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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223105/towards-a-rapid-assessment-protocol-for-identifying-pit-lakes-worthy-of-restoration
#1
W J de Lange, B Genthe, L Hill, P J Oberholster
Before the introduction of reclamation legislation in South Africa, final cut lakes in mining areas were left without any restoration while the final excavation was not back filled. Characteristics of these lacustrine water bodies vary considerably, but they are often linear in shape, large (1-30 ha), deep (2-30 m) and have poorly developed littoral zones. With water tables often near the surface; a variety of vascular hydrophytes can colonize these bodies, thus establishing emerging wetland type ecosystems...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223042/experiences-of-early-labour-management-from-perspectives-of-women-labour-companions-and-health-professionals-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#2
REVIEW
Sarah Beake Rm Ma Research Associate, Yan-Shing Chang Ba MPhil PhD Lecturer, Helen Cheyne Rm Rgn MSc PhD Professor Of Midwifery, Helen Spiby MPhil Rn Rm Professor Of Midwifery, Jane Sandall Rm MSc PhD Professor Of Social Science And Women's Health, Debra Bick
OBJECTIVES: to examine evidence of women's, labour companions' and health professionals' experiences of management of early labour to consider how this could be enhanced to better reflect women's needs. DESIGN: a systematic review of qualitative evidence. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: women in early labour with term, low risk singleton pregnancies, not booked for a planned caesarean birth or post-dates induction of labour, their labour companions, and health professionals responsible for early labour care (e...
November 13, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223032/dna-replication-and-associated-repair-pathways-are-involved-in-the-mutagenesis-of-methylated-cytosine
#3
Marketa Tomkova, Michael McClellan, Skirmantas Kriaucionis, Benjamin Schuster-Böckler
Transitions of cytosine to thymine in CpG dinucleotides are the most frequent type of mutations observed in cancer. This increased mutability is commonly explained by the presence of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its spontaneous hydrolytic deamination into thymine. Here, we describe observations that question whether spontaneous deamination alone causes the elevated mutagenicity of 5mC. Tumours with somatic mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes or in the proofreading domain of DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) exhibit more 5mC to T transitions than would be expected, given the kinetics of hydrolytic deamination...
November 24, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222995/updating-edwin-chadwick-s-seminal-work-on-geographical-inequalities-by-occupation
#4
Mark A Green, Danny Dorling, Richard Mitchell
To honour the 175th anniversary of Edwin Chadwick's seminal 'Report on the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Poor', we update Chadwick's famous analysis of geographical differences in occupational based inequalities. Much of the field of Health Geography owes both its direction of development and its initial impetus to his 1842 report. The report presented evidence for the importance of local context to health, with individuals of the lowest occupations in Rutland living longer than individuals of the highest occupations in Liverpool...
December 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222933/benefits-of-emotional-integration-and-costs-of-emotional-distancing
#5
Guy Roth, Bat-Hen Shachar, Yael Zohar-Shefer, Moti Benita, Anat Moed, Uri Bibi, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Richard M Ryan
OBJECTIVES: Three studies explored the consequences of the self-determination theory (SDT) conception of integrative emotion regulation (IER; Ryan & Deci, 2017), which involves an interested stance toward emotions. Emotional, physiological, and cognitive consequences of IER were compared to the consequences of emotional distancing (ED), in relation to a fear-eliciting film. METHOD: In Study 1, we manipulated emotion regulation by prompting students' (n = 90) IER, ED, and a control group...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222916/transplanting-hcv-positive-livers-into-hcv-negative-patients-with-preemptive-antiviral-treatment-a-modeling-study
#6
Jagpreet Chhatwal, Sumeyye Samur, Emily D Bethea, Turgay Ayer, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Mark S Roberts, Norah Terrault, Raymond T Chung
