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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104967/identifying-autism-from-resting-state-fmri-using-long-short-term-memory-networks
#1
Nicha C Dvornek, Pamela Ventola, Kevin A Pelphrey, James S Duncan
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has helped characterize the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and carries promise for producing objective biomarkers for ASD. Recent work has focused on deriving ASD biomarkers from resting-state functional connectivity measures. However, current efforts that have identified ASD with high accuracy were limited to homogeneous, small datasets, while classification results for heterogeneous, multi-site data have shown much lower accuracy. In this paper, we propose the use of recurrent neural networks with long short-term memory (LSTMs) for classification of individuals with ASD and typical controls directly from the resting-state fMRI time-series...
September 2017: Machine Learning in Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028371/from-social-media-to-mainstream-news-the-information-flow-of-the-vaccine-autism-controversy-in-the-us-canada-and-the-uk
#2
S Mo Jang, Brooke W Mckeever, Robert Mckeever, Joon Kyoung Kim
Despite increasing warnings about inaccurate information online, little is known about how social media contribute to the widespread diffusion of unverified health information. This study addresses this issue by examining the vaccine-autism controversy. By looking into a large dataset of Twitter, Reddit posts, and online news over 20 months in the US, Canada, and the UK, our time-series analysis shows that Twitter drives news agendas, and Reddit follows news agendas regarding the vaccine-autism debate. Additionally, the results show that both Twitter and Reddit are more likely to discuss the vaccine-autism link compared to online news content...
October 13, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887386/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-restricts-small-dye-iontophoresis-entry-into-central-neurons
#3
Tyler Kennedy, Kendal Broadie
Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) loss causes Fragile X syndrome (FXS), a major disorder characterized by autism, intellectual disability, hyperactivity, and seizures. FMRP is both an RNA- and channel-binding regulator, with critical roles in neural circuit formation and function. However, it remains unclear how these FMRP activities relate to each other and how dysfunction in their absence underlies FXS neurological symptoms. In testing circuit level defects in the Drosophila FXS model, we discovered a completely unexpected and highly robust neuronal dye iontophoresis phenotype in the well mapped giant fiber (GF) circuit...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770039/globally-weaker-and-topologically-different-resting-state-connectivity-in-youth-with-autism
#4
Benjamin E Yerys, John D Herrington, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Lisa Guy, Robert T Schultz, Danielle S Bassett
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of agreement about functional connectivity differences in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies using absolute strength have found reduced connectivity, while those using relative strength--a measure of system topology--reveal mostly enhanced connectivity. We hypothesized that mixed findings may be driven by the metric of functional connectivity. METHODS: Resting-state echo planar 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired on a Siemens Verio Scanner from 6 to 17-year-old youth with ASD (n = 81) and a matched typically developing control group (n = 82)...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747892/how-useful-is-electroencephalography-in-the-diagnosis-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-the-delineation-of-subtypes-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Oana Gurau, William J Bosl, Charles R Newton
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are thought to be associated with abnormal neural connectivity. Presently, neural connectivity is a theoretical construct that cannot be easily measured. Research in network science and time series analysis suggests that neural network structure, a marker of neural activity, can be measured with electroencephalography (EEG). EEG can be quantified by different methods of analysis to potentially detect brain abnormalities. The aim of this review is to examine evidence for the utility of three methods of EEG signal analysis in the ASD diagnosis and subtype delineation...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724436/expanding-the-phenotype-of-reciprocal-1q21-1-deletions-and-duplications-a-case-series
#6
Martina Busè, Helenia C Cuttaia, Daniela Palazzo, Marcella V Mazara, Salvatrice A Lauricella, Michela Malacarne, Mauro Pierluigi, Simona Cavani, Maria Piccione
BACKGROUND: Recurrent reciprocal 1q21.1 deletions and duplications have been associated with variable phenotypes. Phenotypic features described in association with 1q21.1 microdeletions include developmental delay, craniofacial dysmorphism and congenital anomalies. The 1q21.1 reciprocal duplication has been associated with macrocephaly or relative macrocephaly, frontal bossing, hypertelorism, developmental delay, intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorder. METHODS: Our study describes seven patients, who were referred to us for developmental delay/intellectual disability, dysmorphic features and, in some cases, congenital anomalies, in whom we identified 1q21...
July 19, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700580/infant-viewing-of-social-scenes-is-under-genetic-control-and-is-atypical-in-autism
#7
John N Constantino, Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Claire Weichselbaum, Natasha Marrus, Alyzeh Haider, Anne L Glowinski, Scott Gillespie, Cheryl Klaiman, Ami Klin, Warren Jones
Long before infants reach, crawl or walk, they explore the world by looking: they look to learn and to engage, giving preferential attention to social stimuli, including faces, face-like stimuli and biological motion. This capacity-social visual engagement-shapes typical infant development from birth and is pathognomonically impaired in children affected by autism. Here we show that variation in viewing of social scenes, including levels of preferential attention and the timing, direction and targeting of individual eye movements, is strongly influenced by genetic factors, with effects directly traceable to the active seeking of social information...
