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Christina McGuire, Laura Stransky, Kristina Cotter, Michael Forgac
V-ATPases are ATP-driven proton pumps present in both intracellular and cell surface membranes of eukaryotes that function in many normal and disease processes. V-ATPases are large, multi-subunit complexes composed of a peripheral domain (V1 ) that hydrolyzes ATP and a membrane integral domain (V0 ) that translocates protons. Because of the diversity of their functions, V-ATPase activity is controlled by a number of mechanisms. Regulated assembly of the V1 and V0 domains rapidly modulates V-ATPase activity in response to a variety of cues, including nutrient availability, growth factor stimulation and cellular differentiation...
January 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
M C Gramajo-Bühler, F J Pucci, G Sanchez-Toranzo
Chinchilla lanigera, native to the Andean Mountains of Perú, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina, is a specimen of great economic importance because of its fur. In mammals, spermatozoa originate in testes and are transported to the epididymis, where they undergo morphological and biochemical modifications known as sperm maturation, a basic step in the acquisition of their fertilizing ability. The aim of this work is the macroscopic and microscopic analysis of the epididymis of Chinchilla lanigera Grey and its sectorization based on a histomorphological study...
June 2016: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Jinming Huang, Fang Guo, Zebin Zhang, Yuanpei Zhang, Xiuge Wang, Zhihua Ju, Chunhong Yang, Changfa Wang, Minghai Hou, Jifeng Zhong
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (PCK1) is a multi-functional enzyme that plays important roles in physiological processes, including reproduction. We previously reported that the PCK1 transcript has five splice variants; PCK1-AS4, which lacks exon 5, is enriched in the testis of Holstein bulls. In the present study, we profiled select PCK1 transcript variants in the testis, epididymus, and semen of high- and low-performance bulls, and examined the possibility that microRNAs may be involved in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-mediated modulation of PCK1 expression...
March 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Nasra N Ayuob, Hussam A S Murad, Soad S Ali
INTRODUCTION: Few oral antidiabetic drugs have been evaluated for their reproductive complication. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of metformin, pioglitazone and sitagliptin on the structure of male reproductive system through an immunohistopathological study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were injected with streptozotocin. The diabetic rats were divided into four groups (n = 8/each group); diabetic control, metformin-, pioglitazone- and sitagliptin-treated groups in addition to a normal control group (n = 8)...
2015: Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica
C A Heckman, H K Plummer
Filopodia are sensors on both excitable and non-excitable cells. The sensing function is well documented in neurons and blood vessels of adult animals and is obvious during dorsal closure in embryonic development. Nerve cells extend neurites in a bidirectional fashion with growth cones at the tips where filopodia are concentrated. Their sensing of environmental cues underpins the axon's ability to "guide," bypassing non-target cells and moving toward the target to be innervated. This review focuses on the role of filopodia structure and dynamics in the detection of environmental cues, including both the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the surfaces of neighboring cells...
November 2013: Cellular Signalling
João Marcelo Azevedo de Paula Antunes, Susan Dora Allendorf, Camila Michele Appolinário, Didier Quevedo Cagnini, Paula Ripamonte Figueiredo, José Buratini Júnior, Joaquin Vicente Baños, Katherine M Kocan, José de la Fuente, Jane Megid
The ovine brucellosis caused by Brucella ovis has tropism for reproductive tissues but until now the mechanism of bacterial persistence is not understood. Cytokine expression profiles were studied for 8 months in rams after being experimentally infected with the rough virulent strain of B. ovis (R-B. ovis) to study the pathogenesis of B. ovis and immune mechanism possibly associated to bacteria tropism and persistence. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, interferon-γ (INF-γ) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) cytokines were quantified by real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) in reproductive tissues (epididymus, testicles, ampolae, vesicular glands and bulbourethral glands), and non-reproductive (liver, spleen and kidneys) tissues at 30, 60, 120 and 240 days post infection (dpi)...
January 25, 2013: Veterinary Microbiology
K A Mooslehner, J D Davies, I A Hughes
Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) is associated with impaired male genital development and can be transmitted through mutations in the androgen receptor (AR). The aim of this study is to develop a cell model suitable for studying the impact AR mutations might have on AR interacting proteins. For this purpose, male genital development relevant mouse cell lines were genetically modified to express a tagged version of wild-type AR, allowing copurification of multiprotein complexes under native conditions followed by mass spectrometry...
