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Transgeneration inherity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27245821/genomic-clustering-of-differential-dna-methylated-regions-epimutations-associated-with-the-epigenetic-transgenerational-inheritance-of-disease-and-phenotypic-variation
#1
M Muksitul Haque, Eric E Nilsson, Lawrence B Holder, Michael K Skinner
BACKGROUND: A variety of environmental factors have been shown to promote the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation in numerous species. Exposure to environmental factors such as toxicants can promote epigenetic changes (epimutations) involving alterations in DNA methylation to produce specific differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs). The germline (e.g. sperm) transmission of epimutations is associated with epigenetic transgenerational inheritance phenomena...
June 1, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242854/use-of-baba-and-ina-as-activators-of-a-primed-state-in-the-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-l
#2
Keren Martínez-Aguilar, Gabriela Ramírez-Carrasco, José Luis Hernández-Chávez, Aarón Barraza, Raúl Alvarez-Venegas
To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that "prime" their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26683055/in-vitro-fertilization-ivf-in-mammals-epigenetic-and-developmental-alterations-scientific-and-bioethical-implications-for-ivf-in-humans
#3
REVIEW
Patricio Ventura-Juncá, Isabel Irarrázaval, Augusto J Rolle, Juan I Gutiérrez, Ricardo D Moreno, Manuel J Santos
The advent of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in animals and humans implies an extraordinary change in the environment where the beginning of a new organism takes place. In mammals fertilization occurs in the maternal oviduct, where there are unique conditions for guaranteeing the encounter of the gametes and the first stages of development of the embryo and thus its future. During this period a major epigenetic reprogramming takes place that is crucial for the normal fate of the embryo. This epigenetic reprogramming is very vulnerable to changes in environmental conditions such as the ones implied in IVF, including in vitro culture, nutrition, light, temperature, oxygen tension, embryo-maternal signaling, and the general absence of protection against foreign elements that could affect the stability of this process...
2015: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26449645/maternal-intraguild-predation-risk-affects-offspring-anti-predator-behavior-and-learning-in-mites
#4
Michael Seiter, Peter Schausberger
Predation risk is a strong selective force shaping prey morphology, life history and behavior. Anti-predator behaviors may be innate, learned or both but little is known about the transgenerational behavioral effects of maternally experienced predation risk. We examined intraguild predation (IGP) risk-induced maternal effects on offspring anti-predator behavior, including learning, in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis. We exposed predatory mite mothers during egg production to presence or absence of the IG predator Amblyseius andersoni and assessed whether maternal stress affects the anti-predator behavior, including larval learning ability, of their offspring as protonymphs...
October 9, 2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25898397/transgenerational-epigenetic-inheritance-resolving-uncertainty-and-evolving-biology
#5
REVIEW
Abhay Sharma
Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in animals has increasingly been reported in recent years. Controversies, however, surround this unconventional mode of heredity, especially in mammals, for several reasons. First, its existence itself has been questioned due to perceived insufficiency of available evidence. Second, it potentially implies transfer of hereditary information from soma to germline, against the established principle in biology. Third, it inherently requires survival of epigenetic memory across reprogramming, posing another fundamental challenge in biology...
April 2015: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25792089/elusive-inheritance-transgenerational-effects-and-epigenetic-inheritance-in-human-environmental-disease
#6
REVIEW
Suzanne N Martos, Wan-Yee Tang, Zhibin Wang
Epigenetic mechanisms involving DNA methylation, histone modification, histone variants and nucleosome positioning, and noncoding RNAs regulate cell-, tissue-, and developmental stage-specific gene expression by influencing chromatin structure and modulating interactions between proteins and DNA. Epigenetic marks are mitotically inherited in somatic cells and may be altered in response to internal and external stimuli. The idea that environment-induced epigenetic changes in mammals could be inherited through the germline, independent of genetic mechanisms, has stimulated much debate...
