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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230278/deletion-of-psychiatric-risk-gene-cacna1c-impairs-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-cell-autonomous-fashion
#1
Bianca Völkening, Kai Schönig, Golo Kronenberg, Dusan Bartsch, Tillmann Weber
Ca(2+) is a universal signal transducer which fulfills essential functions in cell development and differentiation. CACNA1C, the gene encoding the alpha-1C subunit (i.e., Cav 1.2) of the voltage-dependent l-type calcium channel (LTCC), has been implicated as a risk gene in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. To parse the role of Cav 1.2 channels located on astrocyte-like stem cells and their descendants in the development of new granule neurons, we created Tg(GLAST-CreERT2) /Cacna1c(fl/fl) /RCE:loxP mice, a transgenic tool that allows cell-type-specific inducible deletion of Cacna1c...
February 23, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228797/femoral-neck-s-fracture-in-fahr-s-syndrome-case-report
#2
Marcello Sallì, Antonio D'Arienzo, Mariella Bonanno, Salvatore Morello, Antonino Sanfilippo, Giulia Letizia Mauro, Michele D'Arienzo
Fahr's syndrome, also known as "Bilateral Striopallidodentate Calcinosis" (BSPDC) primitive, is a rare neurological disease characterized by the presence of idiopathic, bilateral, symmetrical and abnormal deposition of calcium in areas of the brain that control movements including the basal ganglia, dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, nuclei of thalamus and semi-oval center. We describe a case of a 76-year-old male patient underwent reduction and fixation of a subtrochanteric fracture with intramedullary nail...
September 2016: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227191/application-of-independent-component-analysis-to-remove-linear-dependencies-in-eeg-recorded-in-hippocampus
#3
J Harry Blaise, Taikang Ning, J Harry Blaise, Taikang Ning, Taikang Ning
Linear cross-spectral and nonlinear cross-bispectral analysis techniques were applied to EEG data recorded simultaneously in two subfields (CA1 and dentate gyrus) of the hippocampus in freely behaving neonatal rats during REM sleep. Linear dependencies between the two sites were specifically removed using independent component analysis (ICA). The cross-spectrum and the cross-bispectrum computed prior to ICA processing were compared with those after ICA processing to determine its effects. Our results indicate that ICA almost completely extracts the linear relationship in the theta frequency band between CA1 and the dentate gyrus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227113/developmental-differences-of-dimension-complexity-of-hippocampal-eeg-during-rem-sleep
#4
Taikang Ning, J Harry Blaise, Mariam Avagyan, Prawesh Dahal, Taikang Ning, J Harry Blaise, Mariam Avagyan, Prawesh Dahal, J Harry Blaise, Taikang Ning, Mariam Avagyan, Prawesh Dahal
This paper uses spectral analysis and correlation dimension index to examine the developmental differences between the EEG measured from two hippocampal subfields, CA1 and the dentate gyrus. The study was focused on the hippocampal EEG during the vigilance state of REM sleep in freely moving rats of 15 and 90 days of age. Power spectra, magnitude-squared coherence, and correlation dimension were estimated. The correlation dimension adds a new interpretation from the nonlinear dynamics perspective, and we found that there are no significant developmental differences between the granule cells of the dentate gyrus and the pyramidal cells of area CA1 when the theta activity was present during REM sleep...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227099/a-large-scale-detailed-neuronal-model-of-electrical-stimulation-of-the-dentate-gyrus-and-perforant-path-as-a-platform-for-electrode-design-and-optimization
#5
Clayton S Bingham, Kyle Loizos, Gene Yu, Andrew Gilbert, Jean-Marie Bouteiller, Dong Song, Gianluca Lazzi, Theodore W Berger, Clayton S Bingham, Kyle Loizos, Gene Yu, Andrew Gilbert, Jean-Marie Bouteiller, Dong Song, Gianluca Lazzi, Theodore W Berger, Kyle Loizos, Gene Yu, Theodore W Berger, Gianluca Lazzi, Jean-Marie Bouteiller, Clayton S Bingham, Dong Song, Andrew Gilbert
Owing to the dramatic rise in treatment of neurological disorders with electrical micro-stimulation it has become apparent that the major technological limitation in deploying effective devices lies in the process of designing efficient, safe, and outcome specific electrode arrays. The time-consuming and low-fidelity nature of gathering test data using experimental means and the immense control and flexibility of computational models, has prompted us and others to build models of electrical stimulation of neural networks that can be simulated in a computer...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226767/place-field-detection-using-grid-based-clustering-in-a-large-scale-computational-model-of-the-rat-dentate-gyrus
#6
Gene J Yu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Gene J Yu, Dong Song, Theodore W Berger, Dong Song, Gene J Yu, Theodore W Berger
Place cells are neurons in the hippocampus that are sensitive to location within an environment. Simulations of a large-scale, computational model of the rat dentate gyrus using grid cell input have been performed resulting in granule cells that express multiple place fields. The typical method of detecting place fields using a global threshold on this data is unreliable as the characteristics of the place fields from a single neuron can be highly variable. A grid-based implementation of DENCLUE has been developed to calculate local thresholds to identify each place field...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#7
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225578/detection-of-volume-alterations-in-hippocampal-subfields-of-rats-under-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-using-7t-mri-a-follow-up-study
#8
Yuefeng Li, Xiaolan Zhu, Shenghong Ju, Jinchuan Yan, Dongqing Wang, Yan Zhu, Fengchao Zang
