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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904405/evaluation-of-prebiotic-effects-of-high-purity-galactooligosaccharides-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#1
Ki Bae Hong, Jae Hwan Kim, Hyuk Kon Kwon, Sung Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
Galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are an important class of dietary prebiotics that exert beneficial effects on intestinal microbiota and gut barrier function. In this study, high-purity GOS (HP-GOS) were investigated in vitro and in vivo and confirmed as prebiotic ingredients in rat diet. HP-GOS were successfully produced using a two-step process, enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by yeast. They were found to serve as a good substrate and carbon source for supporting the growth of probiotic bacteria more effectively than other commercial GOS...
June 2016: Food Technology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898891/behavior-and-inflammation-of-the-rumen-and-cecum-in-holstein-bulls-fed-high-concentrate-diets-with-different-concentrate-presentation-forms-with-or-without-straw-supplementation
#2
M Devant, G B Penner, S Marti, B Quintana, F Fábregas, A Bach, A Arís
Twenty-four individually housed Holstein bulls (395 ± 7.3 kg BW and 252 ± 3.1 d age) were exposed to a 2 × 2 factorial design (meal vs. pellets; with vs. without straw) to evaluate the effect of concentrate form and provision of straw in finishing diets on behavior and expression of rumen and cecum epithelium genes related to inflammation and behavior. Concentrate and straw consumption were recorded monthly and behavior (self-grooming, social, oral nonnutritive, tongue rolling, eating, drinking, ruminating, and lying) was recorded every two weeks...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898877/effects-of-full-fat-or-defatted-rice-bran-on-growth-performance-and-blood-characteristics-of-weanling-pigs
#3
G A Casas, H H Stein
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increased concentrations of full fat rice bran (FFRB) or defatted rice bran (DFRB) in diets without or with supplementation of an exogenous xylanase on growth performance and blood characteristics in weanling pigs. A total of 532 pigs (9.3 ± 0.5 kg initial BW) were allotted to 14 diets in 4 blocks and 8 replicate pens per diet in a randomized complete block design. There were 4 or 5 pigs per pen. A basal diet containing corn, soybean meal, and whey powder and 6 diets containing corn, soybean meal, whey powder, and 10, 20, or 30% FFRB or 10, 20, or 30% DFRB were used...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898845/effect-of-sterilization-and-of-dietary-fat-and-carbohydrate-content-on-food-intake-activity-level-and-blood-satiety-related-hormones-in-female-dogs
#4
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, G Bosch, H Swarts, C Castrillo
Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844204/analysis-of-enteroendocrine-cell-populations-in-the-human-colon
#5
Patricia Martins, Josiane Fakhry, Enio Chaves de Oliveira, Billie Hunne, Linda J Fothergill, Mitchell Ringuet, Débora d'Ávila Reis, Jens F Rehfeld, Brid Callaghan, John B Furness
Recent studies have shown that patterns of colocalisation of hormones in enteroendocrine cells are more complex than previously appreciated and that the patterns differ substantially between species. In this study, the human sigmoid colon is investigated by immunohistochemistry for the presence of gastrointestinal hormones and their colocalisation. The segments of colon were distant from the pathology that led to colectomy and appeared structurally normal. Only four hormones, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and somatostatin, were common in enteroendocrine cells of the human colon...
November 14, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811949/small-intestinal-protein-infusion-in-humans-evidence-for-a-location-specific-gradient-in-intestinal-feedback-on-food-intake-and-gi-peptide-release
#6
M van Avesaat, D Ripken, H F J Hendriks, A A M Masclee, F J Troost
BACKGROUND: Protein infusion in the small intestine results in intestinal brake activation: a negative feedback mechanism that may be mediated by the release of GI peptides resulting in a reduction in food intake. It has been proposed that duodenum, jejunum and ileum may respond differently to infused proteins. OBJECTIVE: To investigate differences in ad libitum food intake, feelings of hunger and satiety and the systemic levels of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), glucose and insulin after intraduodenal, intrajejunal and intraileal protein infusion...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#7
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800650/supplementation-of-oligofructose-but-not-sucralose-decreases-high-fat-diet-induced-body-weight-gain-in-mice-independent-of-gustducin-mediated-gut-hormone-release
#8
Sandra Steensels, Leen Cools, Bert Avau, Laurien Vancleef, Ricard Farré, Kristin Verbeke, Inge Depoortere
SCOPE: Enteroendocrine cells sense nutrients through taste receptors similar to those on the tongue. Sweet and fatty acid taste receptors (FFAR) coupled to the gustatory G-protein, gustducin, on enteroendocrine cells play a role in gut hormone release. We studied if supplementation of artificial (sucralose) or prebiotic (oligofructose; OFS) sweeteners target gustducin-mediated signaling pathways to alter gut hormone release and reduce obesity-associated disorders. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wild-type (WT) and α-gustducin knockout (α-gust(-/-) ) mice were fed a high-fat diet and gavaged once daily (8 wk) with water or equisweet concentrations of sweeteners...
