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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318688/impact-of-phenylketonuria-type-meal-on-appetite-thermic-effect-of-feeding-and-postprandial-fat-oxidation
#1
Hani Alfheeaid, Konstantinos Gerasimidis, Ana-Maria Năstase, Mie Elhauge, Barbara Cochrane, Dalia Malkova
BACKGROUND: Dietary management of phenylketonuria (PKU) requires the replacement of natural protein-containing foods with special low protein foods. The effect of a PKU type diet on factors contributing to energy balance requires investigation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of a PKU type meal on appetite ratings, gut appetite hormones, thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and fat oxidation. METHODS: Twenty-three healthy adults (mean ± SD age: 24...
March 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300626/changes-in-circulating-peptide-yy-and-ghrelin-are-associated-with-early-smoking-relapse
#2
Andrine M Lemieux, Mustafa al'Absi
Ghrelin and peptide YY (PYY) during ad libitum smoking have been associated with decreased reported craving (ghrelin) and increased positive affect (PYY), and higher baseline ghrelin levels predicted subsequent increased risk of smoking relapse. The current study assessed PYY and ghrelin during ad libitum smoking and again after the initial 48h of a smoking cessation attempt. The data compared smokers who abstained for 28days (n=37), smokers who relapsed (n=54), and nonsmokers (n=37). Plasma samples and subjective measures assessing craving and mood were collected at the beginning of each session...
March 12, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293234/dysbiosis-of-gut-microbiota-associated-with-clinical-parameters-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#3
Rui Liu, Chenhong Zhang, Yu Shi, Feng Zhang, Linxia Li, Xuejiao Wang, Yunxia Ling, Huaqing Fu, Weiping Dong, Jian Shen, Andrew Reeves, Andrew S Greenberg, Liping Zhao, Yongde Peng, Xiaoying Ding
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine and metabolic disorder in women. Gut microbiota has been implicated to play a critical role in metabolic diseases and may modulate the secretion of mediators of the brain-gut axis. Interaction between gut microbiota and the endocrine and biochemical disturbances in PCOS still remains elusive. Here, we showed an altered gut microbiota significantly correlated with PCOS phenotype. There were 33 patients with PCOS (non-obese PCOS individuals, PN, n = 12; obese PCOS individuals, PO, n = 21) as well as 15 control subjects (non-obese control individuals, CN, n = 9; obese control individuals, CO, n = 6) enrolled in our study...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286674/the-effect-of-exercise-intensity-on-total-pyy-and-glp-1-in-healthy-females-a-pilot-study
#4
Jillian R Hallworth, Jennifer L Copeland, Jon Doan, Tom J Hazell
We compared the acute response of anorexigenic signals (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to submaximal and supramaximal exercise. Nine females completed three sessions: (1) moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min; 65%  VO2max); (2) sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 sec "all-out" cycling sprints with 4 min recovery); or (3) control (CTRL; no exercise). PYY and GLP-1 were measured via blood samples drawn before, immediately after, and 90 min after exercise. Perceptions of hunger were rated using a visual analogue scale at all blood sampling time points...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276830/bariatric-surgery-time-to-replace-with-glp-1
#5
Dominic-Luc Webb, Niclas Abrahamsson, Magnus Sundbom, Per M Hellström
Obesity with a body mass index (BMI) over 30 kg/m(2) represents a significant risk for increased morbidity and mortality, with reduced life expectancy of about 10 years. Until now, surgical treatment has been the only effective longterm intervention. The currently standardized method of bariatric surgery, gastric bypass, means that many gastrointestinal peptide hormones are activated, yielding net reductions in appetite and food intake. Among the most important gut peptide hormones in this perspective is glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), which rises sharply after gastric bypass...
February 24, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274625/apd668-a-g-protein-coupled-receptor-119-agonist-improves-fat-tolerance-and-attenuates-fatty-liver-in-high-trans-fat-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-model-in-c57bl-6-mice
#6
Umakant Ashok Bahirat, Rekha Raghuveer Shenoy, Rajan Naresh Goel, Kumar V S Nemmani
G-protein coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) receptor is a rhodopsin-like, class A Gαs-coupled receptor, predominantly expressed in pancreatic islet cells and intestinal entero-endocrine cells. GPR119 has been emerged as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the effect of APD668, a GPR119 agonist alone and in combination with linagliptin, a DPPIV inhibitor on oral fat tolerance test. Our findings demonstrate that APD668, a GPR119 agonist inhibits the intestinal triglyceride absorption after acute fat load in mice...
