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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642284/excitation-of-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-triggers-immediate-transition-from-non-rapid-eye-movement-sleep-to-wakefulness-in-mice
#1
Shota Kodani, Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Emotionally salient situations usually trigger arousal along with autonomic and neuroendocrine reactions. To examine whether the extended amygdala plays a role in sleep/wakefulness regulation, we examined the effects of optogenetic and pharmacogenetic excitation of GABAergic neurons in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (GABA(BNST) neurons). Acute optogenetic excitation of these cells during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep resulted in immediate state transition to wakefulness, while stimulation during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep showed no effect on sleep/wakefulness states in male mice...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637430/malaria-control-by-commodities-without-practical-malariology
#2
J Kevin Baird
Malaria remains a serious clinical and public health problem, the object of an ongoing technological and humanitarian struggle to abate the very substantial harm done. The manner by which humanity approached malaria control changed abruptly and profoundly after 1945 with the advent of the insecticide DDT. Malariologists in the first half of the twentieth century conceived precise modifications to natural or man-made environments aimed at making those less hospitable to specific anopheline mosquito vector species...
June 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552494/quantitative-analysis-of-genitourinary-toxicity-after-iodine-125-brachytherapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer-followup-of-the-international-prostate-symptom-score-and-overactive-bladder-symptom-score
#3
Masanori Sakayori, Toshio Ohashi, Tetsuo Momma, Tomoya Kaneda, Shuichi Nishimura, Shinya Sutani, Shoji Yamashita, Naoyuki Shigematsu
PURPOSE: To analyze genitourinary toxicity by followup of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) after prostate brachytherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Six hundred eighty patients were treated with iodine-125 brachytherapy for localized prostate cancer. IPSS, OABSS, and two categories of IPSS questions (storage symptom score [IPSS-S] and voiding symptom score [IPSS-V]) were evaluated. RESULTS: The median followup was 54 months (range, 24-108)...
May 25, 2017: Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483182/effect-of-acupressure-on-symptoms-of-postoperative-ileus-after-cesarean-section
#4
Faezeh Abadi, Maryam Shahabinejad, Foziyeh Abadi, Majid Kazemi
Postoperative ileus (POI) is a common complication after most abdominal surgeries including cesarean section. It is associated with longer hospitalization and increased medical costs. This study is a randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of acupressure, and low-cost noninvasive traditional treatment, on POI symptoms after cesarean section. A total of 120 patients were randomly divided into two groups; the treatment group received two sessions of acupressure (an hour after attending the women's division; and 3 hours after the first session), each lasting 20 minutes...
April 2017: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473306/using-a-medical-intranet-of-things-system-to-prevent-bed-falls-in-an-acute-care-hospital-a-pilot-study
#5
Henri U Balaguera, Diana Wise, Chun Yin Ng, Han-Wen Tso, Wan-Lin Chiang, Aimee M Hutchinson, Tracy Galvin, Lee Hilborne, Cathy Hoffman, Chi-Cheng Huang, C Jason Wang
BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients in the United States experience falls at a rate of 2.6 to 17.1 per 1000 patient-days, with the majority occurring when a patient is moving to, from, and around the bed. Each fall with injury costs an average of US $14,000. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to conduct a technology evaluation, including feasibility, usability, and user experience, of a medical sensor-based Intranet of things (IoT) system in facilitating nursing response to bed exits in an acute care hospital...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470767/sleep-wake-rhythm-disturbances-and-perceived-sleep-in-adolescent-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#6
Maria Pedersen, Mirjam Ekstedt, Milada C Småstuen, Vegard B Wyller, Dag Sulheim, Even Fagermoen, Anette Winger, Edvard Pedersen, Harald Hrubos-Strøm
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterized by long-lasting, disabling and unexplained fatigue that is often accompanied by unrefreshing sleep. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate sleep-wake rhythm and perceived sleep in adolescent CFS patients compared to healthy individuals. We analysed baseline data on 120 adolescent CFS patients and 39 healthy individuals included in the NorCAPITAL project. Activity measures from a uniaxial accelerometer (activPAL) were used to estimate mid-sleep time (mid-point of a period with sleep) and time in bed...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439099/optogenetic-silencing-of-a-corticotropin-releasing-factor-pathway-from-the-central-amygdala-to-the-bed-nucleus-of-the-stria-terminalis-disrupts-sustained-fear
#7
A Asok, A Draper, A F Hoffman, J Schulkin, C R Lupica, J B Rosen
The lateral central nucleus of the amygdala (CeAL) and the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTDL) coordinate the expression of shorter- and longer-lasting fears, respectively. Less is known about how these structures communicate with each other during fear acquisition. One pathway, from the CeAL to the BNSTDL, is thought to communicate via corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but studies have yet to examine its function in fear learning and memory. Thus, we developed an adeno-associated viral-based strategy to selectively target CRF neurons with the optogenetic silencer archaerhodopsin tp009 (CRF-ArchT) to examine the role of CeAL CRF neurons and projections to the BNSTDL during the acquisition of contextual fear...