October 31, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798332/the-noncaloric-sweetener-rebaudioside-a-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-release-and-increases-enteroendocrine-cell-numbers-in-2-dimensional-mouse-organoids-derived-from-different-locations-of-the-intestine
#9
Nikkie van der Wielen, Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Susanne Muckenschnabl, Raymond Pieters, Henk Fj Hendriks, Renger F Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) contributes to satiety and plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Similar to GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin also influence food intake. The secretion of these hormones by enteroendocrine cells along the intestine is modulated by nutrients. Preparations from the Stevia rebaudiana plant, including rebaudioside A, are increasingly being used as noncaloric sweeteners. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of rebaudioside A on enteroendocrine cells by assessing both cell numbers as well as their secretory capacity in an organoid model...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787482/fasting-and-post-prandial-peptide-yy-levels-in-obese-patients-before-and-after-two-types-of-the-bariatric-surgery-mini-gastric-bypass-and-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#10
Jolanta A Dardzińska, Łukasz Kaska, Piotr Wiśniewski, Ewa Aleksandrowicz-Wrona, Sylwia Małgorzewicz
BACKGROUND: Mechanisms underlying the metabolic effect of surgical treatment for morbid obesity are still not clear. Furthermore, the hormonal and metabolic response to the promising and moreover less invasive modification of Roux en Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB); Mini Gastric Bypass (MGB) is poorly known. The aim of this study was to evaluate pre- and post-prandial changes in PYY and metabolic parameters in obese patients without diabetes and cardiovascular complications treated by both versions of gastric bypass...
October 27, 2016: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779708/enteroendocrine-cells-stem-cells-and-differentiation-progenitors-in-rats-with-tnbs-induced-colitis
#11
Magdy El-Salhy, Tarek Mazzawi, Kazuo Umezawa, Odd Helge Gilja
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as animal models of human IBD have abnormal enteroendocrine cells. The present study aimed to identify the possible mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: the control group, the group with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis with no treatment (TNBS group), the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G; an activator protein-1 inhibitor) (DTCM-G group), and the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ; a nuclear factor-κB inhibitor) treatment (DHMEQ group)...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721013/total-pyy-and-glp-1-responses-to-submaximal-continuous-and-supramaximal-sprint-interval-cycling-in-men
#12
Tom J Hazell, Hashim Islam, Jillian R Hallworth, Jennifer L Copeland
Exercise-induced changes in appetite-regulating hormones may be intensity-dependent, however a clear dose-response relationship has not been established. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in anorexigenic markers (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to rest or exercise at submaximal and supramaximal intensities. Ten active males completed four experimental sessions in randomized order: 1) Moderate intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min cycling at 65% VO2max); 2) High intensity continuous training (HICT; 30 min cycling at 85% VO2max); 3) Sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 s "all-out" cycling bouts with 4 min recovery periods); 4) Control (CTRL; no exercise)...
October 6, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641685/molecular-characterization-of-neuropeptide-y-npy-receptors-y1-y4-and-y6-and-investigation-of-the-tissue-expression-of-their-ligands-npy-pyy-and-pp-in-chickens
#13
Shunyu Gao, Jiannan Zhang, Chen He, Fengyan Meng, Guixian Bu, Guoqiang Zhu, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors and its ligands, NPY, peptide YY (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP), are suggested to regulate many physiological processes including food intake in birds. However, our knowledge regarding this avian NPY system remains rather limited. Here, we examined the tissue expression of NPY, PYY and PP and the gene structure, expression and signaling of three NPY receptors (cY1, cY4 and cY6) in chickens. The results showed that 1) NPY is widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundance noted in the hypothalamus via quantitative real-time PCR, whereas PYY is highly expressed in the pancreas, gastrointestinal tract and various brain regions, and PP is expressed almost exclusively in the pancreas; 2) cY1, cY4 and cY6 contain novel non-coding exon(s) at their 5'-UTR; 3) The wide tissue distribution of cY1 and cY4 and cY6 were detected in chickens by quantitative real-time PCR and their expression is controlled by the promoter near exon 1, which displays strong promoter activity in DF-1 cells as demonstrated by Dual-luciferase reporter assay; 4) Monitored by luciferase reporter assays, activation of cY1 and cY4 expressed in HEK293 cells by chicken NPY1-36, PYY1-37, and PP1-36 treatment inhibits cAMP/PKA and activates MAPK/ERK signaling pathways, while cY6-expressing cells show little response to peptide treatment, indicating that cY1 and cY4, and not cY6, can transmit signals in vitro...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635181/comparison-of-plasma-glucose-and-gut-hormone-levels-between-drinking-enteral-formula-over-a-period-of-5-and-20-minutes-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-pilot-study
