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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329233/dose-dependent-effects-of-randomized-intraduodenal-whey-protein-loads-on-glucose-gut-hormone-and-amino-acid-concentrations-in-healthy-older-and-younger-men
#1
Caroline Giezenaar, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Amy T Hutchison, Scott Standfield, Christine Feinle-Bisset, Michael Horowitz, Ian Chapman, Stijn Soenen
Protein-rich supplements are used widely for the prevention and management of malnutrition in older people. We have reported that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey-protein-effects on appetite-related hormones are unknown. The objective was to determine the effects of intraduodenally administered whey-protein on glucose, gut hormone, and amino acid concentrations, and their relation to subsequent ad libitum energy intake at a buffet meal, in healthy older and younger men...
January 12, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311617/scfas-strongly-stimulate-pyy-production-in-human-enteroendocrine-cells
#2
P Larraufie, C Martin-Gallausiaux, N Lapaque, J Dore, F M Gribble, F Reimann, H M Blottiere
Peptide-YY (PYY) and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) play important roles in the regulation of food intake and insulin secretion, and are of translational interest in the field of obesity and diabetes. PYY production is highest in enteroendocrine cells located in the distal intestine, mirroring the sites where high concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced by gut microbiota. We show here that propionate and butyrate strongly increased expression of PYY but not GCG in human cell line and intestinal primary culture models...
January 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279243/antiobesity-and-emetic-effects-of-a-short-length-peptide-yy-analog-and-its-pegylated-and-alkylated-derivatives
#3
Ayumu Niida, Yoko Kanematsu-Yamaki, Tomoko Asakawa, Yoshimasa Ishimura, Hisashi Fujita, Kouta Matsumiya, Naoki Nishizawa, Yusuke Adachi, Taisuke Mochida, Kazue Tsuchimori, Mariko Yoneyama-Hirozane, Junichi Sakamoto, Hideki Hirabayashi, Hideo Fukui, Shiro Takekawa, Taiji Asami
Neuropeptide Y2 receptor (Y2R) agonism is an important anorectic signal and a target of antiobesity drug discovery. Recently, we synthesized a short-length Y2R agonist, PYY-1119 (4-imidazolecarbonyl-[d-Hyp24,Iva25,Pya(4)26,Cha27,36,γMeLeu28,Lys30,Aib31]PYY(23-36), 1) as an antiobesity drug candidate. Compound 1 induced marked body weight loss in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice; however, 1 also induced severe vomiting in dogs at a lower dose than the minimum effective dose administered to DIO mice. The rapid absorption of 1 after subcutaneous administration caused the severe vomiting...
December 8, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275180/effect-of-clozapine-dose-and-concentration-on-fasting-concentration-of-appetite-regulating-peptides
#4
Aleksandra Margulska, Elżbieta Kozłowska, Adam Wysokiński
The aim of this study is to analyze whether clozapine serum concentration may affect fasting serum levels of several appetite regulating peptides: CART, PYY(1-36), NPY, AgRP, des-acylated ghrelin, leptin and obestatin. Serum concentration of clozapine and fasting serum levels of des-acylated ghrelin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), peptide YY (PYY(1-36)), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), leptin and obestatin were measured in 30 subjects with schizophrenia on clozapine monotherapy...
December 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240652/interindividual-responses-of-appetite-to-acute-exercise-a-replicated-crossover-study
#5
Fernanda R Goltz, Alice E Thackray, James A King, James L Dorling, Greg Atkinson, David J Stensel
PURPOSE: Acute exercise transiently suppresses appetite, which coincides with alterations in appetite-regulatory hormone concentrations. Individual variability in these responses is suspected, but replicated trials are needed to quantify them robustly. We examined the reproducibility of appetite and appetite-regulatory hormone responses to acute exercise and quantified the individual differences in responses. METHODS: Fifteen healthy, recreationally-active men completed two control (60-min resting) and two exercise (60-min fasted treadmill running at 70% peak oxygen uptake) conditions in randomised sequences...
December 13, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235554/morning-and-afternoon-appetite-and-gut-hormone-responses-to-meal-and-stress-challenges-in-obese-individuals-with-and-without-binge-eating-disorder
#6
S Carnell, C Grillot, T Ungredda, S Ellis, N Mehta, J Holst, A Geliebter
BACKGROUND: Eating late in the day is common, and stress can induce eating. Little is understood about how time of day and stress interact to affect appetite and thereby body weight. These may be particularly important influences in binge eaters, who tend to binge in the evening, and in response to stress. METHOD: Obese participants with (n=16) and without (n=16) Binge Eating Disorder (BED) participated in two identical test protocols beginning either in the morning or the afternoon (AM condition/PM condition), each following an 8 h fast...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231147/neuroendocrine-and-metabolic-disorders-in-bulimia-nervosa
#7
Walter Milano, Anna Capasso
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Bulimia nervosa, is an eating disorder characterized by excessive influence of weight and body shape on the levels of self-esteem, with pervasive feelings of failure and inadequacy. The eating is characterized by the presence of episodes of uncontrolled eating (Binge), during which the person ingests mass wide variety of foods and the feeling of not being able to stop eating. This review focuses on the metabolic and hormonal alterations in the in bulimia nervosa...