April 25, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284964/optimal-control-of-a-malaria-model-with-asymptomatic-class-and-superinfection
#8
Liming Cai, Xuezhi Li, Necibe Tuncer, Maia Martcheva, Abid Ali Lashari
In this paper, we introduce a malaria model with an asymptomatic class in human population and exposed classes in both human and vector populations. The model assumes that asymptomatic individuals can get re-infected and move to the symptomatic class. In the case of an incomplete treatment, symptomatic individuals move to the asymptomatic class. If successfully treated, the symptomatic individuals recover and move to the susceptible class. The basic reproduction number, R0, is computed using the next generation approach...
March 9, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272589/standardized-attending-rounds-to-improve-the-patient-experience-a-pragmatic-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Bradley Monash, Nader Najafi, Michelle Mourad, Alvin Rajkomar, Sumant R Ranji, Margaret C Fang, Marcia Glass, Dimiter Milev, Yile Ding, Andy Shen, Bradley A Sharpe, James D Harrison
BACKGROUND: At academic medical centers, attending rounds (AR) serve to coordinate patient care and educate trainees, yet variably involve patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of standardized bedside AR on patient satisfaction with rounds. DESIGN: Cluster randomized controlled trial. SETTING: 500-bed urban, quaternary care hospital. PATIENTS: 1200 patients admitted to the medicine service...
March 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213723/differences-in-orgasm-frequency-among-gay-lesbian-bisexual-and-heterosexual-men-and-women-in-a-u-s-national-sample
#10
David A Frederick, H Kate St John, Justin R Garcia, Elisabeth A Lloyd
There is a notable gap between heterosexual men and women in frequency of orgasm during sex. Little is known, however, about sexual orientation differences in orgasm frequency. We examined how over 30 different traits or behaviors were associated with frequency of orgasm when sexually intimate during the past month. We analyzed a large US sample of adults (N = 52,588) who identified as heterosexual men (n = 26,032), gay men (n = 452), bisexual men (n = 550), lesbian women (n = 340), bisexual women (n = 1112), and heterosexual women (n = 24,102)...
February 17, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865185/a-new-era-in-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes-is-cardioprotection-at-long-last-a-reality
#11
EDITORIAL
Xavier Rossello, Derek M Yellon
The EMPA-REG OUTCOME and the LEADER trials have revealed a new era in the management of type 2 diabetes. The SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin demonstrated a lower rate of the primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke compared to placebo. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 analogue, succeeded to demonstrate reduction on a composite outcome including first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke. These two medications act through different mechanisms and has consequently shown different patterns of cardiovascular benefit...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765524/costs-of-hospital-malnutrition
#12
Lori Jane Curtis, Paule Bernier, Khursheed Jeejeebhoy, Johane Allard, Donald Duerksen, Leah Gramlich, Manon Laporte, Heather H Keller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hospital malnutrition has been established as a critical, prevalent, and costly problem in many countries. Many cost studies are limited due to study population or cost data used. The aims of this study were to determine: the relationship between malnutrition and hospital costs; the influence of confounders on, and the drivers (medical or surgical patients or degree of malnutrition) of the relationship; and whether hospital reported cost data provide similar information to administrative data...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460054/mass-mosquito-trapping-for-malaria-control-in-western-kenya-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-cluster-randomised-trial
#13
Alexandra Hiscox, Tobias Homan, Collins K Mweresa, Nicolas Maire, Aurelio Di Pasquale, Daniel Masiga, Prisca A Oria, Jane Alaii, Cees Leeuwis, Wolfgang R Mukabana, Willem Takken, Thomas A Smith
BACKGROUND: Increasing levels of insecticide resistance as well as outdoor, residual transmission of malaria threaten the efficacy of existing vector control tools used against malaria mosquitoes. The development of odour-baited mosquito traps has led to the possibility of controlling malaria through mass trapping of malaria vectors. Through daily removal trapping against a background of continued bed net use it is anticipated that vector populations could be suppressed to a level where continued transmission of malaria will no longer be possible...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27440788/light-and-the-city-breast-cancer-risk-factors-differ-between-urban-and-rural-women-in-israel
#14
Atalya Keshet-Sitton, Keren Or-Chen, Sara Yitzhak, Ilana Tzabary, Abraham Haim
Women are exposed to indoor and outdoor artificial light at night (ALAN) in urban and rural environments. Excessive exposure to hazardous ALAN containing short wavelength light may suppress pineal melatonin production and lead to an increased breast cancer (BC) risk. Our objective was to address the differences in BC risks related to light exposure in urban and rural communities. We examined indoor and outdoor light habits of BC patients and controls that had lived in urban and rural areas in a 5-year period, 10 to 15 years before the time of the study...
