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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138359/comparative-effects-of-intraduodenal-amino-acid-infusions-on-food-intake-and-gut-hormone-release-in-healthy-males
#1
Robert E Steinert, Sina S Ullrich, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Marco Bueter, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
In contrast to the many studies of the effects of individual amino acids (AAs) on eating, no studies have compared the effects of different AAs on eating and underlying preabsorptive gastrointestinal mechanisms. To compare the effects of intraduodenal infusions of l-tryptophan (TRP), l-leucine (LEU), l-phenylalanine (PHE) and l-glutamine (GLN) on appetite, gastrointestinal hormone responses (including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1]), glycemia (glucagon, insulin and glucose) and test meal size in healthy males, we retrospectively analyzed data from four published independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 90-min intraduodenal infusions of the individual AAs...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122297/cytochemical-identification-of-turbot-myeloperoxidase-positive-granulocytes-by-potassium-iodide-and-oxidized-pyronine-y-staining
#2
Heng Chi, Li-Lian Wen, Zhi-Hai Sui, Qing-Lei Sun, Li Sun
Cytomorphological and cytochemical staining are important methods for the identification of cell types, in particular in fish which often lack biological tools such as specific antibodies. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is usually used as an intracellular marker of neutrophil accumulation in tissues and a marker of neutrophil activity in plasma. In this study, we reported a potassium iodide and oxidized pyronine Y (KI-PyY) staining method for rapid and highly sensitive detection of MPO-positive cells in turbot blood, peritoneum, and tissues...
November 3, 2017: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105987/a-ketone-ester-drink-lowers-human-ghrelin-and-appetite
#3
Brianna J Stubbs, Pete J Cox, Rhys D Evans, Malgorzata Cyranka, Kieran Clarke, Heidi de Wet
OBJECTIVE: The ketones d-β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate are elevated during prolonged fasting or during a "ketogenic" diet. Although weight loss on a ketogenic diet may be associated with decreased appetite and altered gut hormone levels, it is unknown whether such changes are caused by elevated blood ketones. This study investigated the effects of an exogenous ketone ester (KE) on appetite. METHODS: Following an overnight fast, subjects with normal weight (n = 15) consumed 1...
November 6, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096069/exercise-training-and-weight-loss-not-always-a-happy-marriage-single-blind-exercise-trials-in-females-with-diverse-bmi
#4
Matthew Jackson, Fardin Fatahi, Kholoud Alabduljader, Charlotte Jelleyman, Jonathan P Moore, Hans-Peter Kubis
Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted two single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50-90% VO2peak, for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted...
November 2, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070909/a-blood-based-biomarker-panel-indicates-il-10-and-il-12-23p40-are-jointly-associated-as-predictors-of-%C3%AE-amyloid-load-in-an-ad-cohort
#5
Steve Pedrini, Veer B Gupta, Eugene Hone, James Doecke, Sid O'Bryant, Ian James, Ashley I Bush, Christopher C Rowe, Victor L Villemagne, David Ames, Colin L Masters, Ralph N Martins
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterised by extracellular amyloid deposition as plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles of tau protein. As no current clinical test can diagnose individuals at risk of developing AD, the aim of this project is to evaluate a blood-based biomarker panel to identify individuals who carry this risk. We analysed the levels of 22 biomarkers in clinically classified healthy controls (HC), mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's participants from the well characterised Australian Imaging, Biomarker and Lifestyle (AIBL) study of aging...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055754/a-turn-on-supramolecular-fluorescent-probe-for-sensing-benzimidazole-fungicides-and-its-application-in-living-cell-imaging
#6
Qing Tang, Jing Zhang, Tao Sun, Cheng-Hui Wang, Ying Huang, Qingdi Zhou, Gang Wei
A cucurbit[8]uril-based turn-on supramolecular fluorescent probe between cucurbit[8]uril (Q[8]) and pyronine Y (PyY) (designated 2PyY@Q[8]) in acidic aqueous solution showed a remarkable fluorescence 'turn-on' response to benzimidazole fungicides such as thiabendazole, fuberidazole and carbendazim. The 2PyY@Q[8] fluorescent probe can be used to detect benzimidazole fungicides with high sensitivity and selectivity with a detection limit of ~10(-8)mol/L. A good linear relationship of emission intensity at ~580nm for benzimidazole fungicides at concentrations of 0...
