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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526896/signal-intensity-at-unenhanced-t1-weighted-magnetic-resonance-in-the-globus-pallidus-and-dentate-nucleus-after-serial-administrations-of-a-macrocyclic-gadolinium-based-contrast-agent-in-children
#1
Maria Camilla Rossi Espagnet, Bruno Bernardi, Luca Pasquini, Lorenzo Figà-Talamanca, Paolo Tomà, Antonio Napolitano
BACKGROUND: Few studies have been conducted on the relations between T1-weighted signal intensity changes in the pediatric brain following gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) exposure. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of multiple administrations of a macrocyclic GBCA on signal intensity in the globus pallidus and dentate nucleus of the pediatric brain on unenhanced T1-weighted MR images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study included 50 patients, mean age: 8 years (standard deviation: 4...
May 19, 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523979/pacap-promotes-matrix-driven-adhesion-of-cultured-adult-murine-neural-progenitors
#2
James A Waschek, Joseph R Cohen, Gloria C Chi, Tomasz J Proszynski, Pawel Niewiadomski
New neurons are born throughout the life of mammals in germinal zones of the brain known as neurogenic niches: the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These niches contain a subpopulation of cells known as adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs), which self-renew and give rise to new neurons and glia. aNPCs are regulated by many factors present in the niche, including the extracellular matrix (ECM). We show that the neuropeptide PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide) affects subventricular zone-derived aNPCs by increasing their surface adhesion...
May 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522250/ppargamma-agonists-rescue-increased-phosphorylation-of-fgf14-at-s226-in-the-tg2576-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Wei-Chun J Hsu, Norelle Wildburger, Sigmund J Haidacher, Miroslav N Nenov, Oluwarotimi Folorunso, Aditya K Singh, Brent C Chesson, Whitney F Franklin, Ibdanelo Cortez, Rovshan G Sadygov, Kelly T Dineley, Jai Rudra, Giulio Taglialatela, Cheryl F Lichti, Larry Denner, Fernanda Laezza
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment in humans with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in animal models of Aβ-pathology can be ameliorated by treatments with the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists, such as rosiglitazone (RSG). Previously, we demonstrated that in the Tg2576 animal model of AD, RSG treatment rescued cognitive deficits and reduced aberrant activity of granule neurons in the dentate gyrus (DG), an area critical for memory formation...
May 15, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516108/what-is-car-doing-in-the-middle-of-the-adult-neurogenic-road
#4
COMMENT
Sara Salinas, Felix Junyent, Nathalie Coré, Harold Cremer, Eric J Kremer
The molecular and cellular basis of adult neurogenesis has attracted considerable attention for fundamental and clinical applications because neural stem cells and newborn neurons may, one day, be harnessed to replace neurons and allow cognitive improvement in the diseased brain. In rodents, neural progenitors are located in the dentate gyrus and the sub/periventricular zone. In the dentate gyrus the generation of newborn neurons is associated with plasticity, including regulation of memory. The role of subventricular zone neural precursors that migrate to the olfactory bulb is less characterized...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513774/hippocampal-overexpression-of-down-syndrome-cell-adhesion-molecule-in-amyloid-precursor-protein-transgenic-mice
#5
Y L Jia, Z X Fu, B H Zhang, Y J Jia
Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) is located within the Down syndrome critical region of chromosome 21. DSCAM is a broadly expressed neurodevelopmental protein involved in synaptogenesis, neurite outgrowth, and axon guidance. We previously demonstrated DSCAM overexpression in the cortex of amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice, suggesting possible regulatory interactions between APP and DSCAM. APP mice exhibit deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. In this preliminary study, we examined age-related changes in DSCAM expression within the hippocampus in 16 APP transgenic mice (1, 3, 6 and 12 months old)...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513543/chronic-exposure-to-uranium-from-gestation-effects-on-behavior-and-neurogenesis-in-adulthood
#6
Céline Dinocourt, Cécile Culeux, Marie Legrand, Christelle Elie, Philippe Lestaevel
Uranium exposure leads to cerebral dysfunction involving for instance biochemical, neurochemical and neurobehavioral effects. Most studies have focused on mechanisms in uranium-exposed adult animals. However, recent data on developing animals have shown that the developing brain is also sensitive to uranium. Models of uranium exposure during brain development highlight the need to improve our understanding of the effects of uranium. In a model in which uranium exposure began from the first day of gestation, we studied the neurobehavioral consequences as well as the progression of hippocampal neurogenesis in animals from dams exposed to uranium...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512860/intrinsic-cellular-and-molecular-properties-of-in-vivo-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-are-altered-in-the-absence-of-key-synaptic-matrix-molecules
#7
Stephan Jansen, Christine Gottschling, Andreas Faissner, Denise Manahan-Vaughan
Hippocampal synaptic plasticity comprises a key cellular mechanism for information storage. In the hippocampus, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) are triggered by synaptic Ca(2+) -elevations that are typically mediated by the opening of voltage-gated cation channels, such as N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR), in the postsynaptic density. The integrity of the post-synaptic density is ensured by the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, we explored whether synaptic plasticity is affected in adult behaving mice that lack the ECM proteins brevican, neurocan, tenascin-C and tenascin-R (TG)...