July 20, 2016: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27315294/-pkp-for-keratoconus-from-hand-motor-trephine-to-excimer-laser-and-back-to-femtosecond-laser
#15
B Seitz, N Szentmáry, A Langenbucher, T Hager, A Viestenz, E Janunts, M El-Husseiny
For patients with keratoconus, rigid gas-permeable contact lenses are the first line correction method and allow good visual acuity for quite some time. In severe stages of the disease with major cone-shaped protrusion of the cornea, even specially designed keratoconus contact lenses are no longer tolerated. If there are contraindications for intrastromal ring segments, corneal transplantation typically has a very good prognosis. In patients with advanced keratoconus - especially after corneal hydrops due to rupture of Descemet's membrane - penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) is still the first line surgical method...
June 2016: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27276056/a-milestone-approval-of-ceus-for-diagnostic-liver-imaging-in-adults-and-children-in-the-usa
#16
K Seitz, D Strobel
The approval of microbubbles with the inert gas sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and a palmitic acid shell (SonoVue(®), Bracco Geneva, CH) for the diagnostic imaging of liver tumors in adults and children by the FDA in the United States represents a milestone for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).This warrants a look back at the history of the development of CEUS. The first publications based on echocardiographic observations of right ventricular contrast phenomena caused by tiny air bubbles following i. v...
June 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26874590/what-s-keeping-teenagers-up-prebedtime-behaviors-and-actigraphy-assessed-sleep-over-school-and-vacation
#17
Emily Harbard, Nicholas B Allen, John Trinder, Bei Bei
PURPOSE: Technology-related behaviors (e.g., computer use) before bedtime (BT) have been associated with poorer and shorter sleep in adolescents; however, less is known about other behaviors in relation to sleep. This study characterized a range of behaviors in the hour before bed (i.e., pre-BT behaviors [PBBs]) and examined their relationship with sleep parameters during school and vacation periods (i.e., restricted and extended sleep opportunities, respectively). Mechanistic roles of chronotype and cognitive presleep arousal (PSAcog) were also examined...
April 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26850124/the-replacement-of-assertive-outreach-services-by-reinforcing-local-community-teams-a-four-year-observational-study
#18
Mike Firn, Sarah Jane White, Dieneke Hubbeling, Ben Jones
BACKGROUND: The introduction of specialist Assertive Outreach (AO) teams has produced only modest differential findings from English studies compared to standard care. Providers have gradually closed AO services over the last 8 years. We previously studied outcomes at 12 months following the dismantling of two AO teams in London. We now report on the longer term outcomes for these patients. AIMS: To evaluate the longer term outcomes, activity and costs for patients receiving a less intensive service...
February 5, 2016: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26708025/randomized-controlled-trial-of-the-effectiveness-of-simulation-education-a-24-month-follow-up-study-in-a-clinical-setting
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Miia M Jansson, Hannu P Syrjälä, Pasi P Ohtonen, Merja H Meriläinen, Helvi A Kyngäs, Tero I Ala-Kokko
BACKGROUND: Critical care nurses' knowledge and skills in adhering to evidence-based guidelines for avoiding complications associated with intubation and mechanical ventilation are currently limited. We hypothesized that single simulation education session would lead to a long-lasting higher level of skills among critical care nurses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a 22-bed adult mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit in Finland during the period February 2012-March 2014...
April 1, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26468371/a-fitting-tribute-to-epilepsia-partialis-continua
#20
Priyank Patel, Nirav Amin, Shreya B Patel, Catrin Morgan
In July 2014, a 66 year-old lady presented to emergency department after having not been seen for 3 days. She was eventually found in bed not responding verbally. The ambulance service reported tonic-clonic seizures lasting 10-30 s every 3 min. The patient was treated for her seizures with phenytoin and additional benzodiazepines as required. Her seizure had temporarily resolved and she was admitted for investigations. She had no history of epilepsy or seizures. The history of alcoholism and lack of any substantial history of epilepsy, left the team considering whether this was an alcohol induced event or a pseudoseizure...
September 2015: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
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