Under current guidelines hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive livers are not transplanted into HCV-negative recipients because of adverse post-transplant outcomes associated with allograft HCV infection. However, HCV can now be cured post liver transplant (LT) using direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with >90% success; therefore, HCV-negative patients on the liver transplant (LT) waiting list may benefit from accepting HCV-positive organs with preemptive treatment. Our objective was to evaluate if and in which HCV-negative patients the potential benefit of accepting an HCV-positive (i...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222911/current-and-future-therapeutic-regimens-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-and-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash
#7
REVIEW
Zobair M Younossi, Rohit Loomba, Mary E Rinella, Elisabetta Bugianesi, Giulio Marchesini, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri, Lawrence Serfaty, Francesco Negro, Stephen H Caldwell, Vlad Ratziu, Kathleen E Corey, Scott L Friedman, Manal F Abdelmalek, Stephen A Harrison, Arun J Sanyal, Joel E Lavine, Philippe Mathurin, Michael R Charlton, Naga P Chalasani, Quentin M Anstee, Kris V Kowdley, Jacob George, Zachary D Goodman, Keith Lindor
NASH/NAFLD is rapidly becoming one of top causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and indication for liver transplantation. Except for life style modification through diet and exercise, there are currently no other approved treatments for NASH/NAFLD. Although weight loss can be effective, it is hard to achieve and sustain. In contrast, bariatric surgery can improve metabolic conditions associated with NAFLD and has been shown to improve liver histology. In order to have approved regimens for treatment of NASH/NAFLD, a number of issues that must be addressed...
December 9, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222884/development-and-evaluation-of-nutritional-sensory-and-glycemic-properties-of-finger-millet-eleusine-coracana-l-based-food-products
#8
Shanmugam Shobana, Ravi Poovizhi Selvi, Vasudevan Kavitha, Nagamuthu Gayathri, Gunasekaran Geetha, Rajagopal Gayathri, Parthasarthy Vijayalakshmi, K Kandappa Gounder Balasubramaniam, Vaidya Ruchi, Vasudevan Sudha, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Nagappa Gurusiddappa Malleshi, C Jk Henry, Kamala Krishnaswamy, Viswanathan Mohan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Finger millet (Eleusine coracana L.) (FM) is rich in dietary fibre and is therefore expected to elicit a lower glycemic response compared to other grains. However, there is little data on the glycemic properties of FM-based products. We evaluated the nutritional, sensory and glycemic properties of decorticated millet with lower polish (DFM-LDP), flakes (FMF), vermicelli (FMV) and extruded snack (FMES) (both FMV and FMES with 7-8% added soluble fibre). METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The nutrient contents of the FM products were evaluated by standard AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) and AACC (American Association of Cereal Chemists) methods...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222718/treatment-of-stress-urinary-incontinence-with-a-mobile-app-factors-associated-with-success
#9
Emma Nyström, Ina Asklund, Malin Sjöström, Hans Stenlund, Eva Samuelsson
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Stress urinary incontinence is common among women. First-line treatment includes pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and lifestyle advice, which can be provided via a mobile app. The efficacy of app-based treatment has been demonstrated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). In this study, we aimed to analyze factors associated with successful treatment. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the RCT. At baseline and 3-month follow-up, participants (n = 61) answered questions about symptoms, quality of life, background, and PFMT...
December 8, 2017: International Urogynecology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222711/%C3%A3-gro-survey-on-radiotherapy-capacity-in-austria-status-quo-and-estimation-of-future-demands
#10
Brigitte Zurl, Anja Bayerl, Alexander De Vries, Hans Geinitz, Robert Hawliczek, Tomas-Henrik Knocke-Abulesz, Peter Lukas, Richard Pötter, Wolfgang Raunik, Brigitte Scholz, Annemarie Schratter-Sehn, Felix Sedlmayer, Dietmar Seewald, Edgar Selzer, Karin S Kapp
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive evaluation of the current national and regional radiotherapy capacity in Austria with an estimation of demands for 2020 and 2030 was performed by the Austrian Society for Radiation Oncology, Radiobiology and Medical Radiophysics (ÖGRO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All Austrian centers provided data on the number of megavoltage (MV) units, treatment series, fractions, percentage of retreatments and complex treatment techniques as well as the daily operating hours for the year 2014...