2012: International Journal of Endocrinology
L Tusell, I David, L Bodin, A Legarra, O Rafel, M López-Bejar, M Piles
Animals under environmental thermal stress conditions have reduced fertility due to impairment of some mechanisms involved in their reproductive performance that are different in males and females. As a consequence, the most sensitive periods of time and the magnitude of effect of temperature on fertility can differ between sexes. The objective of this study was to estimate separately the effect of temperature in different periods around the insemination time on male and on female fertility by using the product threshold model...
December 2011: Journal of Animal Science
M A Silva, G C X Peixoto, E A A Santos, T S Castelo, M F Oliveira, A R Silva
The objective was to compare the use of powdered coconut water (ACP-109c; ACP Biotecnologia, Fortaleza, CE, Brazil) and Tris extenders for recovery and cryopreservation of epididymal sperm from agouti. The caudae epididymus and proximal ductus deferens from 10 sexually mature agoutis were subjected to retrograde washing using ACP-109c (ACP Biotecnologia) or Tris. Epididymal sperm were evaluated for motility, vigor, sperm viability, membrane integrity, and morphology. Samples were centrifuged, and extended in the same diluents plus egg yolk (20%) and glycerol (6%), frozen in liquid nitrogen, and subsequently thawed at 37°C for 1 min, followed by re-evaluation of sperm characteristics...
October 1, 2011: Theriogenology
Su Liu, Han-Jun Wu, Zong-Qi Zhang, Qing Chen, Bin Liu, Jian-Ping Wu, Liang Zhu
Cancer cachexia is characterized by progressive weight loss with the depletion of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Impaired fatty acid oxidation mainly resulting from the decrease of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I and II activities in the liver is an important factor that contributes to cancer cachexia . Although recent studies suggest a potential application of L-carnitine in treatment of cancer cachexia, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In the present study, we aim to assess the effects of L-carnitine on the activity and expression of CPT I and II in the liver of cachectic cancer mice...
July 15, 2011: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Poonam Sharma, Rambir Singh
The aim of this study was to explore the adverse effects of lindane pesticide on testes and epididymus weight, sperm head counts, sperm motility, abnormal changes in sperm morphology, biochemical changes in endogenous antioxidants and oxidative enzymes in male wistar rats as well as to assess ameliorating role of 'curcumin'. Rats were exposed daily to lindane (30 mg/kg bw) for 14 and 28 days and administered with curcumin (100 mg/kg bw) in pretreatment, post treatment and combination groups. We observed decrease (p < 0...
April 2010: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Julie R Palmer, Arthur L Herbst, Kenneth L Noller, Deborah A Boggs, Rebecca Troisi, Linda Titus-Ernstoff, Elizabeth E Hatch, Lauren A Wise, William C Strohsnitter, Robert N Hoover
BACKGROUND: Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women during the 1940s70s, has been shown to cause reproductive problems in the daughters. Studies of prenatally-exposed males have yielded conflicting results. METHODS: In data from a collaborative follow-up of three U.S. cohorts of DES-exposed sons, we examined the relation of prenatal DES exposure to occurrence of male urogenital abnormalities. Exposure status was determined through review of prenatal records...
August 18, 2009: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
P Arnaud, A Demey, F Vandenbos, F Colomb, J-F Michiels, J Amiel
Incidences of opportunistic infections of the epididymus and the testicule have already been reported in patients suffering from AIDS for over 10 years. Here we have reported the first description of microsporadic orchiepididymitis diagnosed at the university hospital (CHU) of Nice in 2005. We look at the epidemiology, the physiology and the treatment of this extremely rare infection.
June 2009: Progrès en Urologie
Hector Serrano, Juan Jose Perez-Rivero, Jose Juan Martinez-Maya, Alvaro Aguilar-Setien, Mario Perez-Martinez, Maria-Dolores Garcia-Suarez
INTRODUCTION: Estrogens are well recognized as important hormones in male reproduction and act as ligands to alpha and beta estrogen receptors. Both estrogen receptors could interact with estrogen-mimicking compounds such as the fluorescent phytoestrogen coumestrol, which acts both in an agonist or antagonist fashion. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the presence of Coumestrol-Estrogen Receptor complexes by fluorescence in testis and epididymis, its effect in the ER expression by immunostain in the same tissues and the effect of this binding in the testis histological characteristics...
