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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701300/duodenal-and-ileal-glucose-infusions-differentially-alter-gastrointestinal-peptides-appetite-response-and-food-intake-a-tube-feeding-study
#1
Sally D Poppitt, Hyun Sang Shin, Anne-Thea McGill, Stephanie C Budgett, Kim Lo, Malcolm Pahl, Janice Duxfield, Mark Lane, John R Ingram
Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies.Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides.Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694054/pancreatic-pyy-but-not-ppy-expression-is-responsive-to-short-term-nutritional-state-and-the-pancreas-constitutes-the-major-site-of-pyy-mrna-expression-in-chickens
#2
Angus M A Reid, Peter W Wilson, Sarah D Caughey, Laura M Dixon, Rick B D'Eath, Victoria Sandilands, Timothy Boswell, Ian C Dunn
PP-fold peptides such as peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PPY) are known to play key roles in vertebrate energy homeostasis. Until recently, no gene sequence was available for avian PYY and therefore a gap in knowledge of regulation of its expression exists in avian species. Here we further evidence the mRNA sequence for chicken PYY and show that the pancreas is the major site of its mRNA expression, with a secondary peak of expression around the distal jejunum, in contrast to mammals where the large intestine is the major site of PYY expression...
July 7, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684587/potential-involvement-of-lactate-and-interleukin-6-in-the-appetite-regulatory-hormonal-response-to-an-acute-exercise-bout
#3
Hashim Islam, Logan K Townsend, Greg L McKie, Philip J Medeiros, Brendon James Gurd, Tom J Hazell
High-intensity exercise suppresses appetite partly through changes in peripheral appetite-regulating hormones. Lactate and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediate the release of these hormones in animal/cell models and may provide a mechanistic link between exercise intensity and appetite regulation. The current study examined changes in appetite-regulating hormones, lactate, and IL-6 after different intensities of running. Eight males completed four experimental sessions: 1) Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 65% VO2max); 2) Vigorous-intensity continuous training (VICT; 85% VO2max); 3) Sprint interval training (SIT; repeated "all-out" sprints); 4) Control (CTRL; no exercise)...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684238/involvement-of-central-nesfatin-1-neurons-on-oxytocin-induced-feeding-suppression-in-rats
#4
Reiko Saito, Satomi Sonoda, Hiromichi Ueno, Yasuhito Motojima, Mitsuhiro Yoshimura, Takashi Maruyama, Hirofumi Hashimoto, Kentaro Tanaka, Yukiyo Yamamoto, Koichi Kusuhara, Yoichi Ueta
Peripheral anorectic hormones, such as peptide YY (PYY) and oxytocin (OXT), suppress food intake. A newly identified anorectic neuropeptide, nesfatin-1, is synthesized in both peripheral tissue and the central nervous system, particularly by various nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Here, we examined the effects of intraperitoneal (ip) administration of PYY3-36, OXT, and OXT analog, on nesfatin-1-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in the rat hypothalamus and brainstem, using Fos double fluorescence-immunohistochemistry...
July 3, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684122/potent-antiobesity-effect-of-a-short-length-peptide-yy-analogue-continuously-administered-in-mice
#5
Naoki Nishizawa, Ayumu Niida, Yusuke Adachi, Yasushi Masuda, Satoshi Kumano, Kotaro Yokoyama, Tomoko Asakawa, Hideki Hirabayashi, Nobuyuki Amano, Shiro Takekawa, Tetsuya Ohtaki, Taiji Asami
The gastrointestinal peptide, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and its shorter peptide analogues have been reported to reduce appetite by activating the neuropeptide Y2 receptor (Y2R), which is associated with obesity and other metabolic diseases. A 14-amino acid PYY analogue, Ac-[d-Pro(24),Cha(27,28,36),Aib(31)]PYY(23-36) (3), showed high binding affinity and agonist activity for the Y2R, similar to that of PYY3-36, but had weak anorectic activity upon continuous administration in lean mice. Three amino acid substitutions [Pya(4)(26), Aib(28), Lys(30)], which contributed to the decreased hydrophobicity of 3, efficiently increased its anorectic activity...
