little communication among them. Anatomical evidence from primates revealed the existence of reciprocal loops between the basal ganglia and the cerebellum providing an anatomical basis for communication between the motor network loops...
June 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422976/reactivation-or-transformation-motor-memory-consolidation-associated-with-cerebral-activation-time-locked-to-sleep-spindles
#19
Stuart Fogel, Genevieve Albouy, Bradley R King, Ovidiu Lungu, Catherine Vien, Arnaud Bore, Basile Pinsard, Habib Benali, Julie Carrier, Julien Doyon
Motor memory consolidation is thought to depend on sleep-dependent reactivation of brain areas recruited during learning. However, up to this point, there has been no direct evidence to support this assertion in humans, and the physiological processes supporting such reactivation are unknown. Here, simultaneous electroencephalographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) recordings were conducted during post-learning sleep to directly investigate the spindle-related reactivation of a memory trace formed during motor sequence learning (MSL), and its relationship to overnight enhancement in performance (reflecting consolidation)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421258/-intralabyrinthine-schwannomas-surgical-management-and-hearing-rehabilitation-with-cochlear-implants-german-version
#20
S K Plontke, T Rahne, M Pfister, G Götze, C Heider, N Pazaitis, C Strauss, P Caye-Thomasen, S Kösling
Intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILS) are a rare differential diagnosis of sudden hearing loss and vertigo. In an own case series of 12 patients, 6 tumors showed an intracochlear, 3 an intravestibular, 1 a transmodiolar including the cerebello-pontine angle (CPA), 1 a transotic including the CPA and 1 a multilocular location. The tumors were removed surgically in 9 patients, whereas 3 patients opted for a "wait-and-test-and-scan" strategy. Of the surgical patients, 3 underwent labyrinthectomy and cochlear implant (CI) surgery in a single stage procedure; 1 patient received extended cochleostomy with CI surgery; 3 underwent partial or subtotal cochleoectomy, with partial cochlear reconstruction and CI surgery (n = 1) or implantation of electrode dummies for possible later CI following repeated MRI follow-up (n = 2); and in 2 patients, the tumors of the internal auditory canal and cerebellopontile angle exhibiting transmodiolar or transmacular growth were removed by combined translabyrinthine-transotic resection...
April 18, 2017: HNO
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