December 11, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226685/size-effect-on-lipid-nanocapsules-mediated-glp-1-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-l-cells
#8
Yining Xu, Dario Carradori, Mireille Alhouayek, Giulio G Muccioli, Patrice D Cani, Veronique Preat, Ana Beloqui
L cells are enteroendocrine cells located throughout the gastrointestinal tract that secrete physiologically important peptides. The most characterized peptides secreted by L cells are the peptide YY (PYY) and the glucagon-like peptide (GLP) -1 and -2. These peptides are released rapidly into the circulation after oral nutrient ingestion. Recently, lipid-based nanoparticles (NP) have been described as triggers for GLP-1 secretion by L cells. NP physicochemical properties play a key role in the NP-cell interaction, and drive NP cell internalization...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226618/enteroinsular-hormones-in-two-siblings-with-donohue-syndrome-and-complete-leptin-deficiency
#9
M Güemes, S A Rahman, P Shah, K Hussain
The main biochemical hallmark of the rare and lethal condition of Donohue syndrome (DS) is hyperinsulinemia. The roles of the gut and other pancreatic hormones involved in glucose metabolism, satiety and energy expenditure have not been previously reported in DS. Two siblings with genetically confirmed DS and extremely low weight underwent a mixed meal (MM) test where pancreatic hormones insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, active amylin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) as well as gut hormones active glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and leptin were analyzed using a Multiplex assay...
December 11, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219202/disturbance-of-gut-satiety-peptide-in-purging-disorder
#10
Pamela K Keel, Lisa A Eckel, Britny A Hildebrandt, Alissa A Haedt-Matt, Jonathan Appelbaum, David C Jimerson
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about biological factors that contribute to purging after normal amounts of food-the central feature of purging disorder (PD). This study comes from a series of nested studies examining ingestive behaviors in bulimic syndromes and specifically evaluated the satiety peptide YY (PYY) and the hunger peptide ghrelin in women with PD (n = 25), bulimia nervosa-purging (BNp) (n = 26), and controls (n = 26). Based on distinct subjective responses to a fixed meal in PD (Keel, Wolfe, Liddle, DeYoung, & Jimerson, ), we tested whether postprandial PYY response was significantly greater and ghrelin levels significantly lower in women with PD compared to controls and women with BNp...
January 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216250/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-roux-en-y-gastrojejunostomy-vs-gastroduodenostomy-with-respect-to-the-improvement-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-after-distal-gastrectomy-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yoon Young Choi, Sung Hoon Noh, Ji Yeong An
The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of diabetes control induced by Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy(RY) vs Billroth-I reconstruction(BI) after distal gastrectomy in patients with early gastric cancer(EGC) and type 2 diabetes(T2DM). Forty EGC patients with T2DM, aged 20-80 years, who were expected to undergo curative distal gastrectomy were randomized 1:1 to RY(n = 20) or BI(n = 20). Diabetes medication status, biochemical and hormonal data including blood glucose, HbA1c, insulin, C-peptide, HOMA-IR, ghrelin, leptin, GLP-1, PYY, and GIP were evaluated for 12 months after surgery...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212386/efficacy-and-safety-of-sotagliflozin-in-treating-diabetes-type-1
#12
Marc S Rendell
INTRODUCTION: Sotagliflozin is the first dual SGLT1/SGLT2 inhibitor developed for use in diabetes. Sotagliflozin blocks SGLT2 in the kidneys and SGLT1 in the intestines resulting in reduced early phase glucose absorption and increased blood levels of GLP-1 and PYY. Urinary glucose excretion is lower than with other agents as a result of decreased glucose absorption. The primary development effort to date has been in Type 1 diabetes. AREAS COVERED: The published information on sotagliflozin is reviewed, along with the recent results of several pivotal Type 1 diabetes trials...
December 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199179/on-the-relationship-between-glucose-absorption-and-glucose-stimulated-secretion-of-glp-1-neurotensin-and-pyy-from-different-intestinal-segments-in-the-rat
#13
Rune E Kuhre, Charlotte B Christiansen, Monika Y Saltiel, Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Jens J Holst
Ingested glucose powerfully stimulates the secretion of appetite- and metabolism-regulating peptide hormones from the gut - including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), neurotensin (NT), and polypeptide YY (PYY). However, the regional origin of these secretions after glucose stimulation is not well characterized, and it remains uncertain how their secretion is related to glucose absorption. We isolated and perfused either the upper (USI) or the lower (LSI) small intestine or the colon from rats and investigated concomitant glucose absorption and secretory profiles of GLP-1, NT, and PYY In the USI and LSI luminal glucose (20%, w/v) increased GLP-1 and NT secretion five to eightfold compared to basal secretion...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191090/alterations-in-circadian-and-meal-induced-gut-peptide-levels-in-lean-and-obese-rats
#14
Alexander A Moghadam, Timothy H Moran, Megan J Dailey
Alterations in gut hormone signaling are a likely contributing factor to the metabolic disturbances associated with overweight/obesity as they coordinate the timing of feeding behavior, absorption, and utilization of nutrients. These hormones are released in response to food intake, or follow a circadian or anticipatory pattern of secretion that is independent of nutrient stimulation. The aim of this study was to identify the degree to which high-fat diet-induced obesity would alter the daily rhythm of gut peptide plasma levels (glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1], peptide YY [PYY], insulin or amylin [AMY]) or meal-induced levels in the middle of the light or dark cycle...