March 6, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272464/the-effect-of-diurnal-distribution-of-carbohydrates-and-fat-on-glycaemic-control-in-humans-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Katharina Kessler, Silke Hornemann, Klaus J Petzke, Margrit Kemper, Achim Kramer, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Olga Pivovarova, Natalia Rudovich
Diurnal carbohydrate and fat distribution modulates glycaemic control in rodents. In humans, the optimal timing of both macronutrients and its effects on glycaemic control after prolonged consumption are not studied in detail. In this cross-over trial, 29 non-obese men were randomized to two four-week diets: (1) carbohydrate-rich meals until 13.30 and fat-rich meals between 16.30 and 22.00 (HC/HF) versus (2) inverse sequence of meals (HF/HC). After each trial period two meal tolerance tests were performed, at 09...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265960/impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-metabolic-and-gut-microbiota-profile-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Dimitrios E Magouliotis, Vasiliki S Tasiopoulou, Eleni Sioka, Christina Chatedaki, Dimitrios Zacharoulis
We aim to review the available literature on obese patients treated with bariatric procedures, in order to assess their effect on the metabolic and gut microbiota profiles. A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Twenty-two studies (562 patients) met the inclusion criteria. This study points to significant amelioration of postoperative levels of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HOMA-IR, food intake, and diabetes remission...
March 6, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265415/metabolic-improvements-following-roux-en-y-surgery-assessed-by-solid-meal-test-in-subjects-with-short-duration-type-2-diabetes
#9
Sudha S Shankar, Lori A Mixson, Manu Chakravarthy, Robin Chisholm, Anthony J Acton, RoseMarie Jones, Samer G Mattar, Deborah L Miller, Lea Petry, Chan R Beals, S Aubrey Stoch, David E Kelley, Robert V Considine
BACKGROUND: Glucose homeostasis improves within days following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. The dynamic metabolic response to caloric intake following RYGB has been assessed using liquid mixed meal tolerance tests (MMTT). Few studies have evaluated the glycemic and hormonal response to a solid mixed meal in subjects with diabetes prior to, and within the first month following RYGB. METHODS: Seventeen women with type 2 diabetes of less than 5 years duration participated...
2017: BMC Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237410/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-increases-in-plasma-and-colon-tissue-prior-to-estrus-and-circulating-levels-change-with-increasing-age-in-reproductively-competent-wistar-rats
#10
Michelle L Johnson, M Jill Saffrey, Victoria J Taylor
There is a well-documented association between cyclic changes to food intake and the changing ovarian hormone levels of the reproductive cycle in female mammals. Limited research on appetite-controlling gastrointestinal peptides has taken place in females, simply because regular reproductive changes in steroid hormones present additional experimental factors to account for. This study focussed directly on the roles that gastrointestinal-secreted peptides may have in these reported, naturally occurring, changes to food intake during the rodent estrous cycle and aimed to determine whether peripheral changes occurred in the anorexigenic (appetite-reducing) hormones peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in female Wistar rats (32-44 weeks of age)...
February 22, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228504/the-dynamics-of-gastric-emptying-and-self-reported-feelings-of-satiation-are-better-predictors-than-gastrointestinal-hormones-of-the-effects-of-lipid-emulsion-structure-on-fat-digestion-in-healthy-adults-a-bayesian-inference-approach
#11
Andreas Steingoetter, Simon Buetikofer, Jelena Curcic, Dieter Menne, Jens F Rehfeld, Michael Fried, Werner Schwizer, Tim J Wooster
Background: Limited information exists on the relation between fat emulsion structure and its effect on the release of gastrointestinal hormones and feelings of satiation.Objective: We investigated the impact of fat emulsion droplet size, gravitational and acid stability, and redispersibility on gastrointestinal responses and sought to deduce the relative importance of the hormones ghrelin, cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, and peptide YY (PYY) in controlling fat emptying and related satiation.Methods: Within a randomized, double-blind, 4-armed crossover study, an extensive data set was generated by MRI of gastric function, analysis of hormone profiles, and ratings of satiation in healthy participants [10 women and 7 men with a mean ± SD age of 25 ± 7 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 22 ± 1] after intake of 4 different fat emulsions...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222742/resistant-starch-lowers-postprandial-glucose-and-leptin-in-overweight-adults-consuming-a-moderate-to-high-fat-diet-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Mindy Patterson Maziarz, Sara Preisendanz, Shanil Juma, Victorine Imrhan, Chandan Prasad, Parakat Vijayagopal
BACKGROUND: High-amylose maize resistant starch type 2 (HAM-RS2) stimulates gut-derived satiety peptides and reduces adiposity in animals. Human studies have not supported these findings despite improvements in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity after HAM-RS2 intake which can lower adiposity-related disease risk. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of HAM-RS2 consumption on blood glucose homeostasis in overweight, healthy adults. We also examined changes in biomarkers of satiety (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], and leptin) and body composition determined by anthropometrics and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, dietary intake, and subjective satiety measured by a visual analogue scale following HAM-RS2 consumption...
February 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154977/sex-differences-in-the-response-of-total-pyy-and-glp-1-to-moderate-intensity-continuous-and-sprint-interval-cycling-exercise
#13
Tom J Hazell, Logan K Townsend, Jillian R Hallworth, Jon Doan, Jennifer L Copeland
BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions are often less effective at improving body composition for females than males, potentially due to post-exercise hormonal responses that increase energy intake in females. Recently, sprint interval training was shown to effectively reduce body fat in females despite being relatively low during exercise energy expenditure. PURPOSE: To determine whether any sex difference in total PYY, GLP-1 or perceived hunger exists following moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICT) and sprint interval exercise (SIT) METHODS: Twenty-one active participants (11 females) participated in three sessions in a randomized crossover design: (1) MICT, 30-min cycling at 65% VO2max; (2) SIT, 6 × 30 s "all-out" sprints with 4-min recovery periods; (3) control (CTRL; no exercise)...