October 14, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042449/peptide-yy-mediates-the-satiety-effects-of-diets-enriched-with-whey-protein-fractions-in-male-rats
#7
Rizaldy C Zapata, Arashdeep Singh, Prasanth K Chelikani
Dairy proteins-whey protein, in particular-are satiating and often recommended for weight control; however, little is known about the mechanisms by which whey protein and its components promote satiety and weight loss. We used diet-induced obese rats to determine whether the hypophagic effects of diets that are enriched with whey and its fractions, lactalbumin and lactoferrin, are mediated by the gut hormone, peptide YY (PYY). We demonstrate that high protein diets that contain whey, lactalbumin, and lactoferrin decreased food intake and body weight with a concurrent increase in PYY mRNA abundance in the colon and/or plasma PYY concentrations...
October 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031728/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-a-distinct-population-of-proglucagon-expressing-cells-specific-to-the-mouse-upper-small-intestine
#8
Leslie L Glass, Fernando J Calero-Nieto, Wajid Jawaid, Pierre Larraufie, Richard G Kay, Berthold Göttgens, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble
OBJECTIVES: To identify sub-populations of intestinal preproglucagon-expressing (PPG) cells producing Glucagon-like Peptide-1, and their associated expression profiles of sensory receptors, thereby enabling the discovery of therapeutic strategies that target these cell populations for the treatment of diabetes and obesity. METHODS: We performed single cell RNA sequencing of PPG-cells purified by flow cytometry from the upper small intestine of 3 GLU-Venus mice. Cells from 2 mice were sequenced at low depth, and from the third mouse at high depth...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030744/peptide-tyrosine-tyrosine-3-36-reduces-meal-size-and-activates-the-enteric-neurons-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#9
Kayla D Newman, Thaer R Mhalhal, Martha C Washington, John C Heath, Ayman I Sayegh
BACKGROUND: Peptide tyrosine tyrosine 3-36 (peptide YY 3-36 or PYY 3-36) reduces food intake by unknown site(s). AIM: To test the hypothesis that the gastrointestinal tract contains sites of action regulating meal size (MS) and intermeal interval (IMI) length by PYY 3-36. METHODS: Peptide YY 3-36 (0, 1, 5, 10 and 20 nmol/kg) was injected in the aorta, the artery that supplies the gastrointestinal tract, prior to the onset of the dark cycle in free feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats and food intake was measured...
October 13, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024666/dynamics-of-gut-brain-communication-underlying-hunger
#10
Lisa R Beutler, Yiming Chen, Jamie S Ahn, Yen-Chu Lin, Rachel A Essner, Zachary A Knight
Communication between the gut and brain is critical for homeostasis, but how this communication is represented in the dynamics of feeding circuits is unknown. Here we describe nutritional regulation of key neurons that control hunger in vivo. We show that intragastric nutrient infusion rapidly and durably inhibits hunger-promoting AgRP neurons in awake, behaving mice. This inhibition is proportional to the number of calories infused but surprisingly independent of macronutrient identity or nutritional state...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982156/postprandial-pyy-increase-by-resistant-starch-supplementation-is-independent-of-net-portal-appearance-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-pigs
#11
Anne Krog Ingerslev, Shivaprakash Jagalur Mutt, Helle Nygaard Lærke, Mette Skou Hedemann, Peter Kappel Theil, Kirstine Lykke Nielsen, Henry Jørgensen, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Knud Erik Bach Knudsen
Increased dietary fiber (DF) fermentation and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production may stimulate peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) secretion. In this study, the effects of hindgut SCFA production on postprandial PYY plasma levels were assessed using different experimental diets in a porto-arterial catheterized pig model. The pigs were fed experimental diets varying in source and levels of DF for one week in 3×3 Latin square designs. The DF sources were whole-wheat grain, wheat aleurone, rye aleurone-rich flour, rye flakes, and resistant starch...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971469/agonism-of-free-fatty-acid-receptors-1-and-4-generate-peptide-yy-mediated-inhibitory-responses-in-mouse-colon
#12
Runisha Moodaley, David M Smith, Iain R Tough, Marcus Schindler, Helen M Cox
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFA1) and FFA4 are located on enteroendocrine L cells with the highest gastrointestinal (GI) expression in descending colon. Their activation causes the release of glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY (PYY) from L cells. Additionally, FFA1 agonism releases insulin from pancreatic β-cells. As these receptors are modulators of nutrient-stimulated glucose regulation, this study's aim was to compare the pharmacology of commercially available agonists (TUG424, TUG891, GW9508) with proven selective agonists (JTT, TAK-875, AZ423, Metabolex-36), in the mouse...
