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time series and autism

Alison D Cox, Javier Virues-Ortega, Flavia Julio, Toby L Martin
Excessive motion makes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) extremely challenging among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The medical risks of sedation establish the need for behavioral interventions to promote motion control among children with ASD undergoing MRI scans. We present a series of experiments aimed at establishing both tolerance of the MRI environment and a level of motion control that would be compatible with a successful MRI. During Study 1, we evaluated the effects of prompting and contingent reinforcement on compliance with a sequence of successive approximations to an MRI using a mock MRI...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Kathy Thiemann-Bourque, Nancy Brady, Sara McGuff, Keenan Stump, Amy Naylor
Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a social intervention that integrates peer-mediated approaches and the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Method: Effects were evaluated using a series of A-B designs replicated across 4 children with severe autism and limited verbal skills. Seven peers without disabilities were trained to use PECS and facilitative social skills. Measures of changes included rates of communication behaviors, modes, functions, and engagement...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Beth A Earhart, Marian E Williams, Irina Zamora, Linda Marie Randolph, Jodie K Votava-Smith, Stephanie N Marcy
Duplication 7q11.23 syndrome is the reciprocal of Williams-Beuren deletion syndrome. Studies have reported a recognizable phenotype, including autism, intellectual disability, speech, and language delay, social anxiety, and behavioral difficulties in these individuals. Previous studies revealed a variety of craniofacial abnormalities, brain malformations, and cardiac abnormalities, including aortic dilation. This patient series evaluates five family members aged 2 months to 35 years, all with confirmed 7q11...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Vigneshwaran Subbaraju, Mahanand Belathur Suresh, Suresh Sundaram, Sundararajan Narasimhan
This paper presents a new approach for detecting major differences in brain activities between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) patients and neurotypical subjects using the resting state fMRI. Further the method also extracts discriminative features for an accurate diagnosis of ASD. The proposed approach determines a spatial filter that projects the covariance matrices of the Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) time-series signals from both the ASD patients and neurotypical subjects in orthogonal directions such that they are highly separable...
August 23, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Evie Malaia, Erik Bates, Benjamin Seitzman, Katherine Coppess
The heterogeneity of behavioral manifestation of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) requires a model which incorporates understanding of dynamic differences in neural processing between ASD and typically developing (TD) populations. We use network approach to characterization of spatiotemporal dynamics of EEG data in TD and ASD youths. EEG recorded during both wakeful rest (resting state) and a social-visual task was analyzed using cross-correlation analysis of the 32-channel time series to produce weighted, undirected graphs corresponding to functional brain networks...
July 27, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Patrick D Skosnik, Jose A Cortes-Briones
Despite major advances in our understanding of the brain using traditional neuroscience, reliable and efficacious treatments for drug addiction have remained elusive. Hence, the time has come to utilize novel approaches, particularly those drawing upon contemporary advances in fields outside of established neuroscience and psychiatry. Put another way, the time has come for a paradigm shift in the addiction sciences. Apropos, a revolution in the area of human health is underway, which is occurring at the nexus between enteric microbiology and neuroscience...
August 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Raffaella Devescovi, Lorenzo Monasta, Alice Mancini, Maura Bin, Valerio Vellante, Marco Carrozzi, Costanza Colombi
BACKGROUND: Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. METHODS: Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20-36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents' and teachers' active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Felipe Pegado, Hendrik Vankrunkelsven, Jean Steyaert, Bart Boets, Hans Op de Beeck
Is it possible to passively induce visual learning/unlearning in humans for complex stimuli such as faces? We addressed this question in a series of behavioral studies using passive visual stimulation (flickering of faces at specific temporal frequencies) inspired by well-known synaptic mechanisms of learning: long-term potentiation (LTP) vs long-term depression (LTD). We administered a face identity change detection task before and after a passive stimulation protocol to test for potential changes in visual performance...
2016: PloS One
John T Rapp, Jennifer L Cook, Catherine McHugh, Kathryn R Mann
We conducted a series of studies on multiple forms of repetitive behavior displayed by four children with autism spectrum disorder. Study 1 showed that each participant's highest probability repetitive behavior persisted in the absence of social consequences, thereby meeting the functional definition of stereotypy. Study 2 showed that preferred, structurally matched stimulation decreased each participant's targeted (highest probability) stereotypy, as well as their non-targeted (lower probability) stereotypy...
June 7, 2016: Behavior Modification
Philippa Fibert, Clare Relton, Morag Heirs, Deborah Bowden
UNLABELLED: 20 consecutively enrolled children age 5-16 with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) received treatment by a homeopath (8 consultations and individualized remedies) for one year. Ten subsequently enrolled children received similar time and attention for 4 months. The study explored optimum treatment protocols; the effectiveness, deliverability and acceptability of treatment; and the feasibility of outcome measurement and recruitment. Parents completed Conners' Parent Rating Scale, Revised Long Version ( CPRS-R: L) every 4 months, from which DSMIV total scores were extracted; and Measure Your Own Medical Outcome Profile (MYMOP) every consultation...