March 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123937/fermentable-carbohydrate-stimulates-ffar2-dependent-colonic-pyy-cell-expansion%C3%A2-to%C3%A2-increase-satiety
#14
Lucy Brooks, Alexander Viardot, Anastasia Tsakmaki, Emilie Stolarczyk, Jane K Howard, Patrice D Cani, Amandine Everard, Michelle L Sleeth, Arianna Psichas, Jelena Anastasovskaj, Jimmy D Bell, Kim Bell-Anderson, Charles R Mackay, Mohammad A Ghatei, Stephen R Bloom, Gary Frost, Gavin A Bewick
OBJECTIVE: Dietary supplementation with fermentable carbohydrate protects against body weight gain. Fermentation by the resident gut microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids, which act at free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2). Our aim was to test the hypothesis that FFAR2 is important in regulating the beneficial effects of fermentable carbohydrate on body weight and to understand the role of gut hormones PYY and GLP-1. METHODS: Wild-type or Ffar2(-/-) mice were fed an inulin supplemented or control diet...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123931/when-gut-fermentation-controls-satiety-a-pyy-story
#15
Rémy Burcelin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106168/visceral-hyperalgesia-caused-by-peptide-yy-deletion-and-y2-receptor-antagonism
#16
Ahmed M Hassan, Piyush Jain, Raphaela Mayerhofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Aitak Farzi, Florian Reichmann, Herbert Herzog, Peter Holzer
Altered levels of colonic peptide YY (PYY) have been reported in patients suffering from functional and inflammatory bowel disorders. While the involvement of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and Y receptors in the regulation of nociception is well established, the physiological role of PYY in somatic and visceral pain is poorly understood. In this work, the role of PYY in pain sensitivity was evaluated using PYY knockout (PYY((-/-))) mice and Y2 receptor ligands. PYY((-/-)) mice were more sensitive to somatic thermal pain compared to wild type (WT) mice...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098139/appetite-responses-to-high-fat-meals-or-diets-of-varying-fatty-acid-composition-a-comprehensive-review
#17
REVIEW
S Kaviani, J A Cooper
Dietary fatty acids (FA) act as signaling molecules with diverse effects on physiologic function. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the clinical human studies in the literature on how dietary FA composition in meals and diets affects hunger and satiety signaling in the body. Studies examining FA saturation (monounsaturated (MUFA), saturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) FAs) or FA chain length from high-fat meals/diets were included. Measures of appetite included visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires, appetite hormones (Cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), gastric insulinotropic polypeptide gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and/or energy intake (EI) data...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027898/lower-plasma-levels-of-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-peptide-gip-and-pancreatic-polypeptide-pp-in-patients-with-ductal-adenocarcinoma-of-the-pancreas-and-their-relation-to-the-presence-of-impaired-glucoregulation-and-weight-loss
#18
Jan Škrha, Petr Bušek, Jana Uhrová, Petr Hrabal, Klára Kmochová, Martin Laclav, Bohuš Bunganič, Přemysl Frič
BACKGROUND: The changes in gastrointestinal hormones associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in patients with impaired glucoregulation have yet to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine plasma concentrations of selected gastrointestinal hormones in PDAC patients with and without diabetes and to compare them with levels found in Type 2 diabetic patients without cancer. METHODS: In this study we examined plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), peptide YY (PYY) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cytokines leptin and adiponectin in 94 patients with histologically confirmed PDAC...
December 15, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003328/ghrelin-cck-glp-1-and-pyy-3-36-secretory-controls-and-physiological-roles-in-eating-and-glycemia-in-health-obesity-and-after-rygb
#19
REVIEW
Robert E Steinert, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Lori Asarian, Michael Horowitz, Christoph Beglinger, Nori Geary
The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGB) and other bariatric surgeries in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and novel developments in gastrointestinal (GI) endocrinology have renewed interest in the roles of GI hormones in the control of eating, meal-related glycemia, and obesity. Here we review the nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control the secretion of four of these hormones, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY(3-36)], and their contributions to the controls of GI motor function, food intake, and meal-related increases in glycemia in healthy-weight and obese persons, as well as in RYGB patients...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995402/does-the-ileal-brake-contribute-to-delayed-gastric-emptying-after-pancreatoduodenectomy
#20
REVIEW
Savio G Barreto, John A Windsor
Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) represents a significant cause for morbidity following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). At a time when no specific and universally effective therapy exists to treat these patients, elucidating other potential (preventable or treatable) mechanisms for DGE is important. The aim of the manuscript was to test the hypothesis that ileal brake contributes to DGE in PD patients receiving jejunal tube feeding by systematically reviewing experimental and clinical literature. A series of clinically relevant questions were framed related to the potential role of the ileal brake in development of DGE post-PD and formed the basis of targeted literature searches...
December 19, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
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