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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822954/the-variability-of-hepatitis-b-envelope-is-associated-with-hbs-antigen-persistence-in-either-chronic-or-acute-hbv-genotype-a-infection
#1
Marine Eschlimann, Brice Malvé, Aurélie Velay, Honorine Fenaux, Sibel Berger, Jean-Pol Frippiat, Fabien Zoulim, Mouni Bensenane, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, François Goehringer, Thierry May, Hélène Jeulin, Evelyne Schvoerer
BACKGROUND: More than 240 million people are chronically infected by hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide. Envelope proteins play a crucial role in viral cellular entry and immune recognition. The loss of HBs antigen (HBsAg) correlated with a good clinical prognosis is rarely achieved with or without treatment (3-16%). OBJECTIVES: HBV envelope variability was investigated according to HBsAg persistence. STUDY DESIGN: The cohort consisted of 15 HBV genotype A-infected patients divided into "resolvers", with HBsAg clearance, and "non-resolvers", with HBsAg persistence and in subgroups: acute (n=5, AHBV) or chronic infection (n=4, CHBV) and HBV/HIV coinfection (n=6, CHBV/HIV)...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821299/pknb-remains-an-essential-and-a-conserved-target-for-drug-development-in-susceptible-and-mdr-strains-of-m-tuberculosis
#2
Anamika Gupta, Sudhir K Pal, Divya Pandey, Najneen A Fakir, Sunita Rathod, Dhiraj Sinha, S SivaKumar, Pallavi Sinha, Mycal Periera, Shilpa Balgam, Gomathi Sekar, K R UmaDevi, Shampa Anupurba, Vijay Nema
BACKGROUND: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) protein kinase B (PknB) which is now proved to be essential for the growth and survival of M.tb, is a transmembrane protein with a potential to be a good drug target. However it is not known if this target remains conserved in otherwise resistant isolates from clinical origin. The present study describes the conservation analysis of sequences covering the inhibitor binding domain of PknB to assess if it remains conserved in susceptible and resistant clinical strains of mycobacteria picked from three different geographical areas of India...
August 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821273/a-practical-guide-to-single-cell-rna-sequencing-for-biomedical-research-and-clinical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Ashraful Haque, Jessica Engel, Sarah A Teichmann, Tapio Lönnberg
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a genomic approach for the detection and quantitative analysis of messenger RNA molecules in a biological sample and is useful for studying cellular responses. RNA-seq has fueled much discovery and innovation in medicine over recent years. For practical reasons, the technique is usually conducted on samples comprising thousands to millions of cells. However, this has hindered direct assessment of the fundamental unit of biology-the cell. Since the first single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) study was published in 2009, many more have been conducted, mostly by specialist laboratories with unique skills in wet-lab single-cell genomics, bioinformatics, and computation...
August 18, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819133/combined-transcriptome-and-metabolome-analyses-of-metformin-effects-reveal-novel-links-between-metabolic-networks-in-steroidogenic-systems
#4
Sameer S Udhane, Balazs Legeza, Nesa Marti, Damian Hertig, Gaëlle Diserens, Jean-Marc Nuoffer, Peter Vermathen, Christa E Flück
Metformin is an antidiabetic drug, which inhibits mitochondrial respiratory-chain-complex I and thereby seems to affect the cellular metabolism in many ways. It is also used for the treatment of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), the most common endocrine disorder in women. In addition, metformin possesses antineoplastic properties. Although metformin promotes insulin-sensitivity and ameliorates reproductive abnormalities in PCOS, its exact mechanisms of action remain elusive. Therefore, we studied the transcriptome and the metabolome of metformin in human adrenal H295R cells...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818599/a-new-cost-and-time-effective-method-for-multilocus-microsatellite-typing-mlmt-studies-application-of-leishmania-tropica-isolates-and-clinical-samples-from-turkey
#5
Mehmet Karakuş, Bahtiyar Yılmaz, Yusuf Özbel, Seray Töz
Molecular techniques are widely used in the field of parasitology to identify the genetic profile of the microbiological agents. Microsatellite typing studies are comprised of the amplification of polymorphic markers to analyze the fragment sizes using bioinformatics tools. Current methods need fluorescently labeled primers and size markers to obtain fragment peaks in ABI PRISM® systems and due to low discrimination power of gel-electrophoresis, it is not possible to differentiate primer-dimers from small fragments In the present study, we designed a new method for fragment analysis studies, which reduce the time by eliminating the classical PCR, the gel-electrophoresis and the preparation steps of fragment analysis...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817829/altered-expression-profile-of-circular-rnas-in-the-serum-of-patients-with-diabetic-retinopathy-revealed-by-microarray
#6
Yonghao Gu, Genjie Ke, Lin Wang, Enliang Zhou, Kai Zhu, Yingying Wei
PURPOSE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness among working age adults. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a kind of noncoding RNAs that are involved in the development of some diseases. Here, we aimed to determine the possible role of circRNAs in the pathogenesis of DR by determining the expression profile of circRNAs in the serum of DR patients. METHODS: Nineteen subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus with proliferative DR (T2DR), 15 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus without DR (T2DM), and 21 age-matched nondiabetic control subjects were included in the study...
