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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027898/lower-plasma-levels-of-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-peptide-gip-and-pancreatic-polypeptide-pp-in-patients-with-ductal-adenocarcinoma-of-the-pancreas-and-their-relation-to-the-presence-of-impaired-glucoregulation-and-weight-loss
#1
Jan Škrha, Petr Bušek, Jana Uhrová, Petr Hrabal, Klára Kmochová, Martin Laclav, Bohuš Bunganič, Přemysl Frič
BACKGROUND: The changes in gastrointestinal hormones associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in patients with impaired glucoregulation have yet to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine plasma concentrations of selected gastrointestinal hormones in PDAC patients with and without diabetes and to compare them with levels found in Type 2 diabetic patients without cancer. METHODS: In this study we examined plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), pancreatic polypeptide (PP), peptide YY (PYY) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), and cytokines leptin and adiponectin in 94 patients with histologically confirmed PDAC...
December 15, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003328/ghrelin-cck-glp-1-and-pyy-3-36-secretory-controls-and-physiological-roles-in-eating-and-glycemia-in-health-obesity-and-after-rygb
#2
REVIEW
Robert E Steinert, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Lori Asarian, Michael Horowitz, Christoph Beglinger, Nori Geary
The efficacy of Roux-en-Y gastric-bypass (RYGB) and other bariatric surgeries in the management of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and novel developments in gastrointestinal (GI) endocrinology have renewed interest in the roles of GI hormones in the control of eating, meal-related glycemia, and obesity. Here we review the nutrient-sensing mechanisms that control the secretion of four of these hormones, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and peptide tyrosine tyrosine [PYY(3-36)], and their contributions to the controls of GI motor function, food intake, and meal-related increases in glycemia in healthy-weight and obese persons, as well as in RYGB patients...
January 2017: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995402/does-the-ileal-brake-contribute-to-delayed-gastric-emptying-after-pancreatoduodenectomy
#3
REVIEW
Savio G Barreto, John A Windsor
Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) represents a significant cause for morbidity following pancreatoduodenectomy (PD). At a time when no specific and universally effective therapy exists to treat these patients, elucidating other potential (preventable or treatable) mechanisms for DGE is important. The aim of the manuscript was to test the hypothesis that ileal brake contributes to DGE in PD patients receiving jejunal tube feeding by systematically reviewing experimental and clinical literature. A series of clinically relevant questions were framed related to the potential role of the ileal brake in development of DGE post-PD and formed the basis of targeted literature searches...
December 19, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988351/duplication-of-neuropeptide-y-and-peptide-yy-in-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-and-their-roles-in-food-intake-regulation
#4
Peipei Yan, Jirong Jia, Guokun Yang, Dongfang Wang, Caiyun Sun, Wensheng Li
In vertebrates, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family peptides have been recognized as key players in food intake regulation. NPY centrally promotes feeding, while peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) mediate satiety. The teleost tetraploidization is well-known to generate duplicates of both NPY and PYY; however, the functional diversification between the duplicate genes, especially in the regulation of food intake, remains unknown. In this study, we identified the two duplicates of NPY and PYY in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)...
December 14, 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27980002/the-role-of-nutrient-sensing-in-the-metabolic-changes-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#5
Sandra Steensels, Matthias Lannoo, Bert Avau, Jorien Laermans, Laurien Vancleef, Ricard Farré, Kristin Verbeke, Inge Depoortere
Taste receptors coupled to the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, on enteroendocrine cells sense nutrients to regulate gut hormone release. During Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, the altered nutrient flow to more distal regions can affect gustducin-mediated gut hormone release, and hence energy and glucose homeostasis. We studied the role of gustducin-mediated signaling in the metabolic improvements and intestinal adaptations along the gut after RYGB surgery in wild-type (WT) and α-gustducin(-/-) (α-gust(-/-)) mice...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966574/acute-increases-in-serum-colonic-short-chain-fatty-acids-elicited-by-inulin-do-not-increase-glp-1-or-pyy-responses-but-may-reduce-ghrelin-in-lean-and-overweight-humans
#6
S Rahat-Rozenbloom, J Fernandes, J Cheng, T M S Wolever
BACKGROUND: Colonic fermentation of dietary fibre to short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) influences appetite hormone secretion in animals, but SCFA production is excessive in obese animals. This suggests there may be resistance to the effect of SCFA on appetite hormones in obesity. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of inulin (IN) and resistant starch (RS) on postprandial SCFA, and gut hormone (glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and ghrelin) responses in healthy overweight/obese (OWO) vs lean (LN) humans...