December 8, 2017: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222686/eeg-source-imaging-indices-of-cognitive-control-show-associations-with-dopamine-system-genes
#11
G McLoughlin, J Palmer, S Makeig, N Bigdely-Shamlo, T Banaschewski, M Laucht, D Brandeis
Cognitive or executive control is a critical mental ability, an important marker of mental illness, and among the most heritable of neurocognitive traits. Two candidate genes, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and DRD4, which both have a roles in the regulation of cortical dopamine, have been consistently associated with cognitive control. Here, we predicted that individuals with the COMT Met/Met allele would show improved response execution and inhibition as indexed by event-related potentials in a Go/NoGo task, while individuals with the DRD4 7-repeat allele would show impaired brain activity...
December 8, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222651/grandmothers-and-children-s-schooling-in-sub-saharan-africa
#12
Sandor Schrijner, Jeroen Smits
Under poor circumstances, co-residence of a grandmother is generally considered to be beneficial for (grand)children. Empirical evidence does not unequivocally support this expectation and suggests that the grandmother's importance depends on the family's circumstances. We study the relationship between grandmother's co-residence and children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa under a broad range of circumstances. Results make clear that the effect of a co-residing grandmother varies but is almost always positive...
December 9, 2017: Human Nature: An Interdisciplinary Biosocial Perspective
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222630/-there-s-so-much-to-it-the-ways-physiotherapy-students-and-recent-graduates-experience-practice
#13
S Barradell, T Peseta, S Barrie
Health science courses aim to prepare students for the demands of their chosen profession by learning ways appropriate to that profession and the contexts they will work and live in. Expectations of what students should learn become re-contextualised and translated into entry-level curriculum, with students operating as a connection between what is intended and enacted in curriculum, and required in the real world. Drawing on phenomenology, this paper explores how students understand practice-the collective, purposeful knowing, doing and being of a community-in entry-level physiotherapy programs...
December 8, 2017: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222601/monitoring-small-pioneer-trees-in-the-forest-tundra-ecotone-using-multi-temporal-airborne-laser-scanning-data-to-model-height-growth
#14
Marius Hauglin, Ole Martin Bollandsås, Terje Gobakken, Erik Næsset
Monitoring of forest resources through national forest inventory programmes is carried out in many countries. The expected climate changes will affect trees and forests and might cause an expansion of trees into presently treeless areas, such as above the current alpine tree line. It is therefore a need to develop methods that enable the inclusion of also these areas into monitoring programmes. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is an established tool in operational forest inventories, and could be a viable option for monitoring tasks...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222537/the-effects-of-palate-features-and-glossectomy-surgery-on-s-production
#15
Dana L Grimm, Maureen Stone, Jonghye Woo, Junghoon Lee, Jun-Hyuk Hwang, Gary E Bedrosian, Jerry L Prince
Purpose: The aims of this article were to determine the effects of hard palate morphology and glossectomy surgery on tongue position and shape during /s/ for patients with small tumors. The first expectation was that laminal /s/ would be more prevalent in patients, than apical, due to reduced tongue tip control after surgery. The second was that patients would hold the tongue more anteriorly than controls to compensate for reduced tongue mass. Method: Three-dimensional tongue volumes were calculated from magnetic resonance imaging for the whole tongue and the portion anterior to the first molar during the /s/ in /əsuk/ for 21 controls and 14 patients...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222488/different-carotenoid-conformations-have-distinct-functions-in-light-harvesting-regulation-in-plants
#16