August 18, 2017: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812256/the-potential-for-emerging-microbiome-mediated-therapeutics-in-asthma
#7
REVIEW
Ayse Bilge Ozturk, Benjamin Arthur Turturice, David L Perkins, Patricia W Finn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In terms of immune regulating functions, analysis of the microbiome has led the development of therapeutic strategies that may be applicable to asthma management. This review summarizes the current literature on the gut and lung microbiota in asthma pathogenesis with a focus on the roles of innate molecules and new microbiome-mediated therapeutics. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent clinical and basic studies to date have identified several possible therapeutics that can target innate immunity and the microbiota in asthma...
August 10, 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810933/microrna-152-suppresses-human-osteosarcoma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-targeting-e2f-transcription-factor-3
#8
Chao Ma, Jinfeng Han, Dong Dong, Nanya Wang
MicroRNA-152(miR-152) expression has been reported to be downregulated in osteosarcoma (OS). However, the role of miR-152 in OS is not well documented. In the present study, we aim to explore the function and underlying mechanism of miR-152 in OS. We found that miR-152 was underexpressed in OS tissues and cell lines. Decreased miR-152 was inversely correlated with lymph-node metastasis and advanced clinical stage. Overexpression of miR-152 significantly inhibited cell proliferation, colony formation, migration and invasion of OS cells...
August 15, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#9
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
August 15, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806401/a-gdf15-3-utr-variant-rs1054564-results-in-allele-specific-translational-repression-of-gdf15-by-hsa-mir-1233-3p
#10
Ming-Sheng Teng, Lung-An Hsu, Shu-Hui Juan, Wen-Chi Lin, Ming-Cheng Lee, Cheng-Wen Su, Semon Wu, Yu-Lin Ko
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a strong predictor of cardiovascular events and mortality in individuals with or without cardiovascular diseases. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNA (miRNA) target sites, also known as miRSNPs, are known to enhance or weaken miRNA-mRNA interactions and have been linked to diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the functional significance of the miRSNP rs1054564 in regulating GDF15 levels. Two rs1054564-containing binding sites for hsa-miR-873-5p and hsa-miR-1233-3p were identified in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the GDF15 transcript using bioinformatics tools...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801732/evaluation-of-the-relationship-between-alopecia-areata-and-viral-antigen-exposure
#11
Christopher T Richardson, Matthew S Hayden, Elaine S Gilmore, Brian Poligone
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by non-scarring alopecia with T-cell infiltration at the affected hair follicle. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the potential link between hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigen exposure and AA. METHODS: Two pediatric patients with AA following hepatitis B vaccination were identified in a general dermatology clinic. A bioinformatics analysis and an electronic medical record (EMR) database query were performed at the University of Rochester Medical Center to identify patients with AA, coexisting viral infections, vaccinations, or interferon (IFN) therapy in order to determine if the presence of AA and these conditions was higher than in AA patients without these associated conditions or therapy...
August 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801366/fullerenes-may-cause-eif-mediated-perturbation-in-translational-machinery-evidence-from-in-silico-analysis
#12
Sumbul Firdaus, Anupam Dhasmana, Mohd Wahid, Arshad Jawed, Raju K Mandal, Sajad A Dar, Mohammed Y Areeshi, Mohtashim Lohani, Shafiul Haque
GOALS: Fullerenes have tremendous potential for human biological studies which may further lead to their therapeutic applications. Hence, it has become necessary to explore the possibility of their interference with various important cellular processes. The current study was designed to explore how the presence of fullerenes can affect the binding of DNA with different enzymes and factors involved in transcription and translation process. METHODS: Various bioinformatics approaches and software programs were used to study the effect of fullerenes on the binding pattern of DNA with different enzymes and factors involved in transcription and translation process...
August 2017: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800788/mir-204-regulates-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-by-targeting-ephb2-in-human-cervical-cancer
#13
Shanhong Duan, Ali Wu, Zhengyu Chen, Yarong Yang, Liying Liu, Qi Shu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that involved in human carcinogenesis and progression. miR-204 has been reported to be a tumor suppressor in several cancer types. However, the function and underlying molecular mechanism of miR-204 in cervical cancer (CC) are still unclear. In the present study, the expression level of miR-204 was measured using qRT-PCR method in 30 paired CC clinical samples and 6 CC cell lines. We found that the expression of miR-204 was significantly down-regulated in CC tissues and cell lines compared to normal cervical tissues and cell line...