May 17, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510199/taxonomic-placement-of-paphiopedilum-rungsuriyanum-cypripedioideae-orchidaceae-based-on-morphological-cytological-and-molecular-analyses
#8
Yung-I Lee, Mei-Chu Chung, Kongmany Sydara, Onevilay Souliya, Sulivong Luang Aphay
BACKGROUND: Paphiopedilum rungsuriyanum from Northern Laos was discovered and described in 2014. It is characterized by having miniature tessellated leaves, a flower having a helmet shaped lip with a V-shaped neckline, and a semi-lunate, 3-dentate staminode with an umbo. These morphological features distinguish P. rungsuriyanum from the other known sections/subgenera of Paphiopedilum, making it difficult to group with existing infrageneric units. RESULTS: Paphiopedilum rungsuriyanum has chromosome number of 2n = 26...
December 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506990/coup-tfi-mitotically-regulates-production-and-migration-of-dentate-granule-cells-and-modulates-hippocampal-cxcr4-expression
#9
Joséphine Parisot, Gemma Flore, Michele Bertacchi, Michèle Studer
Development of the dentate gyrus (DG), the primary gateway for hippocampal inputs, spans embryonic and postnatal stages and involves complex morphogenetic events. We have previously identified the nuclear receptor COUP-TFI as a novel transcriptional regulator in the postnatal organization and function of the hippocampus. Here, we dissect its role in DG morphogenesis by inactivating it either in granule cell progenitors or in granule neurons. Loss of COUP-TFI function in progenitors leads to decreased granule cell proliferative activity, precocious differentiation and increased apoptosis, resulting in a severe DG growth defect in adult mice...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506637/thiamine-and-benfotiamine-prevent-stress-induced-suppression-of-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-mice-exposed-to-predation-without-affecting-brain-thiamine-diphosphate-levels
#10
Julie Vignisse, Margaux Sambon, Anna Gorlova, Dmitrii Pavlov, Nicolas Caron, Brigitte Malgrange, Elena Shevtsova, Andrey Svistunov, Daniel C Anthony, Natalyia Markova, Natalyia Bazhenova, Bernard Coumans, Bernard Lakaye, Pierre Wins, Tatyana Strekalova, Lucien Bettendorff
Thiamine is essential for normal brain function and its deficiency causes metabolic impairment, specific lesions, oxidative damage and reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Thiamine precursors with increased bioavailability, especially benfotiamine, exert neuroprotective effects not only for thiamine deficiency (TD), but also in mouse models of neurodegeneration. As it is known that AHN is impaired by stress in rodents, we exposed C57BL6/J mice to predator stress for 5 consecutive nights and studied the proliferation (number of Ki67-positive cells) and survival (number of BrdU-positive cells) of newborn immature neurons in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus...