October 3, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963554/cck-reduces-the-food-intake-mainly-through-cck1r-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii-brandt
#13
Xin Zhang, Ni Tang, Jinwen Qi, Shuyao Wang, Jin Hao, Yuanbing Wu, Hu Chen, Zhengzhi Tian, Bin Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
To explore the effect of CCK on food intake in Siberian sturgeon, cck cDNA sequence of 1005 bp was obtained, and cck mRNA possessed the highest expression in brain. The expressions of cck were significantly increased after feeding 1 and 3 h, while displaying significant decrease after fasting within 15 days in brain and duodenum. Re-feeding for 3 days induced cck level returned to basic level. Acute i.p. injection experiment showed 100 and 200 ng/g BW CCK8 inhibited the food intake in 0-1 h together with the cumulative food intake within 3 h...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956082/enteroendocrine-k-and-l-cells-in-healthy-and-type-2-diabetic-individuals
#14
Tina Jorsal, Nicolai A Rhee, Jens Pedersen, Camilla D Wahlgren, Brynjulf Mortensen, Sara L Jepsen, Jacob Jelsing, Louise S Dalbøge, Peter Vilmann, Hazem Hassan, Jakob W Hendel, Steen S Poulsen, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Enteroendocrine K and L cells are pivotal in regulating appetite and glucose homeostasis. Knowledge of their distribution in humans is sparse and it is unknown whether alterations occur in type 2 diabetes. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of enteroendocrine K and L cells and relevant prohormone-processing enzymes (using immunohistochemical staining), and to evaluate the mRNA expression of the corresponding genes along the entire intestinal tract in individuals with type 2 diabetes and healthy participants...
September 28, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950751/impact-of-difructose-anhydride-iii-raffinose-and-fructooligosaccharides-on-energy-intake-gut-hormones-and-cecal-fermentation-in-rats-fed-a-high-fat-and-high-sucrose-diet
#15
Tohru Hira, Kurumi Yanagihara, Toshiki Koga, Keisuke Takahashi, Taizo Nagura, Hirokatsu Uchino, Hiroshi Hara
We investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of difructose anhydride III (DFA III), raffinose (Raf), and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) on diet-induced obesity development. Male rats were fed normal or high-fat and high-sucrose (HFS) diet, with or without supplementing (3%) DFA III, Raf, or FOS, for 8 or 5 weeks. Supplementing DFA III to the HFS diet decreased energy intake compared to the non-supplemented HFS diet. Accordingly, body weight gain and fat accumulation reduced in DFA III-fed rats. Cecal acetate production and plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide-YY (PYY) were elevated in DFA III-fed rats, while Raf and FOS partially affected these parameters...