August 11, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800606/whole-exome-sequencing-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-patients-with-ciliopathy-like-phenotypes
#14
Sheila Castro-Sánchez, María Álvarez-Satta, Mohamed A Tohamy, Sergi Beltran, Sophia Derdak, Diana Valverde
Ciliopathies are a group of rare disorders characterized by a high genetic and phenotypic variability, which complicates their molecular diagnosis. Hence the need to use the latest powerful approaches to faster identify the genetic defect in these patients. We applied whole exome sequencing to six consanguineous families clinically diagnosed with ciliopathy-like disease, and for which mutations in predominant Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) genes had previously been excluded. Our strategy, based on first applying several filters to ciliary variants and using many of the bioinformatics tools available, allowed us to identify causal mutations in BBS2, ALMS1 and CRB1 genes in four families, thus confirming the molecular diagnosis of ciliopathy...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797473/biomarker-research-to-improve-clinical-outcomes-of-peritoneal-dialysis-consensus-of-the-european-training-and-research-in-peritoneal-dialysis-eutripd-network
#15
REVIEW
Christoph Aufricht, Robert Beelen, Matthias Eberl, Michel Fischbach, Donald Fraser, Achim Jörres, Klaus Kratochwill, Manuel LópezCabrera, Peter Rutherford, Claus-Peter Schmitt, Nicholas Topley, Janusz Witowski
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy substantially requires biomarkers as tools to identify patients who are at the highest risk for PD-related complications and to guide personalized interventions that may improve clinical outcome in the individual patient. In this consensus article, members of the European Training and Research in Peritoneal Dialysis Network (EuTRiPD) review the current status of biomarker research in PD and suggest a selection of biomarkers that can be relevant to the care of PD patients and that are directly accessible in PD effluents...
August 8, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796263/mir-30c-regulates-cisplatin-induced-apoptosis-of-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-by-targeting-bnip3l-and-hspa5
#16
Bin Du, Xiao-Meng Dai, Shuang Li, Guo-Long Qi, Guang-Xu Cao, Ying Zhong, Pei-di Yin, Xue-Song Yang
As a common anticancer drug, cisplatin has been widely used for treating tumors in the clinic. However, its side effects, especially its nephrotoxicity, noticeably restrict the application of cisplatin. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate the mechanism of renal injury and explore the corresponding remedies. In this study, we showed the phenotypes of the renal tubules and epithelial cell death as well as elevated cleaved-caspase3- and TUNEL-positive cells in rats intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin...
August 10, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792086/functional-redundancy-of-division-specific-penicillin-binding-proteins-in-bacillus-subtilis
#17
Jad Sassine, Meizhu Xu, Karzan R Sidiq, Robyn Emmins, Jeff Errington, Richard A Daniel
Bacterial cell division involves the dynamic assembly of a diverse set of proteins that coordinate the invagination of the cell membrane and synthesis of cell wall material to create the new cell poles of the separated daughter cells. Pencillin-binding protein PBP 2B is a key cell division protein in Bacillus subtilis proposed to have a specific catalytic role in septal wall synthesis. Unexpectedly, we find that a catalytically inactive mutant of PBP 2B supports cell division, but in this background the normally dispensable PBP 3 becomes essential...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791125/nkg2c-memory-like-nk-cells-contribute-to-the-control-of-hiv-viremia-during-primary-infection-optiprim-anrs-147
#18
Françoise Gondois-Rey, Antoine Chéret, Samuel Granjeaud, Françoise Mallet, Ghislain Bidaut, Camille Lécuroux, Mickaël Ploquin, Michaela Müller-Trutwin, Christine Rouzioux, Véronique Avettand-Fenoël, Alessandro Moretta, Gilles Pialoux, Cécile Goujard, Laurence Meyer, Daniel Olive
Natural-killer (NK) cells are important immune effectors during a viral infection. Latent CMV infection is widely spread and was demonstrated to shape the NK cell repertoire through the NKG2C receptor. An expansion of NKG2C(+) NK cells has been reported during primary HIV infection (PHI), but their role is not known. We previously found a correlation between the maturation state of the NK cell compartment and a lower viral load by studying patients from the ANRS 147 Optiprim trial. We investigated here extensively the NKG2C(+) NK cells at the time of PHI and its evolution after 3 months of early antiretroviral therapy (combination antiretroviral therapy (cART))...
July 2017: Clinical & Translational Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782984/review-of-clinical-next-generation-sequencing
#19
Sophia Yohe, Bharat Thyagarajan
CONTEXT: - Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a technology being used by many laboratories to test for inherited disorders and tumor mutations. This technology is new for many practicing pathologists, who may not be familiar with the uses, methodology, and limitations of NGS. OBJECTIVE: - To familiarize pathologists with several aspects of NGS, including current and expanding uses; methodology including wet bench aspects, bioinformatics, and interpretation; validation and proficiency; limitations; and issues related to the integration of NGS data into patient care...
August 7, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782482/drug-combination-in-clinical-cancer-treatments
#20
Da-Yong Lu, Ting-Ren Lu, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Hong-Ying Wu, Bin Xu, Jian Ding, Hong Zhu
AIM: The modality of anticancer drug combinations needs to be renovated from empirical into technical-supportive systems. METHODS: To challenge past therapeutic routines, the new landscape may be established. Among the different areas of anticancer drug combination study, research in the fields of medical study is the most important one-including disciplinary of therapeutics in different cancer stages, modern genetic/molecular diagnostics, cancer bioinformatics, traditional Chinese medicine, mathematical data analysis, therapeutic toxicity monitor, personalized cancer medicine and so on...
August 3, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
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