May 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505333/multiregional-age-associated-reduction-of-brain-neuronal-reserve-without-association-with-neurofibrillary-degeneration-or-%C3%AE-amyloidosis
#11
Jerzy Wegiel, Michael Flory, Izabela Kuchna, Krzysztof Nowicki, Shuang Yong Ma, Jarek Wegiel, Eulalia Badmaev, Wayne P Silverman, Mony de Leon, Barry Reisberg, Thomas Wisniewski
Increase in human life expectancy has resulted in the rapid growth of the elderly population with minimal or no intellectual deterioration. The aim of this stereological study of 10 structures and 5 subdivisions with and without neurofibrillary degeneration in the brains of 28 individuals 25-102-years-old was to establish the pattern of age-associated neurodegeneration and neuronal loss in the brains of nondemented adults and elderly. The study revealed the absence of significant neuronal loss in 7 regions and topographically selective reduction of neuronal reserve over 77 years in 8 brain structures including the entorhinal cortex (EC) (-33...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502321/cytomegalovirus-in-the-human-dentate-gyrus-and-its-impact-on-neural-progenitor-cells-report-of-two-cases
#12
Ju-Yoon Yoon, Brett Danielson, Derek Mathis, Jason Karamchandani, David G Munoz
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the 2nd and 3rd trimester results in catastrophic CNS abnormalities. This susceptibility is thought to result from the high proportion of neural stem cells in the developing brain. In immunocompromised adults, CNS infection by CMV preferentially affects ependymal surfaces, from where it expands to involve the parenchyma. Experimental models of murine CMV infection demonstrate viral tropism for the dentate gyrus (DG) and subventricular zone, the areas in which adult neurogenesis occurs...
May 15, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495975/short-term-depression-of-sprouted-mossy-fiber-synapses-from-adult-born-granule-cells
#13
William D Hendricks, Yang Chen, AeSoon L Bensen, Gary L Westbrook, Eric Schnell
Epileptic seizures potently modulate hippocampal adult neurogenesis, and adult-born dentate granule cells contribute to the pathologic retrograde sprouting of mossy fiber axons, both hallmarks of temporal lobe epilepsy. The characteristics of these sprouted synapses, however, have been largely unexplored, and the specific contribution of adult-born granule cells to functional mossy fiber sprouting is unknown, primarily due to technical barriers in isolating sprouted mossy fiber synapses for analysis. Here, we used DcxCreER(T2) transgenic mice to permanently pulse-label age-defined cohorts of granule cells born either before or after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495943/retention-of-gadolinium-based-contrast-agents-in-multiple-sclerosis-retrospective-analysis-of-an-18-year-longitudinal-study
#14
Y Forslin, S Shams, F Hashim, P Aspelin, G Bergendal, J Martola, S Fredrikson, M Kristoffersen-Wiberg, T Granberg
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Gadolinium-based contrast agents have been associated with lasting high T1-weighted signal intensity in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus, with histopathologically confirmed gadolinium retention. We aimed to longitudinally investigate the relationship of multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations to the Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus and any associations with cognitive function in multiple sclerosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Signal Intensity Index in the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus was retrospectively evaluated on T1-weighted MR imaging in an 18-year longitudinal cohort study of 23 patients with MS receiving multiple gadolinium-based contrast agent administrations and 23 healthy age- and sex-matched controls...
May 11, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495474/late-effect-of-developmental-exposure-to-glycidol-on-hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-mice-loss-of-parvalbumin-expressing-interneurons
#15
Masashi Kawashima, Yousuke Watanabe, Kota Nakajima, Hirotada Murayama, Rei Nagahara, Meilan Jin, Toshinori Yoshida, Makoto Shibutani
Developmental exposure to glycidol of rats causes axonal injury targeting axon terminals in dams and transient disruption of late-stage differentiation of hippocampal neurogenesis, accompanying sustained increase in the number of reelin-producing or calretinin-expressing interneurons in offspring. The molecular mechanism of disruptive neurogenesis probably targets the newly generating nerve terminals. We previously found differences between mice and rats in the effects on hippocampal neurogenesis after developmental exposure to the same neurotoxic substances...