December 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934480/a-mechanistic-study-on-nanoparticle-mediated-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-l-cells
#7
Ana Beloqui, Mireille Alhouayek, Dario Carradori, Kevin Vanvarenberg, Giulio G Muccioli, Patrice D Cani, Véronique Préat
L cells have attracted particular interest because of the pleiotropic effects of their secreted peptides (i.e., glucagon-like peptide (GLP) 1 and 2, peptide YY (PYY)). L cells express different G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that can be activated by endogenous ligands found in the gut lumen. We herein hypothesized that lipid-based nanoparticles could mimic endogenous ligands and thus activate GLP-1 secretion in type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment. To assess this hypothesis, lipid-based nanoparticles (nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), lipid nanocapsules (LNC), and liposomes) and PLGA nanoparticles were added to the L cells and GLP-1 secretion was quantified...
December 5, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918953/cross-talk-between-innate-cytokines-and-the-pancreatic-polypeptide-family-in-acute-pancreatitis
#8
Sayali A Pendharkar, Ruma G Singh, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Low-grade inflammation persists in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP) after hospital discharge, and is linked to metabolic disorders. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is well recognized as an important mediator of inflammation in these patients but the role of the other two structurally similar peptides, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and peptide YY (PYY), in inflammation has been sparsely investigated. The aim was to investigate the association between PYY, PP, NPY and circulating levels of innate cytokines in patients after AP...
December 2, 2016: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898891/behavior-and-inflammation-of-the-rumen-and-cecum-in-holstein-bulls-fed-high-concentrate-diets-with-different-concentrate-presentation-forms-with-or-without-straw-supplementation
#10
M Devant, G B Penner, S Marti, B Quintana, F Fábregas, A Bach, A Arís
Twenty-four individually housed Holstein bulls (395 ± 7.3 kg BW and 252 ± 3.1 d age) were exposed to a 2 × 2 factorial design (meal vs. pellets; with vs. without straw) to evaluate the effect of concentrate form and provision of straw in finishing diets on behavior and expression of rumen and cecum epithelium genes related to inflammation and behavior. Concentrate and straw consumption were recorded monthly and behavior (self-grooming, social, oral nonnutritive, tongue rolling, eating, drinking, ruminating, and lying) was recorded every two weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898877/effects-of-full-fat-or-defatted-rice-bran-on-growth-performance-and-blood-characteristics-of-weanling-pigs
#11
G A Casas, H H Stein
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increased concentrations of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) in diets without or with supplementation of an exogenous xylanase on growth performance and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 532 pigs (9.3 ± 0.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 14 diets in 4 blocks and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. There were 4 or 5 pigs per pen. A basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and whey powder and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal, whey powder, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB or 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were used...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898845/effect-of-sterilization-and-of-dietary-fat-and-carbohydrate-content-on-food-intake-activity-level-and-blood-satiety-related-hormones-in-female-dogs
#12
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, G Bosch, H Swarts, C Castrillo
Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844204/analysis-of-enteroendocrine-cell-populations-in-the-human-colon
#13
Patricia Martins, Josiane Fakhry, Enio Chaves de Oliveira, Billie Hunne, Linda J Fothergill, Mitchell Ringuet, Débora d'Ávila Reis, Jens F Rehfeld, Brid Callaghan, John B Furness
Recent studies have shown that patterns of colocalisation of hormones in enteroendocrine cells are more complex than previously appreciated and that the patterns differ substantially between species. In this study, the human sigmoid colon is investigated by immunohistochemistry for the presence of gastrointestinal hormones and their colocalisation. The segments of colon were distant from the pathology that led to colectomy and appeared structurally normal. Only four hormones, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and somatostatin, were common in enteroendocrine cells of the human colon...
