Read by QxMD icon Read


Cristiane S Alves, Renato Vicentini, Gustavo T Duarte, Vitor F Pinoti, Michel Vincentz, Fabio T S Nogueira
The manuscript by Alves et al. entitled "Genome-wide identification and characterization of tRNA-derived RNA fragments in land plants" describes the identification and characterization of tRNAderived sRNA fragments in plants. By combining bioinformatic analysis and genetic and molecular approaches, we show that tRF biogenesis does not rely on canonical microRNA/siRNA processing machinery (i.e., independent of DICER-LIKE proteins). Moreover, we provide evidences that the Arabidopsis S-like Ribonuclease 1 (RNS1) might be involved in the biogenesis of tRFs...
September 28, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Kamilla Bąkowska-Żywicka, Marta Kasprzyk, Tomasz Twardowski
Recently, a number of ribosome-associated non-coding RNAs (rancRNAs) have been discovered in all three domains of life. In our previous studies, we have described several types of rancRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, derived from many cellular RNAs, including mRNAs, rRNAs, tRNAs and snoRNAs. Here, we present the evidence that the tRNA fragments from simple eukaryotic organism S. cerevisiae directly bind to the ribosomes. Interestingly, rancRNA-tRFs in yeast are derived from both, 5'- and 3'-part of the tRNAs and both types of tRFs associate with the ribosomes in vitro The location of tRFs within the ribosomes is distinct from classical A- and P-tRNA binding sites...
September 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Songtao Gui, Zhihua Wu, Hongyuan Zhang, Yinzhen Zheng, Zhixuan Zhu, Dequan Liang, Yi Ding
Nelumbo nucifera is an evolutionary relic from the Late Cretaceous period. Sequencing the N. nucifera mitochondrial genome is important for elucidating the evolutionary characteristics of basal eudicots. Here, the N. nucifera mitochondrial genome was sequenced using single molecule real-time sequencing technology (SMRT), and the mitochondrial genome map was constructed after de novo assembly and annotation. The results showed that the 524,797-bp N. nucifera mitochondrial genome has a total of 63 genes, including 40 protein-coding genes, three rRNA genes and 20 tRNA genes...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ling-Ling Zheng, Wei-Lin Xu, Shun Liu, Wen-Ju Sun, Jun-Hao Li, Jie Wu, Jian-Hua Yang, Liang-Hu Qu
tRNA-derived small RNA fragments (tRFs) are one class of small non-coding RNAs derived from transfer RNAs (tRNAs). tRFs play important roles in cellular processes and are involved in multiple cancers. High-throughput small RNA (sRNA) sequencing experiments can detect all the cellular expressed sRNAs, including tRFs. However, distinguishing genuine tRFs from RNA fragments generated by random degradation remains a major challenge. In this study, we developed an integrated web-based computing system, tRF2Cancer, to accurately identify tRFs from sRNA deep-sequencing data and evaluate their expression in multiple cancers...
July 8, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Gunilla Jäger, Peng Chen, Glenn R Björk
The wobble nucleoside 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thio-uridine (mnm5s2U) is present in bacterial tRNAs specific for Lys and Glu and 5-carboxymethylaminomethyl-2-thio-uridine (cmnm5s2U) in tRNA specific for Gln. The sulfur of (c)mnm5s2U may be exchanged by selenium (Se)-a reaction catalyzed by the selenophosphate-dependent tRNA 2-selenouridine synthase encoded by the mnmH (ybbB, selU, sufY) gene. The MnmH protein has a rhodanese domain containing one catalytic Cys (C97) and a P-loop domain containing a Walker A motif, which is a potential nucleotide binding site...
2016: PloS One
Michael Olvedy, Mauro Scaravilli, Youri Hoogstrate, Tapio Visakorpi, Guido Jenster, Elena S Martens-Uzunova
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer among men in developed countries. Although its genetic background is thoroughly investigated, rather little is known about the role of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNA) in this disease. tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) represent a new class of sncRNAs, which are present in a broad range of species and have been reported to play a role in several cellular processes. Here, we analyzed the expression of tRFs in fresh frozen patient samples derived from normal adjacent prostate and different stages of PCa by RNA-sequencing...