June 23, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669754/the-impact-of-gut-hormones-on-the-neural-circuit-of-appetite-and-satiety-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Davide Zanchi, Antoinette Depoorter, Laura Egloff, Sven Haller, Laura Mählmann, Undine E Lang, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, André Schmidt, Stefan Borgwardt
The brain-gut-axis is an interdependent system affecting neural functions and controlling our eating behaviour. In recent decades, neuroimaging techniques have facilitated its investigation. We systematically looked into functional and neurochemical brain imaging studies investigating how key molecules such as ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose and insulin influence the function of brain regions regulating appetite and satiety. Of the 349 studies published before July 2016 identified in the database search, 40 were included (27 on healthy and 13 on obese subjects)...
June 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659728/hedonic-eating-in-prader-willi-syndrome-is-associated-with-blunted-pyy-secretion
#7
A E Rigamonti, S Bini, F Piscitelli, A Lauritano, V Di Marzo, C Vanetti, F Agosti, A De Col, E Lucchetti, G Grugni, A Sartorio
Hedonic and homeostatic hunger represent two different forms of eating: just for pleasure or following energy deprivation, respectively. Consumption of food for pleasure was reported to be associated with increased circulating levels of both the orexigenic peptide ghrelin and some specific endocannabinoids in normal-weight subjects and patients with morbid obesity. To date, the effects of palatable food on these mediators in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) are still unknown. To explore the role of some gastrointestinal orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides and endocannabinoids (and some related congeners) in chocolate consumption, we measured changes in circulating levels of ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), anandamide (AEA), 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG), palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) in eight satiated adult PWS patients after consumption of chocolate and, on a separate day, of a non-palatable isocaloric food with the same macronutrient composition...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626523/antiobesity-effect-of-a-short-length-peptide-yy-analogue-after-continuous-administration-in-mice
#8
Naoki Nishizawa, Ayumu Niida, Yasushi Masuda, Satoshi Kumano, Kotaro Yokoyama, Hideki Hirabayashi, Nobuyuki Amano, Tetsuya Ohtaki, Taiji Asami
Gastrointestinal peptides such as peptide YY (PYY) can regulate appetite, which is relevant to the study of obesity. The intraperitoneal bolus administration of PYY3-36 and a 12-amino acid PYY analogue, benzoyl-[Cha(27,28,36),Aib(31)]PYY25-36 (1), showed similar anorectic activity by activating the Y2 receptor (Y2R). However, food intake inhibition and body weight loss were not observed upon continuous subcutaneous administration of 1 with osmotic pumps in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. N-Terminal elongation of 1, together with amino acid substitution at position 24, led to a hydrophilic 14-amino acid peptide, Ac-[d-Hyp(24),Cha(27,28,36),Aib(31)]PYY23-36 (18), that showed higher affinity and more potent agonist activity for Y2R and a robust anorectic activity with potency similar to that of PYY3-36...
June 8, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622905/discovery-of-novel-somatostatin-receptor-subtype-5-sstr5-antagonists-pharmacological-studies-and-design-to-improve-pharmacokinetic-profiles-and-human-ether-a-go-go-related-gene-herg-inhibition
#9
Takeshi Yamasaki, Hideki Hirose, Tohru Yamashita, Nobuyuki Takakura, Sachie Morimoto, Takashi Nakahata, Asato Kina, Yoshihide Nakano, Yumiko Okano Tamura, Jun Sugama, Tomoyuki Odani, Yuji Shimizu, Shinji Iwasaki, Masanori Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Maekawa, Shizuo Kasai
Somatostatin (SST) is a peptide hormone comprising 14 or 28 amino acids that inhibits endocrine and exocrine secretion via five distinct G-protein-coupled receptors (SSTR1-5). SSTR5 has an important role in inhibiting the secretion of pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormones (e.g., insulin, GLP-1, PYY) through the binding of SSTs; hence, SSTR5 antagonists are expected to be novel anti-diabetic drugs. In the course of our lead generation program of SSTR5 antagonists, we have discovered a novel spiroazetidine derivative 3a...