#14
Kazunari Kamiko, Kazutaka Aoki, Hiroshi Kamiyama, Masataka Taguri, Yasuo Terauchi
BACKGROUND: A fast eating speed is reportedly associated with obesity, fatty liver, and metabolic syndrome. As a comparison of postprandial glucose levels after eating quickly or slowly has not been previously reported for Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes, we evaluated the impact of the fast or slow ingestion of an enteral formula (liquid meal) on glucose metabolism. METHODS: Ten Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who had been hospitalized at our hospital were enrolled...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620647/failure-of-sucrose-replacement-with-the-non-nutritive-sweetener-erythritol-to-alter-glp-1-or-pyy-release-or-test-meal-size-in-lean-or-obese-people
#15
Joost Overduin, Tinh-Hai Collet, Nenad Medic, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Faye Forsyth, Cheryl Stephenson, Marja W Kanning, Rianne M A J Ruijschop, I Sadaf Farooqi, Agatha A van der Klaauw
There is considerable interest in the effect of foods containing high intensity sweeteners on satiation. However, less is known about low-calorie bulk sweeteners such as erythritol. In this randomized three-way crossover study, we studied 10 lean and 10 obese volunteers who consumed three test meals on separate occasions: (a) control sucrose meal; (b) isovolumic meal with partial replacement of sucrose by erythritol; (c) isocaloric meal which contained more erythritol but equivalent calories to the control meal...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607913/development-of-novel-ligands-for-peptide-gpcrs
#16
Brian M Moran, Aine M McKillop, Finbarr Pm O'Harte
Incretin based glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists which target a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) are currently used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. This review focuses on GPCRs from pancreatic β-cells, including GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY), oxyntomodulin (OXM) and ghrelin receptors. In addition, fatty acids GPCRs are thought to have an increasing role in regulating peptide secretions namely short fatty acids GPCR (GPR41, GPR43), medium chain fatty acid GPCR (GPR84), long chain fatty acid GPCR (GPR40, GPR120) and cannabinoid-like GPCR (GPR55, GPR119)...
September 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588061/dietary-guidance-and-ileal-enteroendocrine-cells-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#17
Tarek Mazzawi, Magdy El-Salhy
The enteroendocrine cells of the ileum are stimulated by the luminal contents to release specific hormones that regulate its functions. The density of ileal enteroendocrine cells is abnormal in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and the majority of patients with IBS associate their symptoms to the consumption of certain foodstuffs. The present study investigated the effect of dietary guidance on the enteroendocrine cells of the ileum in 11 patients with IBS. A total of 10 control subjects were also included...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27580096/human-brain-responses-to-gastrointestinal-nutrients-and-gut-hormones
#18
John T McLaughlin, Shane McKie
Functional mapping of human brain activation has made it possible to understand how different nutrients in the gut impact on homeostatic and appetitive brain responses. Current data are limited, but nutrient-specific effects are observed, with differential responses to lipid and sugars. Responses are not a simple function of calorie intake. Gut hormones such as CCK, PYY, GLP-1 and ghrelin are implicated in these responses, but may not exert effects directly on the brain. Research is now addressing how these homeostatic signalling states (fasting/fed) interact with hedonic responses, such as those evoked by images of appealing food...
August 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576578/vagal-blocking-for-obesity-control-a-possible-mechanism-of-action
#19
Helene Johannessen, David Revesz, Yosuke Kodama, Nikki Cassie, Karolina Skibicka, Perry Barrett, Suzanne Dickson, Jens Holst, Jens Rehfeld, Geoffrey van der Plasse, Roger Adan, Bård Kulseng, Elinor Ben-Menachem, Chun-Mei Zhao, Duan Chen
BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system...
August 30, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27511058/modulation-of-postprandial-lipaemia-by-a-single-meal-containing-a-commonly-consumed-interesterified-palmitic-acid-rich-fat-blend-compared-to-a-non-interesterified-equivalent
#20
Wendy L Hall, Sara Iqbal, Helen Li, Robert Gray, Sarah E E Berry
PURPOSE: Interesterification of palm stearin and palm kernal (PSt/PK) is widely used by the food industry to create fats with desirable functional characteristics for applications in spreads and bakery products, negating the need for trans fatty acids. Previous studies have reported reduced postprandial lipaemia, an independent risk factor for CVD, following interesterified (IE) palmitic and stearic acid-rich fats that are not currently widely used by the food industry. The current study investigates the effect of the most commonly consumed PSt/PK IE blend on postprandial lipaemia...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
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