April 26, 2016: Oncotarget
Yu Fu, Inhan Lee, Yong Sun Lee, Xiaoyong Bao
tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) are an emerging class of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). A growing number of reports have shown that tRFs are not random degradation products but are functional ncRNAs made of specific tRNA cleavage. They play regulatory roles in several biological contexts such as cancer, innate immunity, stress responses, and neurological disorders. In this review, we summarize the biogenesis and functions of tRFs.
December 2015: Genomics & Informatics
Qing Li, Bin Hu, Guo-Wen Hu, Chun-Yuan Chen, Xin Niu, Juan Liu, Shu-Min Zhou, Chang-Qing Zhang, Yang Wang, Zhi-Feng Deng
Ischemic injuries will lead to necrotic tissue damage, and post-ischemia angiogenesis plays critical roles in blood flow restoration and tissue recovery. Recently, several types of small RNAs have been reported to be involved in this process. In this study, we first generated a rat brain ischemic model to investigate the involvement of new types of small RNAs in ischemia. We utilized deep sequencing and bioinformatics analyses to demonstrate that the level of small RNA fragments derived from tRNAs strikingly increased in the ischemic rat brain...
2016: Scientific Reports
Kevin W Diebel, Kun Zhou, Aaron B Clarke, Lynne T Bemis
High-throughput sequencing studies of small RNAs reveal a complex milieu of noncoding RNAs in biological samples. Early data analysis was often limited to microRNAs due to their regulatory nature and potential as biomarkers; however, many more classes of noncoding RNAs are now being recognized. A class of fragments initially excluded from analysis were those derived from transfer RNAs (tRNAs) because they were thought to be degradation products. More recently, critical cellular function has been attributed to tRNA fragments (tRFs), and their conservation across all domains of life has propelled them into an emerging area of scientific study...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Brian J Reon, Anindya Dutta
Advances in DNA and RNA sequencing technologies have completely transformed the field of genomics. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) is now a widely used and accessible technology that allows scientists to sequence an entire transcriptome or genome in a timely and cost-effective manner. Application of HTS techniques has led to many key discoveries, including the identification of long noncoding RNAs, microDNAs, a family of small extrachromosomal circular DNA species, and tRNA-derived fragments, which are a group of small non-miRNAs that are derived from tRNAs...
April 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Yukihiro Nagashima, Yuji Iwata, Kei-ichiro Mishiba, Nozomu Koizumi
Arabidopsis bZIP60 is a major transcription factor that activates the unfolded protein response and is regulated by cytoplasmic splicing. Two Arabidopsis inositol-requiring 1s (IRE1A and IRE1B) cleave bZIP60 mRNA; however, the ligase that connects the two half-molecules of the split bZIP60 mRNA has not yet been identified. We aimed to determine whether the Arabidopsis tRNA ligase RLG1 catalyzes the ligation of cleaved bZIP60 mRNA. Recombinant IRE1B containing the ribonuclease domain correctly cleaved synthetic RNA covering the cleaved site of bZIP60 in vitro...
February 19, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jason M Schifano, Jonathan W Cruz, Irina O Vvedenskaya, Regina Edifor, Ming Ouyang, Robert N Husson, Bryce E Nickels, Nancy A Woychik
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems play key roles in bacterial persistence, biofilm formation and stress responses. The MazF toxin from the Escherichia coli mazEF TA system is a sequence- and single-strand-specific endoribonuclease, and many studies have led to the proposal that MazF family members exclusively target mRNA. However, recent data indicate some MazF toxins can cleave specific sites within rRNA in concert with mRNA. In this report, we identified the repertoire of RNAs cleaved by Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin MazF-mt9 using an RNA-seq-based approach...