November 14, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811949/small-intestinal-protein-infusion-in-humans-evidence-for-a-location-specific-gradient-in-intestinal-feedback-on-food-intake-and-gi-peptide-release
#14
M van Avesaat, D Ripken, H F J Hendriks, A A M Masclee, F J Troost
BACKGROUND: Protein infusion in the small intestine results in intestinal brake activation: a negative feedback mechanism that may be mediated by the release of GI peptides resulting in a reduction in food intake. It has been proposed that duodenum, jejunum and ileum may respond differently to infused proteins. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in ad libitum food intake, feelings of hunger and satiety and the systemic levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), glucose and insulin after intraduodenal, intrajejunal and intraileal protein infusion...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#15
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800650/supplementation-of-oligofructose-but-not-sucralose-decreases-high-fat-diet-induced-body-weight-gain-in-mice-independent-of-gustducin-mediated-gut-hormone-release
#16
Sandra Steensels, Leen Cools, Bert Avau, Laurien Vancleef, Ricard Farré, Kristin Verbeke, Inge Depoortere
SCOPE: Enteroendocrine cells sense nutrients through taste receptors similar to those on the tongue. Sweet and fatty acid taste receptors (FFAR) coupled to the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, on enteroendocrine cells play a role in gut hormone release. We studied if supplementation of artificial (sucralose) or prebiotic (oligofructose; OFS) sweeteners target gustducin-mediated signaling pathways to alter gut hormone release and reduce obesity-associated disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild-type (WT) and α-gustducin knockout (α-gust(-/-) ) mice were fed a high-fat diet and gavaged once daily (8 wk) with water or equisweet concentrations of sweeteners...
October 31, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798332/the-noncaloric-sweetener-rebaudioside-a-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-release-and-increases-enteroendocrine-cell-numbers-in-2-dimensional-mouse-organoids-derived-from-different-locations-of-the-intestine
#17
Nikkie van der Wielen, Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Susanne Muckenschnabl, Raymond Pieters, Henk Fj Hendriks, Renger F Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) contributes to satiety and plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Similar to GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin also influence food intake. The secretion of these hormones by enteroendocrine cells along the intestine is modulated by nutrients. Preparations from the Stevia rebaudiana plant, including rebaudioside A, are increasingly being used as noncaloric sweeteners. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of rebaudioside A on enteroendocrine cells by assessing both cell numbers as well as their secretory capacity in an organoid model...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787482/fasting-and-post-prandial-peptide-yy-levels-in-obese-patients-before-and-after-two-types-of-the-bariatric-surgery-mini-gastric-bypass-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#18
Jolanta A Dardzińska, Łukasz Kaska, Piotr Wiśniewski, Ewa Aleksandrowicz-Wrona, Sylwia Małgorzewicz
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the metabolic effect of surgical treatment for morbid obesity are still not clear. Furthermore, the hormonal and metabolic response to the promising and moreover less invasive modification of Roux en Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB); Mini Gastric Bypass (MGB) is poorly known. The aim of this study was to evaluate pre- and post-prandial changes in PYY and metabolic parameters in obese patients without diabetes and cardiovascular complications treated by both versions of gastric bypass...
October 27, 2016: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779708/enteroendocrine-cells-stem-cells-and-differentiation-progenitors-in-rats-with-tnbs-induced-colitis
#19
Magdy El-Salhy, Tarek Mazzawi, Kazuo Umezawa, Odd Helge Gilja
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as animal models of human IBD have abnormal enteroendocrine cells. The present study aimed to identify the possible mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: the control group, the group with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis with no treatment (TNBS group), the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G; an activator protein-1 inhibitor) (DTCM-G group), and the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ; a nuclear factor-κB inhibitor) treatment (DHMEQ group)...
December 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721013/total-pyy-and-glp-1-responses-to-submaximal-continuous-and-supramaximal-sprint-interval-cycling-in-men
#20
Tom J Hazell, Hashim Islam, Jillian R Hallworth, Jennifer L Copeland
Exercise-induced changes in appetite-regulating hormones may be intensity-dependent, however a clear dose-response relationship has not been established. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in anorexigenic markers (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to rest or exercise at submaximal and supramaximal intensities. Ten active males completed four experimental sessions in randomized order: 1) Moderate intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min cycling at 65% VO2max); 2) High intensity continuous training (HICT; 30 min cycling at 85% VO2max); 3) Sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 s "all-out" cycling bouts with 4 min recovery periods); 4) Control (CTRL; no exercise)...
January 1, 2017: Appetite
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