Nicoletta Liguori, Pengqi Xu, Ivo H M van Stokkum, Bart van Oort, Yinghong Lu, Daniel Karcher, Ralph Bock, Roberta Croce
To avoid photodamage plants regulate the amount of excitation energy in the membrane at the level of the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs). It has been proposed that the energy absorbed in excess is dissipated via protein conformational changes of individual LHCs. However, the exact quenching mechanism remains unclear. Here we study the mechanism of quenching in LHCs that bind a single carotenoid species and are constitutively in a dissipative conformation. Via femtosecond spectroscopy we resolve a number of carotenoid dark states, demonstrating that the carotenoid is bound to the complex in different conformations...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222472/long-noncoding-rna-hotair-modulates-mir-206-mediated-bcl-w-signaling-to-facilitate-cell-proliferation-in-breast-cancer
#17
Wei Ding, Jin Ren, Hui Ren, Dan Wang
LncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) is involved in lots of cancers. The pro-survival protein Bcl-w is frequently found in cancer development. However, the effect of HOTAIR on Bcl-w in breast cancer is not well documented. In this study, we first evaluated the correlation between HOTAIR level and Bcl-w expression in clinical breast cancer tissues. We observed that the expression levels of Bcl-w were much higher in the breast cancer samples than that in their paired noncancerous tissues. Moreover, the levels of HOTAIR were positively associated with those of Bcl-w in clinical breast cancer samples...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222444/diazotroph-diversity-and-nitrogen-fixation-in-the-coral-stylophora-pistillata-from-the-great-barrier-reef
#18
Michael P Lesser, Kathleen M Morrow, Sabrina M Pankey, Sam H C Noonan
Diazotrophs, both Bacteria and Archaea, capable of fixing nitrogen (N2), are present in the tissues and mucous, of corals and can supplement the coral holobiont nitrogen budget with fixed nitrogen (N) in the form of ammonia (NH3). Stylophora pistillata from Heron Island on the Great Barrier Reef collected at 5 and 15 m, and experimentally manipulated in the laboratory, showed that the rates of net photosynthesis, steady state quantum yields of photosystem II (PSII) fluorescence (∆F v/F m') and calcification varied based on irradiance as expected...
December 8, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222443/metabolic-versatility-of-small-archaea-micrarchaeota-and-parvarchaeota
#19
Lin-Xing Chen, Celia Méndez-García, Nina Dombrowski, Luis E Servín-Garcidueñas, Emiley A Eloe-Fadrosh, Bao-Zhu Fang, Zhen-Hao Luo, Sha Tan, Xiao-Yang Zhi, Zheng-Shuang Hua, Esperanza Martinez-Romero, Tanja Woyke, Li-Nan Huang, Jesús Sánchez, Ana Isabel Peláez, Manuel Ferrer, Brett J Baker, Wen-Sheng Shu
Small acidophilic archaea belonging to Micrarchaeota and Parvarchaeota phyla are known to physically interact with some Thermoplasmatales members in nature. However, due to a lack of cultivation and limited genomes on hand, their biodiversity, metabolisms, and physiologies remain largely unresolved. Here, we obtained 39 genomes from acid mine drainage (AMD) and hot spring environments around the world. 16S rRNA gene based analyses revealed that Parvarchaeota were only detected in AMD and hot spring habitats, while Micrarchaeota were also detected in others including soil, peat, hypersaline mat, and freshwater, suggesting a considerable higher diversity and broader than expected habitat distribution for this phylum...
December 8, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222411/scaling-of-yu-shiba-rusinov-energies-in-the-weak-coupling-kondo-regime
#20
Nino Hatter, Benjamin W Heinrich, Daniela Rolf, Katharina J Franke
The competition of the free-spin state of a paramagnetic impurity on a superconductor with its screened counterpart is characterized by the energy scale of Kondo screening compared to the superconducting pairing energy Δ. When the experimental temperature suppresses Kondo screening, but preserves superconductivity, i.e., when Δ/k B > T > T K (k B is Boltzmann's constant and T K the Kondo temperature), this description fails. Here, we explore this temperature range in a set of manganese phthalocyanine molecules decorated with ammonia on Pb(111)...
December 8, 2017: Nature Communications
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