February 18, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Simon P Keam, Gyorgy Hutvagner
This review will summarise the recent discoveries and current state of research on short noncoding RNAs derived from tRNAs-known as tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs). It will describe the features of the known subtypes of these RNAs; including sequence characteristics, protein interactors, expression characteristics, biogenesis, and similarity to canonical miRNA pathways. Also their role in regulating gene expression; including mediating translational suppression, will be discussed. We also highlight their potential use as biomarkers, functions in gene regulation and links to disease...
2015: Life
Ana Raquel Soares, Noémia Fernandes, Marisa Reverendo, Hugo Rafael Araújo, José Luís Oliveira, Gabriela M R Moura, Manuel A S Santos
BACKGROUND: Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) are a class of transcripts implicated in several eukaryotic regulatory mechanisms, namely gene silencing and chromatin regulation. Despite significant progress in their identification by next generation sequencing (NGS) we are still far from understanding their full diversity and functional repertoire. RESULTS: Here we report the identification of tRNA derived fragments (tRFs) by NGS of the sncRNA fraction of zebrafish...
2015: BMC Molecular Biology
Eikan Mishima, Daisuke Jinno, Yasutoshi Akiyama, Kunihiko Itoh, Shinnosuke Nankumo, Hisato Shima, Koichi Kikuchi, Yoichi Takeuchi, Alaa Elkordy, Takehiro Suzuki, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Sadayoshi Ito, Yoshihisa Tomioka, Takaaki Abe
The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications...
2015: PloS One
Pavel Ivanov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2015: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Santiago Fontenla, Nicolás Dell'Oca, Pablo Smircich, José F Tort, Mar Siles-Lucas
The liver fluke Fasciola hepatica is a foodborne zoonotic parasite affecting livestock worldwide, with increasing relevance in human health. The first developmental stage that the host meets after ingestion of the parasite is the newly excysted juvenile, that actively transverses the gut wall and migrates to its final location in the liver. The regulation of the early developmental events in newly excysted juveniles is still poorly understood and a relevant target for control strategies. Here we investigated the putative involvement of small regulatory RNAs in the invasion process...
December 2015: International Journal for Parasitology
Yan Guo, Amma Bosompem, Sanjay Mohan, Begum Erdogan, Fei Ye, Kasey C Vickers, Quanhu Sheng, Shilin Zhao, Chung-I Li, Pei-Fang Su, Madan Jagasia, Stephen A Strickland, Elizabeth A Griffiths, Annette S Kim
BACKGROUND: Although advances in sequencing technologies have popularized the use of microRNA (miRNA) sequencing (miRNA-seq) for the quantification of miRNA expression, questions remain concerning the optimal methodologies for analysis and utilization of the data. The construction of a miRNA sequencing library selects RNA by length rather than type. However, as we have previously described, miRNAs represent only a subset of the species obtained by size selection. Consequently, the libraries obtained for miRNA sequencing also contain a variety of additional species of small RNAs...
September 24, 2015: BMC Genomics
Eduardo Casas, Guohong Cai, John D Neill
The objective was to characterize naturally occurring circulating transfer RNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) in cattle. Serum from eight clinically normal adult dairy cows was collected, and small non-coding RNAs were extracted immediately after collection and sequenced by Illumina MiSeq. Sequences aligned to transfer RNA (tRNA) genes or their flanking sequences were characterized. Sequences aligned to the beginning of 5' end of the mature tRNA were classified as tRF5; those aligned to the 3' end of mature tRNA were classified as tRF3; and those aligned to the beginning of the 3' end flanking sequences were classified as tRF1...
2015: Frontiers in Genetics
Spyros Karaiskos, Ammar S Naqvi, Karl E Swanson, Andrey Grigoriev
BACKGROUND: Development of sequencing technologies and supporting computation enable discovery of small RNA molecules that previously escaped detection or were ignored due to low count numbers. While the focus in the analysis of small RNA libraries has been primarily on microRNAs (miRNAs), recent studies have reported findings of fragments of transfer RNAs (tRFs) across a range of organisms. RESULTS: Here we describe Drosophila melanogaster tRFs, which appear to have a number of structural and functional features similar to those of miRNAs but are less abundant...
2015: Biology Direct
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"