September 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941314/semaglutide-improves-postprandial-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-and-delays-first-hour-gastric-emptying-in-subjects-with-obesity
#16
Julie B Hjerpsted, Anne Flint, Ashley Brooks, Mads B Axelsen, Trine Kvist, John Blundell
AIM: To investigate the effects of semaglutide on fasting and postprandial glucose and lipid responses, and on gastric emptying. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2-period, crossover trial. Subjects with obesity (N = 30) received once-weekly subcutaneous semaglutide, dose-escalated to 1.0 mg, or placebo. After each 12-week treatment period, glucose and lipid metabolism were assessed before and after standardized meals...
September 23, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938473/the-role-of-episodic-postprandial-peptides-in-exercise-induced-compensatory-eating
#17
Catherine Gibbons, John E Blundell, Phillipa Caudwell, Dominic-Luc Webb, Per M Hellström, Erik Näslund, Graham Finlayson
Context: Prolonged physical activity gives rise to variable degrees of body weight and fat loss, and is associated with variability in appetite control. Whether these effects are modulated by postprandial, peptides is unclear. We examined the role of postprandial peptide response in compensatory eating during 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and in response to high-fat, low-carbohydrate (HFLC) and low-fat, high-carbohydrate (LFHC) meals. Methods: Of the 32 overweight/obese individuals, 16 completed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 16 nonexercising control subjects were matched for age and body mass index...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934819/the-role-of-gut-hormones-in-diet-induced-weight-change-a-systematic-review
#18
Xue Zhao, Qing Han, Xiaokun Gang, You Lv, Yujia Liu, Chenglin Sun, Guixia Wang
Gut hormones are known to play an important role in long-term weight loss maintenance after bariatric surgery. However, the interplay between gut hormones and diet-induced weight changes remains unclear. Our aims were to evaluate the alterations of gut hormones in diet-induced weight loss, weight maintenance, and weight regain periods. Available studies were searched on MEDLINE, EMASE, ClinicalTrials.gov, the Cochrane Library, and Web of science from inception to October 2016. After selection, 16 studies with 656 participants were included...
November 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917449/highly-potent-antiobesity-effect-of-a-short-length-peptide-yy-analog-in-mice
#19
Naoki Nishizawa, Ayumu Niida, Yusuke Adachi, Yoko Kanematsu-Yamaki, Yasushi Masuda, Satoshi Kumano, Kotaro Yokoyama, Yoko Noguchi, Tomoko Asakawa, Hideki Hirabayashi, Nobuyuki Amano, Shiro Takekawa, Tetsuya Ohtaki, Taiji Asami
Continuous administration of a 14-amino acid peptide YY (PYY) analog, Ac-[d-Pro(24),Pya(4)(26),Cha(27,36),Aib(28,31),Lys(30)]PYY(23-36) (4), which has a high binding affinity and agonist activity for the neuropeptide Y2 receptor (Y2R), has previously shown an antiobesity effect in a 2-week diet-induced obesity (DIO) study in mice. However, there remained a possibility to obtain more potent analogs by further improving its pharmacokinetic profile. A combination of the N-terminal 4-imidazolecarbonyl moiety and three amino acid substitutions, trans-4-hydroxy-d-proline (d-Hyp)(24), isovaline (Iva)(25), and γ-methylleucine (γMeLeu)(28), not only improved the binding affinity of the peptide for Y2R but also increased its anorectic activity in lean mice...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916138/peptide-yy-induces-characteristic-meal-patterns-of-aged-mice
#20
Sachiko Mogami, Chihiro Yamada, Naoki Fujitsuka, Tomohisa Hattori
BACKGROUND & AIM: Changes in eating behavior occur in the elderly due to oral and swallowing dysfunctions. We aimed to clarify the difference between basal meal patterns of young and aged mice in relation to appetite regulating hormones. METHODS: Thirty two of young (7-week-old) and aged (23-25-month-old) C57BL/6 male mice were acclimated to a single housing and then transferred to a highly sensitive automated feeding monitoring device. Feeding behavior was monitored from the onset of the dark phase after habituation to the device...
September 19, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
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