June 13, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620678/effect-of-lifestyle-improvement-program-on-the-biomarkers-of-adiposity-inflammation-and-gut-hormones-in-overweight-obese-asian-indians-with-prediabetes
#10
Kuppan Gokulakrishnan, Harish Ranjani, Mary Beth Weber, Gautam Kumar Pandey, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Muthuswamy Balasubramanyam, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Nikhil Tandon, K M Venkat Narayan, Viswanathan Mohan
AIMS: While lifestyle modification is known to offer several metabolic benefits, there is paucity of comprehensive data on changes in biomarkers of adiposity, inflammation as well as gut hormones. We investigated these biomarkers in overweight/obese individuals with prediabetes randomized to either 4 months of a lifestyle improvement program or standard care and followed them up for a year. METHODS: Participants [standard care and intervention arm (n = 75 each)] were randomly selected from the Diabetes Community Lifestyle Improvement Program trial...
June 15, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610906/a-walnut-containing-meal-had-similar-effects-on-early-satiety-cck-and-pyy-but-attenuated-the-postprandial-glp-1-and-insulin-response-compared-to-a-nut-free-control-meal
#11
Cheryl L Rock, Shirley W Flatt, Hava-Shoshana Barkai, Bilge Pakiz, Dennis D Heath
Regular nut consumption is associated with lower adiposity and reduced weight gain in adulthood. Walnut feeding studies have observed minimal effect on body weight despite potential additional energy intake. Several mechanisms may explain why consuming nuts promotes weight control, including increased early phase satiety, possibly reflected in postprandial response of gastrointestinal and pancreatic peptides hypothesized to affect appetite. The purpose of this study was to compare postprandial insulin, glucagon and gastrointestinal peptide response and satiety following a meal with ∼54% of energy from walnuts or cream cheese, using a within-subject crossover study design in overweight/obese adults (N = 28)...
June 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604591/influence-of-hot-and-cold-environments-on-the-regulation-of-energy-balance-following-a-single-exercise-session-a-mini-review
#12
REVIEW
Keyne Charlot, Cécile Faure, Sophie Antoine-Jonville
Understanding the regulation of human food intake in response to an acute exercise session is of importance for interventions with athletes and soldiers, as well as overweight individuals. However, the influence of hot and cold environments on this crucial function for the regulation of body mass and motor performance has not been summarized. The purpose of this review was to exhaustively search the literature on the effect of ambient temperature during an exercise session on the subsequent subjective feeling of appetite, energy intake (EI) and its regulation...
June 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596682/diabetes-recurrence-after-metabolic-surgeries-correlates-with-re-impaired-insulin-sensitivity-rather-than-beta-cell-function
#13
Teng Liu, Ming-Wei Zhong, Yi Liu, Dong Sun, Meng Wei, Xin Huang, Yu-Gang Cheng, Qun-Zheng Wu, Dong Wu, Xiao-Qian Zhang, Ke-Xin Wang, San-Yuan Hu, Shao-Zhuang Liu
AIM: To investigate factors causing diabetes recurrence after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB). METHODS: SG and DJB were performed on rats with diabetes induced by high-fat diet (HFD) and streptozotocin (STZ). HFD was used to induce diabetes recurrence at 4 wk postoperatively. Body weight, oral glucose tolerance test, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), insulin signaling [IR, insulin receptor substrate (IRS)1, IRS2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and AKT in liver and skeletal muscle], oral glucose stimulated insulin secretion, beta-cell morphology (mass, apoptosis and insulin secretion), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, PYY and ghrelin were compared among SG rats with common low-fat diet (SG-LFD), SG with HFD (SG-HFD), DJB rats with LFD (DJB-LFD), DJB with HFD (DJB-HFD) and sham-operation with LFD (Sham) at targeted postoperative times...
May 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557822/gut-microbiota-and-the-gut-brain-axis-new-insights-in-the-pathophysiology-of-metabolic-syndrome
#14
Nicolien de Clercq, Myrthe N Frissen, Albert K Groen, Max Nieuwdorp
OBJECTIVE: Emerging pre-clinical evidence has shown that the bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain, the so-called gut-brain axis, plays an important role in both host metabolism and behavior. In this review, we will discuss the potential mechanisms of the brain-gut axis in relation to the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. METHODS: A selective literature review was conducted to evaluate gastrointestinal and brain interactions...