PURPOSE: To determine hippocampal subfields volume loss in depression, which was simulated by a rat chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) model. As different cellular and molecular characteristics in hippocampal subfields, these subfields are regarded as differentially vulnerable to processes associated with stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty male Wistar rats were exposed to various stressors until the model was successfully established. The effects of physical exercise on recovery of hippocampal volume in depressed rats were simulated using the wheel running test (WRT)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225480/nmda-receptor-subunit-and-camkii-changes-in-rat-hippocampus-by-congenital-hcmv-infection-a-mechanism-for-learning-and-memory-impairment
#9
De Wu, Li Yang, Xiaosong Bu, Jiulai Tang, Xiaocheng Fan
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of congenital human cytomegalovirus infection on the expression levels of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NRs) and Ca/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in the hippocampal neurons of neonatal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Pregnant SD rats were divided into an experimental group and a control group (n=10 in each group). Spatial learning and memory of the offspring of SD rats were evaluated using the Morris water-maze test. Pathological studies of hippocampus sections were carried out...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225479/long-lasting-training-in-the-barnes-maze-prompts-hippocampal-spinogenesis-and-habituation-in-rats
#10
Maia Uriarte, Olalekan M Ogundele, Joaquin Pardo
There is a constant need to assess spatial memory in small rodents to elucidate the basics of cognition in neuroscience experiments. Thus, the significance of the Barnes maze in the biology of hippocampal and cortical neural function cannot be overemphasized. Despite the wide use of the Barnes maze, the effect of maze task training on the structure of hippocampal neurons is yet to be elucidated. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to intense training on the Barnes maze (3 months). Subsequently, the hippocampus (cornus ammonis and dentate gyrus) of separate sets of rats was processed for Golgi Colonnier techniques (silver impregnation) and adenoviral-green fluorescent protein labeling (immunohistochemistry)...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223982/mouse-model-of-neurological-complications-resulting-from-encephalitic-alphavirus-infection
#11
Shannon E Ronca, Jeanon Smith, Takaaki Koma, Magda M Miller, Nadezhda Yun, Kelly T Dineley, Slobodan Paessler
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223923/embryonic-and-postnatal-expression-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-mrna-in-mouse-brain
#12
Eiki Kimura, Chiharu Tohyama
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor family, plays a critical role in the developing nervous system of invertebrates and vertebrates. Dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, avidly binds to this receptor, and maternal exposure to dioxin has been shown to impair higher brain functions and dendritic morphogenesis, possibly via an AhR-dependent mechanism. However, there is little information on AhR expression in the developing mammalian brain...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219715/metabolic-syndrome-causes-rec-ognition-memory-impairments-and-reduced-the-hippocampal-neuronal-plasticity-in-rats
#13
Samuel Treviño, Rubén A Vázquez-Roque, Gustavo López-López, Claudia Perez-Cruz, Carolina Moran, Anhabella Handal-Silva, Enrique González-Vergara, Gonzalo Flores, Jorge Guevara, Alfonso Díaz
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a serious public health problem, which can promote neuronal alterations in cognitive regions related to memory processes and learning, such as the hippocampus. However, up to now there is no information of a regional segregation of this damage. In this study, we evaluate the MS effect on the neuronal morphology of the hippocampus by a regional segregation approach. Our results demonstrate that 90days of a high-calorie diet altered metabolic energy markers and caused memory impairments, as evaluated by the recognition of novel objects test (NORT)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218241/massively-augmented-hippocampal-dentate-granule-cell-activation-accompanies-epilepsy-development
#14
Christopher G Dengler, Cuiyong Yue, Hajime Takano, Douglas A Coulter
In a mouse model of temporal lobe epilepsy, multicellular calcium imaging revealed that disease emergence was accompanied by massive amplification in the normally sparse, afferent stimulation-induced activation of hippocampal dentate granule cells. Patch recordings demonstrated reductions in local inhibitory function within the dentate gyrus at time points where sparse activation was compromised. Mimicking changes in inhibitory synaptic function and transmembrane chloride regulation was sufficient to elicit the dentate gyrus circuit collapse evident during epilepsy development...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214898/early-development-of-parvalbumin-somatostatin-and-cholecystokinin-expressing-neurons-in-rat-brain-following-prenatal-immune-activation-and-maternal-iron-deficiency
#15
Patricia Boksa, Ying Zhang, Dominique Nouel, Alice Wong, Tak Pan Wong
Prenatal maternal infection and maternal iron deficiency during pregnancy are 2 early environmental insults associated with increased risk for schizophrenia in offspring. Substantial evidence suggests that abnormalities in inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneuron function, especially in the parvalbumin subtype of GABA interneuron, both developmentally and in adulthood, may contribute mechanistically to cognitive deficits and psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This study used a rat model to test whether prenatal immune activation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; at gestation days, GD, 15 and 16) or maternal iron deficiency (from GD2 to postnatal day P7) or the combination of both insults alters major subtypes of GABAergic interneurons (parvalbumin, somatostatin, cholecystokinin) in brain regions relevant to schizophrenia (medial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex [PFC], hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus, ventral subiculum) in offspring at P14 or P28...