May 2016: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Christine Wu Nordahl, Melissa Mello, Audrey M Shen, Mark D Shen, Laurie A Vismara, Deana Li, Kayla Harrington, Costin Tanase, Beth Goodlin-Jones, Sally Rogers, Leonard Abbeduto, David G Amaral
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used in studies evaluating the neuropathology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies are often limited, however, to higher functioning individuals with ASD. MRI studies of individuals with ASD and comorbid intellectual disability (ID) are lacking, due in part to the challenges of acquiring images without the use of sedation. METHODS: Utilizing principles of applied behavior analysis (ABA), we developed a protocol for acquiring structural MRI scans in school-aged children with ASD and intellectual impairment...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Lei Shi, Zhe Zhang, Bing Su
There are many differences in brain structure and function between males and females. However, how these differences were manifested during development and maintained through adulthood are still unclear. Here we present a time series analyses of genome-wide transcription profiles of the human brain, and we identified genes showing sex biased expression at major developmental stages (prenatal time, early childhood, puberty time and adulthood). We observed a great number of genes (>2,000 genes) showing between-sex expression divergence at all developmental stages with the greatest number (4,164 genes) at puberty time...
2016: Scientific Reports
Paul A Constable, Sebastian B Gaigg, Dermot M Bowler, Herbert Jägle, Dorothy A Thompson
PURPOSE: To explore early findings that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have reduced scotopic ERG b-wave amplitudes. METHODS: Light-adapted (LA) and dark-adapted (DA) ERGs were produced by a range of flash strengths that included and extended the ISCEV standard from two subject groups: a high-functioning ASD group N = 11 and a Control group N = 15 for DA and N = 14 for LA ERGs who were matched for mean age and range. Flash strengths ranged from DA -4...
April 2016: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
Ming Ming Chiu, Carly A Roberts
This project identifies some difficulties when analyzing single-case data and showcases a new method, dynamic multilevel analysis (DMA). We re-analyze a published, meta-analysis of single-case interventions for participants with autism. Analytic difficulties include missing data, nested data, baseline trends, time periods, recency effects, many hypotheses' false positives, interactions among explanatory variables, indirect effects (including false negatives), and sampling errors. Furthermore, non-overlapping analyses can yield contested results, overvalue data near overlap boundaries, lose statistical power, and lack estimates of explained variance or unexplained residuals...
February 10, 2016: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
Chong-Yaw Wee, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
INTRODUCTION: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) is dynamic in nature as neural activities constantly change over the time and are dominated by repeating brief activations and deactivations involving many brain regions. Each region participates in multiple brain functions and is part of various functionally distinct but spatially overlapping networks. Functional connectivity computed as correlations over the entire time series always overlooks interregion interactions that often occur repeatedly and dynamically in time, limiting its application to disease diagnosis...
March 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Anish Mitra, Abraham Z Snyder, John N Constantino, Marcus E Raichle
The behaviors that define autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been hypothesized to result from disordered communication within brain networks. Several groups have investigated this question using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). However, the published findings to date have been inconsistent across laboratories. Prior RS-fMRI studies of ASD have employed conventional analysis techniques based on the assumption that intrinsic brain activity is exactly synchronous over widely separated parts of the brain...
December 9, 2015: Cerebral Cortex
Carlo Catassi
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome characterized by intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms related to the ingestion of gluten-containing food in subjects who are not affected by either celiac disease (CD) or wheat allergy (WA). The prevalence of NCGS is not clearly defined yet. Indirect evidence suggests that NCGS is slightly more common than CD, the latter affecting around 1% of the general population. NCGS has been mostly described in adults, particularly in females in the age group of 30-50 years; however, pediatric case series have also been reported...
2015: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
Alison R McNeil, Sam N Jolley, Adesanya A Akinleye, Marat Nurilov, Zulekha Rouzyi, Austin J Milunovich, Moria C Chambers, Anne F Simon
The social space assay described here can be used to quantify social interactions of Drosophila melanogaster - or other small insects - in a straightforward manner. As we previously demonstrated (1), in a two-dimensional chamber, we first force the flies to form a tight group, subsequently allowing them to take their preferred distance from each other. After the flies have settled, we measure the distance to the closest neighbor (or social space), processing a static picture with free online software (ImageJ)...
November 5, 2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
H Steiner, Zs Kertesz
We studied effects of therapeutic riding on the development of children with autism. Experiments in walking is appropriate for assessing the coordination of movement and for following the changes. We found that therapeutic riding should be considered as a new form of rehabilitation. Twenty-six pupils (12 boys and 14 girls) of a special needs school participated in therapeutic riding. We analyzed walking twice during a school-term: full body analyses each time before and after one-month therapy. The research included a non-riding control group...
September 2015: Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Flavio H Beraldo, Anu Thomas, Benjamin Kolisnyk, Pedro H Hirata, Xavier De Jaeger, Amanda C Martyn, Jue Fan, Daniela F Goncalves, Matthew F Cowan, Talal Masood, Vilma R Martins, Robert Gros, Vania F Prado, Marco A M Prado
Stress-inducible phosphoprotein I (STIP1, STI1 or HOP) is a co-chaperone intermediating Hsp70/Hsp90 exchange of client proteins, but it can also be secreted to trigger prion protein-mediated neuronal signaling. Some mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) present antibodies against certain brain proteins, including antibodies against STIP1. Maternal antibodies can cross the fetus blood-brain barrier during pregnancy, suggesting the possibility that they can interfere with STIP1 levels and, presumably, functions...
November 2015: Disease Models & Mechanisms
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