July 2015: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25618446/epigenetic-regulation-of-immunological-alterations-following-prenatal-exposure-to-marijuana-cannabinoids-and-its-long-term-consequences-in-offspring
#7
REVIEW
Elizabeth E Zumbrun, Jessica M Sido, Prakash S Nagarkatti, Mitzi Nagarkatti
Use of marijuana during pregnancy is fairly commonplace and can be expected increase in frequency as more states legalize its recreational use. The cannabinoids present in marijuana have been shown to be immunosuppressive, yet the effect of prenatal exposure to cannabinoids on the immune system of the developing fetus, its long term consequences during adult stage of life, and transgenerational effects have not been well characterized. Confounding factors such as co-existing drug use make the impact of cannabis use on progeny inherently difficult to study in a human population...
June 2015: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25436529/challenges-in-nutrition-related-dna-methylation-studies
#8
Mihai D Niculescu
Abstract The rapid progress in nutritional epigenetics allowed for a much better understanding of the mechanisms involved in gene-nutrient interactions and the roles that nutrition has in transgenerational inheritance of acquired epigenetic traits. Studies indicated that a considerable number of nutrients or diet types are capable of inducing epimutations. In parallel, the rapid development of genome-wide DNA methylation detection methods allowed for a broader image on how nutrition impacts the epigenetic status in human and animal models...
April 2012: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24574384/epigenetics-as-a-source-of-variation-in-comparative-animal-physiology-or-lamarck-is-lookin-pretty-good-these-days
#9
REVIEW
Warren W Burggren
Considerable variation is inherent both within and between comparative physiological data sets. Known sources for such variation include diet, gender, time of day and season of experiment, among many other factors, but a meta-analysis of physiological studies shows that surprisingly few studies report controlling for these factors. In fact, less than 3% of comparative physiological papers mention epigenetics. However, our understanding of epigenetic influences on physiological processes is growing rapidly, and it is highly likely that epigenetic phenomena are an additional 'hidden' source of variation, particularly in wild-caught specimens...
March 1, 2014: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23863149/functional-diversification-of-argonautes-in-nematodes-an-expanding-universe
#10
REVIEW
Amy H Buck, Mark Blaxter
In the last decade, many diverse RNAi (RNA interference) pathways have been discovered that mediate gene silencing at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. The diversity of RNAi pathways is inherently linked to the evolution of Ago (Argonaute) proteins, the central protein component of RISCs (RNA-induced silencing complexes). An increasing number of diverse Agos have been identified in different species. The functions of most of these proteins are not yet known, but they are generally assumed to play roles in development, genome stability and/or protection against viruses...
August 2013: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23856356/the-presence-role-and-clinical-use-of-spermatozoal-rnas
#11
REVIEW
Meritxell Jodar, Sellappan Selvaraju, Edward Sendler, Michael P Diamond, Stephen A Krawetz
BACKGROUND Spermatozoa are highly differentiated, transcriptionally inert cells characterized by a compact nucleus with minimal cytoplasm. Nevertheless they contain a suite of unique RNAs that are delivered to oocyte upon fertilization. They are likely integrated as part of many different processes including genome recognition, consolidation-confrontation, early embryonic development and epigenetic transgenerational inherence. Spermatozoal RNAs also provide a window into the developmental history of each sperm thereby providing biomarkers of fertility and pregnancy outcome which are being intensely studied...
November 2013: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23744966/nutritional-epigenetics
#12
REVIEW
Mihai D Niculescu
Within the last two decades, significant progress has been made in understanding the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in the regulation of gene expression as a consequence of gene-environment interactions. Nutrition, among many other environmental factors, is a key player that can induce epigenetic changes not only in the directly exposed organisms but also in subsequent generations through the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic traits. This article aims to provide insights into the usefulness of the mouse model for epigenetic studies involving nutrition as well as the inherent limitations when compared with epigenetic phenomena in humans...
2012: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21117148/neural-control-of-gene-recruitment-in-metazoans
#13
REVIEW
Nelson R Cabej
Gene recruitment played a critical role in metazoan evolution. Yet, there is no consensus on whether it is an accidental event or a result of an inherent "gene recruiting" mechanism. The prevailing opinion among biologists is that gene recruitment results from random changes in genes or their regulatory regions, but the supporting evidence is poor and controversial. Herein, I present a mechanism in which gene recruitment is a neurally determined event, an adaptive response to changes in environmental conditions...