December 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184871/peptide-yy-producing-strumal-carcinoid-tumor-of-the-ovary-in-a-postmenopausal-woman-a-rare-cause-of-chronic-constipation
#15
Hye Kyung Noh, Byung Su Kwon, Yoon Hwa Kim, Nam Kyung Lee, Kyung Un Choi, Dong Soo Suh, Dong Hyung Lee, Ki Hyung Kim
Strumal carcinoid tumor of the ovary is a rare subtype of ovarian carcinoid tumors; it is characterized by an intimate mixture of thyroid and carcinoid tissues. We present a case of a 64-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of persistent, severe constipation for over 5 years; she was later found to have an ovarian strumal carcinoid tumor. Computed tomography showed a well-defined solid mass measuring 6.4 cm at the right adnexa. The patient underwent right salpingo-oophorectomy and was histopathologically diagnosed as having a strumal carcinoid tumor...
November 2017: Obstetrics & Gynecology Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184702/pharmacological-inhibition-of-diacylglycerol-acyltransferase-1-and-insights-into-postprandial-gut-peptide-secretion
#16
Benjamin S Maciejewski, Tara B Manion, Claire M Steppan
AIM: To examine the role that enzyme Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) plays in postprandial gut peptide secretion and signaling. METHODS: The standard experimental paradigm utilized to evaluate the incretin response was a lipid challenge. Following a lipid challenge, plasma was collected via cardiac puncture at each time point from a cohort of 5-8 mice per group from baseline at time zero to 10 h. Incretin hormones [glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] were then quantitated...
November 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158344/effects-of-walking-in-water-on-gut-hormone-concentrations-and-appetite-comparison-with-walking-on-land
#17
Shin-Ya Ueda, Hidehiro Nakahara, Eriko Kawai, Tatsuya Usui, Shintaro Tsuji, Tadayoshi Miyamoto
The effects of water exercise on gut hormone concentrations and appetite currently remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of treadmill walking in water on gut hormone concentrations and appetite. Thirteen men (mean ± s.d. age: 21.6 ± 2.2 years, body mass index: 22.7 ± 2.8 kg/m2, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak): 49.8 ± 7.8 mL/kg per min) participated in the walking in water and on land challenge. During the study period, ratings of subjective feelings of hunger, fullness, satiety and motivation to eat were reported on a 100-mm visual analog scale...
January 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157865/peptide-yy-3-36-modulates-intracellular-calcium-through-activation-of-the-phosphatidylinositol-pathway-in-hippocampal-neurons
#18
Michelle Flores Domingues, Dênis Reis de Assis, Angela Regina Piovesan, Cháriston André Dal Belo, Jaderson Costa da Costa
Peptide YY (PYY) belongs to the neuropeptide Y (NPY) family, which also includes the pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and NPY. PYY is secreted by the intestinal L cells, being present in the blood stream in two active forms capable of crossing the blood brain barrier, PYY (1-36) and its cleavage product, PYY (3-36). PYY is a selective agonist for the Y2 receptor (Y2R) and these receptors are abundant in the hippocampus. Here we investigated the mechanisms by which PYY (3-36) regulates intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)]i) in hippocampal neurons by employing a calcium imaging technique in hippocampal cultures...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138359/comparative-effects-of-intraduodenal-amino-acid-infusions-on-food-intake-and-gut-hormone-release-in-healthy-males
#19
Robert E Steinert, Sina S Ullrich, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Marco Bueter, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
In contrast to the many studies of the effects of individual amino acids (AAs) on eating, no studies have compared the effects of different AAs on eating and underlying preabsorptive gastrointestinal mechanisms. To compare the effects of intraduodenal infusions of l-tryptophan (TRP), l-leucine (LEU), l-phenylalanine (PHE) and l-glutamine (GLN) on appetite, gastrointestinal hormone responses (including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1]), glycemia (glucagon, insulin and glucose) and test meal size in healthy males, we retrospectively analyzed data from four published independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 90-min intraduodenal infusions of the individual AAs...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122297/cytochemical-identification-of-turbot-myeloperoxidase-positive-granulocytes-by-potassium-iodide-and-oxidized-pyronine-y-staining
#20
Heng Chi, Li-Lian Wen, Zhi-Hai Sui, Qing-Lei Sun, Li Sun
Cytomorphological and cytochemical staining are important methods for the identification of cell types, in particular in fish which often lack biological tools such as specific antibodies. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is usually used as an intracellular marker of neutrophil accumulation in tissues and a marker of neutrophil activity in plasma. In this study, we reported a potassium iodide and oxidized pyronine Y (KI-PyY) staining method for rapid and highly sensitive detection of MPO-positive cells in turbot blood, peritoneum, and tissues...
November 3, 2017: Tissue & Cell
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