May 8, 2017: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493990/mir-338-3p-regulates-neuronal-maturation-and-suppresses-glioblastoma-proliferation
#16
James R Howe, Emily S Li, Sarah E Streeter, Gilbert J Rahme, Edmond Chipumuro, Grace B Russo, Julia F Litzky, L Benjamin Hills, Kyla R Rodgers, Patrick D Skelton, Bryan W Luikart
Neurogenesis is a highly-regulated process occurring in the dentate gyrus that has been linked to learning, memory, and antidepressant efficacy. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been previously shown to play an important role in the regulation of neuronal development and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus via modulation of gene expression. However, this mode of regulation is both incompletely described in the literature thus far and highly multifactorial. In this study, we designed sensors and detected relative levels of expression of 10 different miRNAs and found miR-338-3p was most highly expressed in the dentate gyrus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493886/narrow-microtunnel-technology-for-the-isolation-and-precise-identification-of-axonal-communication-among-distinct-hippocampal-subregion-networks
#17
Udit Narula, Andres Ruiz, McKinley McQuaide, Thomas B DeMarse, Bruce C Wheeler, Gregory J Brewer
Communication between different sub regions of the hippocampus is fundamental to learning and memory. However accurate knowledge about information transfer between sub regions from access to the activity in individual axons is lacking. MEMS devices with microtunnels connecting two sub networks have begun to approach this problem but the commonly used 10 μm wide tunnels frequently measure signals from multiple axons. To reduce this complexity, we compared polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microtunnel devices each with a separate tunnel width of 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488329/phosphodiesterase-1b-deletion-confers-depression-like-behavioral-resistance-separate-from-stress-related-effects-in-mice
#18
Jillian R Hufgard, Michael T Williams, Charles V Vorhees
Phosphodiesterase-1b (Pde1b) is highly expressed in striatum, dentate gyrus, CA3, and substantia nigra. In a new Floxed Pde1b x Cre(CMV) global knock-out (KO) mouse model we show an immobility resistance phenotype that recapitulates that found in constitutive Pde1b KO mice. We use this new mouse model to show that the resistance to acute stress-induced depression-like phenotype is not the product of changes in locomotor activity or reactivity to other stressors (learned helplessness, novelty suppressed feeding, or dexamethasone suppression), and is not associated with anhedonia using the sucrose preference test...
May 10, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487938/age-associated-alterations-in-constitutively-expressed-cyclooxygenase-2-immunoreactivity-and-protein-levels-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Hyo Young Jung, Dae Young Yoo, Jong Whi Kim, Hyun Jung Kwon, Kwon Young Lee, Jung Hoon Choi, Dae Won Kim, Jin Young Chung, Yeo Sung Yoon, In Koo Hwang
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is a known inducible inflammatory mediator. COX-2 is constitutively expressed in the hippocampus and may regulate synaptic plasticity. The present study investigated the age‑associated alterations in white blood cell counts and hippocampal COX‑2 expression in healthy mice using immunohistochemical and western blot analyses at 1 month postnatal (PM1), PM3, PM6, PM12 and PM24. White blood cell counts were significantly decreased in the PM24 group when compared with the PM1 group...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487222/neuroprotective-effects-of-ceftriaxone-treatment-on-cognitive-and-neuronal-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-accelerated-senescence
#20
Maria A Tikhonova, Shih-Chun Ho, Anna A Akopyan, Nataliya G Kolosova, Jun-Cheng Weng, Wan-Yun Meng, Chih-Li Lin, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Ying-Jui Ho
Rats of OXYS strain are characterized by genetically defined accelerated senescence. Ceftriaxone (CEF) exerts neuroprotective effects by decreasing the excitotoxicity and activation of antioxidant system. Here, we studied the effects of CEF (50 or 100mg/kg/day, i.p., 36 days) on cognitive and neuronal deficits in 5-month-old OXYS rats. Chronic CEF administration in a dose of 100mg/kg partially inhibited impairments of movement and restored the deficit in the novel object recognition in OXYS rats. Neuromorphologically, control OXYS rats exhibited a lowered neuronal density in the hippocampal CA1 area and there was a tendency to decrease in the substantia nigra pars compacta compared to Wistar controls...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
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