December 2008: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
L Y B Villarreal, P E Brandão, J L Chacón, M S Assayag, P C Maiorka, P Raffi, A B S Saidenberg, R C Jones, A J P Ferreira
The pathogenesis of infection involving both infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes reproductive damage in hens after viral replication in the epithelium of the oviduct, resulting in loss of cilia and degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial and glandular cells. Although IBV has been indicated as a possible cause of the formation of calcium stones in the epididymus of roosters, a definitive association has not been confirmed. This report describes the detection of IBV and aMPV in the testes of roosters from a Brazilian poultry broiler breeder's flock with epididymal stones and low fertility...
December 2007: Avian Diseases
Gustavo Gandini, Flavia Pizzi, Alessandra Stella, Paul J Boettcher
The aim of this work was to compare costs, in the horse, cattle, sheep, swine, and rabbit species, for the creation of gene banks for reconstruction of an extinct breed, using different strategies: embryos-only, embryos in combination with semen, and semen-only. Three cost measures were used: time required for population reconstruction, cost for creation of the gene bank, number of years-keeping-female to reach reconstruction. Semen costs were estimated across four scenarios: the presence or absence of a commercial market for semen, purchase of semen donors, and semen extracted from the epididymus...
July 2007: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Giulia Ricci, Giovanna Cacciola, Lucia Altucci, Rosaria Meccariello, Riccardo Pierantoni, Silvia Fasano, Gilda Cobellis
Endocannabinoids are endogenous ligands for plasma membrane receptors (CB1 and CB2), belonging to the superfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. They mimic some of the effects played by D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active principle isolated from Cannabis sativa. N-arachidonoylethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) is the main endocannabinoid described to date in the testis and in human seminal plasma. However, the activity of AEA in controlling male reproduction is still poorly understood. In this study we report on physiological activity of endocannabinoids in the male reproductive tract...
August 2007: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Mahlknecht Alois, Pecorari Valentina, Gschwendeter Andreas
OBJECTIVES: The ovarian metastasis by a gastrointestinal cancer is called Krukenberg tumor. We report a case of metastasis to the testis and epididymis by gastric cancer that can be the analogue in male. METHODS: A patient, submitted to total gastrectomy for a poorly differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma (TNM stage: pT3 GIII N+ M 1) developed one year later a painful swelling of the right hemiscrotum and groin. The palpation revealed a painful mandarine-like mass conglobated in the right testis and epididymis, with a further mass at the external inguinal-ring and multiple little nodes along the spermatic cord...
November 2005: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Manoj Jain, Sonia Badwal, Rakesh Pandey, Aneesh Srivastava, R K Sharma, Ramesh Kumar Gupta
The development of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) is a well-recognized complication of solid organ transplantation in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The literature on PTLD in live renal allograft recipients is scarce and most of the data pertains to PTLD in cadaveric transplants. As live donor grafts form the mainstay of transplantation programme in India, this study was carried out to define the profile of PTLD in live donor renal allograft recipients. On retrospective evaluation, nine cases of PTLD amongst 1700 live donor allograft recipients from January 1989 to August 2004, were detected at a tertiary care hospital in north India...
October 2005: Clinical Transplantation
Elizabeth O Harrington, Christopher J Shannon, Nicole Morin, Heather Rowlett, Christopher Murphy, Qing Lu
We have shown that PKCdelta enhanced microvascular endothelial basal barrier function, correlating with elevated RhoA GTPase activity and increased focal contact formation. In the current study, we investigated signaling pathways important in PKCdelta modulation of barrier function in unstimulated endothelial cell monolayers by assessing the effects of PKCdelta inhibition in endothelial cells (EC) derived from rat pulmonary artery (PAEC) and epididymus (FPEC). Rottlerin exposure or Ad PKCdeltadn infection significantly enhanced monolayer permeability in both EC...
August 15, 2005: Experimental Cell Research
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