January 2011: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18220902/is-there-a-clinical-future-for-spermatogonial-stem-cells
#14
REVIEW
Ellen Goossens, Goossens Ellen, Herman Tournaye, Tournaye Herman
Like every other adult stem cell in the human body, spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) have the capacity to either renew themselves or to start the differentiation process, namely, spermatogenesis. Due to the continuation of the stem cell population in the testis, several possible options for preservation and re-establishment of the reproductive potential exist. Currently, spermatogonial stem cell transplantation (SSCT) is considered the most promising tool for fertility restoration in young cancer patients. This technique involves the injection of a testicular cell suspension from a fertile donor into the testis of an infertile recipient...
September 2007: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17764855/epigenetic-abnormality-a-possible-mechanism-underlying-the-fetal-origin-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
Zhongxiang Li, Hefeng Huang
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common, yet heterogeneous and complex, endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. Although the aetiology of PCOS remains uncertain, emerging evidence has indicated that exposure of the female fetus to the hyperandrogenism milieu in utero may result in PCOS phenotype after birth. Such a phenomenon has been formulated as the fetal origin of PCOS, which intends to give a possible explanation for PCOS aetiology. Given that the epigenetic modifications are usually involved in the development and inheritance of many adult diseases with fetal origin, we propose a hypothesis here referred to as "epigenetic abnormality underlying the fetal origin of PCOS"...
2008: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16598905/-nutritional-epigenomics-of-metabolic-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
Claudine Junien, Catherine Gallou-Kabani, Alexandre Vigé, Marie-Sylvie Gross
The importance of epigenetic alterations has been acknowledged in cancer for about two decades by an increasing number of molecular oncologists who contributed to deciphering the epigenetic codes and machinery and opened the road for a new generation of drugs now in clinical trials. However, the relevance of epigenetics to common diseases such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease was less conspicuous. This review focuses on converging data supporting the hypothesis that, in addition to "thrifty genotype" inheritance, individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS)--combining disturbances in glucose and insulin metabolism, excess of predominantly abdominally distributed weight, mild dyslipidemia and hypertension, with the subsequent development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)--have suffered improper "epigenetic programing" during their fetal/postnatal development due to maternal inadequate nutrition and metabolic disturbances and also during their life-time...
December 2005: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15811305/-nutritional-epigenomics-of-metabolic-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Claudine Junien, Catherine Gallou-Kabani, Alexandre Vigé, Marie-Sylvie Gross
The importance of epigenetic alterations has been acknowledged in cancer for about two decades by an increasing number of molecular oncologists who contributed to deciphering the epigenetic codes and machinery and opened the road for a new generation of drugs now in clinical trials. However, the relevance of epigenetics to common diseases such as metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease was less conspicuous. This review focuses on converging data supporting the hypothesis that, in addition to "thrifty genotype" inheritance, individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS)--combining disturbances in glucose and insulin metabolism, excess of predominantly abdominally distributed weight, mild dyslipidemia and hypertension, with the subsequent development of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD)--have suffered improper "epigenetic programming" during their fetal/postnatal development due to maternal inadequate nutrition and metabolic disturbances and also during their lifetime...
April 2005: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14599281/fictions-and-facts-about-evolutionary-approaches-to-human-behavior-comment-on-lickliter-and-honeycutt-2003
#18
COMMENT
Dennis L Krebs
Six misconceptions about evolutionary approaches to human behavior are exposed. Evidence is adduced to support the assertions that evolutionary approaches do not (a) adopt a reductionistic "gene-centered" level of analysis, (b) assume that natural selection is the only process that creates and designs ontogenetic processes and phenotypic outcomes, (c) assume that genes are the only agents responsible for the transgenerational inheritance of phenotypic traits and characteristics, (d) assume that genes are self-contained and impervious to extragenetic influences, (e) posit a strong form of genetic determinism, or (f) pay lip service to the role of the environment...
November 2003: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/2616712/-transgenerational-solidarity-treatment-and-prevention-in-an-expanded-context
#19
I Boszormenyi-Nagy
This article searches for a common denominator for the requirements of that which therapy and prevention address in their broadest terms: 1. Genuine criteria of autonomous individuation in the context of real relationship that have to be sorted out vis-à-vis random internal relations that inform the private epistemologies of each partner's idiosyncratic goals. 2. The dialogue of mutual self-definition anchored in the balance of inherent commitments to mutual self-validation through fair give and take--the basis of relational ethics, i...
December 1989: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
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