February 18, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214875/a-developmental-study-of-the-cerebellar-nucleus-in-the-catshark-a-basal-gnathostome
#16
Sol Pose-Méndez, Isabel Rodríguez-Moldes, Eva Candal, Sylvie Mazan, Ramón Anadón
The output of the cerebellar cortex is mainly released via cerebellar nuclei which vary in number and complexity among gnathostomes, extant vertebrates with a cerebellum. Cartilaginous fishes, a basal gnathostome lineage, show a conspicuous, well-organized cerebellar nucleus, unlike ray-finned fishes. To gain insight into the evolution and development of the cerebellar nucleus, we analyzed in the shark Scyliorhinus canicula (a chondrichthyan model species) the developmental expression of several genes coding for transcription factors (ScLhx5,ScLhx9,ScTbr1, and ScEn2) and the distribution of the protein calbindin, since all appear to be involved in cerebellar nuclei patterning in other gnathostomes...
February 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213065/requiring-collaboration-hippocampal-prefrontal-networks-needed-in-spatial-working-memory-and-ageing-a-multivariate-analysis-approach
#17
C Zancada-Menendez, P Alvarez-Suarez, P Sampedro-Piquero, M Cuesta, A Begega
Ageing is characterized by a decline in the processes of retention and storage of spatial information. We have examined the behavioural performance of adult rats (3months old) and aged rats (18months old) in a spatial complex task (delayed match to sample). The spatial task was performed in the Morris water maze and consisted of three sessions per day over a period of three consecutive days. Each session consisted of two trials (one sample and retention) and inter-session intervals of 5min. Behavioural results showed that the spatial task was difficult for middle aged group...
February 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212893/traffic-related-air-pollution-impact-on-mouse-brain-accelerates-myelin-and-neuritic-aging-changes-with-specificity-for-ca1-neurons
#18
Nicholas C Woodward, Payam Pakbin, Arian Saffari, Farimah Shirmohammadi, Amin Haghani, Constantinos Sioutas, Mafalda Cacciottolo, Todd E Morgan, Caleb E Finch
Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is associated with lower cognition and reduced white matter volume in older adults, specifically for particulate matter <2.5-μm diameter (PM2.5). Rodents exposed to TRAP have shown microglial activation and neuronal atrophy. We further investigated age differences of TRAP exposure, with focus on hippocampus for neuritic atrophy, white matter degeneration, and microglial activation. Young- and middle-aged mice (3 and 18 months female C57BL/6J) were exposed to nanoscale-PM (nPM, <0...
January 13, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208711/antidepressant-effects-of-aripiprazole-augmentation-for-cilostazol-treated-mice-exposed-to-chronic-mild-stress-after-ischemic-stroke
#19
Yu Ri Kim, Ha Neui Kim, Ki Whan Hong, Hwa Kyoung Shin, Byung Tae Choi
The aim of this study was to determine the effects and underlying mechanism of aripiprazole (APZ) augmentation for cilostazol (CLS)-treated post-ischemic stroke mice that were exposed to chronic mild stress (CMS). Compared to treatment with either APZ or CLS alone, the combined treatment resulted in a greater reduction in depressive behaviors, including anhedonia, despair-like behaviors, and memory impairments. This treatment also significantly reduced atrophic changes in the striatum, cortex, and midbrain of CMS-treated ischemic mice, and inhibited neuronal cell apoptosis, particularly in the striatum and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207379/absence-of-fluoride-varnish-related-adverse-events-in-caries-prevention-trials-in-young-children-united-states
#20
Raul I Garcia, Steven E Gregorich, Francisco Ramos-Gomez, Patricia A Braun, Anne Wilson, Judith Albino, Tamanna Tiwari, Maya Harper, Terrence S Batliner, Margaret Rasmussen, Nancy F Cheng, William Santo, Paul L Geltman, Michelle Henshaw, Stuart A Gansky
INTRODUCTION: Fluoride varnish is an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. Its routine use in clinical care is supported by meta-analyses and recommended by clinical guidelines, including the US Preventive Services Task Force (B rating). This report is the first prospective systematic assessment of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in young children. METHODS: We determined the incidence of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in 3 clinical trials on the prevention of early childhood caries, conducted under the auspices of the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers, an initiative sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research...
February 16, 2017: Preventing Chronic Disease
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