May 27, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539646/colonic-infusions-of-short-chain-fatty-acid-mixtures-promote-energy-metabolism-in-overweight-obese-men-a-randomized-crossover-trial
#15
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Johan W E Jocken, Gijs H Goossens, Jens J Holst, Steven W M Olde Damink, Kaatje Lenaerts, Cornelis H C Dejong, Ellen E Blaak
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), formed by microbial fermentation, are believed to be involved in the aetiology of obesity and diabetes. This study investigated the effects of colonic administration of physiologically relevant SCFA mixtures on human substrate and energy metabolism. In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, twelve normoglycaemic men (BMI 25-35 kg/m(2)) underwent four investigational days, during which SCFA mixtures (200 mmol/L) high in either acetate (HA), propionate (HP), butyrate (HB) or placebo (PLA) were rectally administered during fasting and postprandial conditions (oral glucose load)...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533020/the-role-of-pyy-in-pancreatic-islet-physiology-and-surgical-control-of-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Claudia Guida, Sam Stephen, Romain Guitton, Reshma D Ramracheya
Bariatric surgery in obese individuals leads to rapid and lasting remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This phenomenon occurs independently of weight loss possibly via a combination of factors. The incretin hormone GLP-1 has so far been recognised as a critical factor. However, recent data have indicated that elevation in another gut hormone, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), may drive the beneficial effects of surgery. Here we discuss recent findings on PYY-mediated control of glucose homeostasis and its role in diabetes, in the context of what is known for GLP-1...
May 19, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531784/gut-microbiota-mediated-benefits-of-barley-kernel-products-on-metabolism-gut-hormones-and-inflammatory-markers-as-affected-by-co-ingestion-of-commercially-available-probiotics-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#17
Anne Nilsson, Elin Johansson-Boll, Jonna Sandberg, Inger Björck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barley kernel based products have been shown to induce benefits on blood glucose regulation, cardio-metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones in a time perspective of 11-16 h after intake. The mechanisms have been assigned to gut fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the modulatory effects of barley on markers of metabolic- and appetite regulation are affected by a dietary background including a mixture of commercially available probiotics...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506816/ghrelin-suppresses-cholecystokinin-cck-peptide-yy-pyy-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-in-the-intestine-and-attenuates-the-anorectic-effects-of-cck-pyy-and-glp-1-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#18
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ana Isabel Valenciano, María Jesús Delgado, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479016/the-impact-of-rate-of-weight-loss-on-body-composition-and-compensatory-mechanisms-during-weight-reduction-a-randomized-control-trial
#19
Sílvia Ribeiro Coutinho, Emilie With, Jens F Rehfeld, Bård Kulseng, Helen Truby, Cátia Martins
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Rapid weight loss (WL) has been associated with a larger loss of fat free mass and a disproportional reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR), but the evidence is inconclusive. We aimed to evaluate the impact of WL rate on body composition and compensatory mechanisms activated with WL (reduced RMR, increased exercise efficiency (ExEff) and appetite), both during negative and neutral energy balance (EB). METHODS: Thirty-five participants with obesity were randomized to lose a similar weight rapidly (4 weeks) or gradually (8 weeks), and afterwards to maintain it (4 weeks)...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451931/predictive-value-of-gut-peptides-in-t2d-remission-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-metabolic-gastric-bypass-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-greater-curvature-plication
#20
Anna Casajoana, Jordi Pujol, Amador Garcia, Jordi Elvira, Nuria Virgili, Francisco Javier de Oca, Xavier Duran, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Joan Vendrell, Nuria Vilarrasa
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to determine the predictive value of gut hormone changes for the improvement of type 2 diabetes (T2D) following metabolic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (mRYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and greater curvature plication (GCP) in a randomized controlled trial. Contradictory results have been obtained regarding the role of gastrointestinal hormones (in particular GLP-1) in beneficial metabolic bariatric surgery outcomes. METHODS: Forty-five patients with T2D (mean BMI 39...
April 27, 2017: Obesity Surgery
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