July 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694615/prevalence-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-among-rural-urban-and-tribal-children-1-10-years-of-age
#8
Sunil Kumar Raina, Vishav Chander, Ashok K Bhardwaj, Dinesh Kumar, Seema Sharma, Vipasha Kashyap, Mitasha Singh, Amit Bhardwaj
INTRODUCTION: Studies on autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have largely focused on children in specific settings. The current scenario of research in ASDs is limited largely to clinic-based case reports, case series, and retrospective chart reviews. The present study is the first population-based prevalence study conducted across rural, urban, and tribal populations in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional two-phase study was conducted covering children in the age group of 1-10 years of age across geographical regions representing rural, urban, and tribal populations...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661076/identification-of-lateralized-compensatory-neural-activities-within-the-social-brain-due-to-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-adolescent-males
#9
Vigneshwaran Subbaraju, Suresh Sundaram, Sundararajan Narasimhan
Socio-behavioral impairments are important characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and MRI-based studies are pursued to identify a neurobiological basis behind these conditions. This paper presents an MRI-based study undertaken to (i) identify the differences in brain activities due to ASD, (ii) verify whether such differences exist within the 'social brain' circuit which is hypothesized to be responsible for social functions, and (iii) uncover potential compensatory mechanisms within the identified differences in brain activities...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604031/spontaneous-gaze-selection-and-following-during-naturalistic-social-interactions-in-school-aged-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#10
Elina Birmingham, Krista Haley Smith Johnston, Grace Iarocci
Using a novel naturalistic paradigm allowing participants the freedom to spontaneously select and follow gaze cues in their environment, this study extends previous research conducted with younger children to determine whether school-age children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD, n = 17) demonstrate abnormal gaze following relative to typically developing (TD, n = 15) children. The participant and experimenter played a series of games, during which the experimenter pseudorandomly averted her gaze toward a social target (person) or a nonsocial target (object)...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586822/sign-language-echolalia-in-deaf-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#11
Aaron Shield, Frances Cooley, Richard P Meier
Purpose: We present the first study of echolalia in deaf, signing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigate the nature and prevalence of sign echolalia in native-signing children with ASD, the relationship between sign echolalia and receptive language, and potential modality differences between sign and speech. Method: Seventeen deaf children with ASD and 18 typically developing (TD) deaf children were video-recorded in a series of tasks. Data were coded for type of signs produced (spontaneous, elicited, echo, or nonecho repetition)...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284567/the-analysis-of-three-dimensional-ground-reaction-forces-during-gait-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Che Zawiyah Che Hasan, Rozita Jailani, Nooritawati Md Tahir, Suryani Ilias
Minimal information is known about the three-dimensional (3D) ground reaction forces (GRF) on the gait patterns of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the 3D GRF components differ significantly between children with ASD and the peer controls. 15 children with ASD and 25 typically developing (TD) children had participated in the study. Two force plates were used to measure the 3D GRF data during walking. Time-series parameterization techniques were employed to extract 17 discrete features from the 3D GRF waveforms...
March 9, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120370/modelling-gesture-use-and-early-language-development-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
Stacy S Manwaring, Danielle L Mead, Lauren Swineford, Audrey Thurm
BACKGROUND: Nonverbal communication abilities, including gesture use, are impaired in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, little is known about how common gestures may influence or be influenced by other areas of development. AIMS: To examine the relationships between gesture, fine motor and language in young children with ASD compared with a comparison group using multiple measures and methods in a structural equation modelling framework. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Participants included 110 children with ASD and a non-ASD comparison group of 87 children (that included children with developmental delays (DD) or typical development (TD)), from 12 to 48 months of age...
September 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933108/postural-orientation-and-equilibrium-processes-associated-with-increased-postural-sway-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#14
Zheng Wang, Rami R Hallac, Kaitlin C Conroy, Stormi P White, Alex A Kane, Amy L Collinsworth, John A Sweeney, Matthew W Mosconi
BACKGROUND: Increased postural sway has been repeatedly documented in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Characterizing the control processes underlying this deficit, including postural orientation and equilibrium, may provide key insights into neurophysiological mechanisms associated with ASD. Postural orientation refers to children's ability to actively align their trunk and head with respect to their base of support, while postural equilibrium is an active process whereby children coordinate ankle dorsi-/plantar-flexion and hip abduction/adduction movements to stabilize their upper body...
2016: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885946/epilepsy-surgery-in-patients-with-autism
#15
Malgosia A Kokoszka, Patricia E McGoldrick, Maite La Vega-Talbott, Hillary Raynes, Christina A Palmese, Steven M Wolf, Cynthia L Harden, Saadi Ghatan
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to report outcomes of epilepsy surgery in 56 consecutive patients with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS Medical records of 56 consecutive patients with autism who underwent epilepsy surgery were reviewed with regard to clinical characteristics, surgical management, postoperative seizure control, and behavioral changes. RESULTS Of the 56 patients with autism, 39 were male, 45 were severely autistic, 27 had a history of clinically significant levels of aggression and other disruptive behaviors, and 30 were considered nonverbal at baseline...
February 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869148/motor-noise-is-rich-signal-in-autism-research-and-pharmacological-treatments
#16
E B Torres, K Denisova
The human body is in constant motion, from every breath that we take, to every visibly purposeful action that we perform. Remaining completely still on command is a major achievement as involuntary fluctuations in our motions are difficult to keep under control. Here we examine the noise-to-signal ratio of micro-movements present in time-series of head motions extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans in 1048 participants. These included individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and healthy-controls in shared data from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) and the Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-200) databases...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857688/modulation-plasticity-and-pathophysiology-of-the-parallel-fiber-purkinje-cell-synapse
#17
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Filippo Tempia, Pellegrino Lippiello, Maria Concetta Miniaci
The parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse represents the point of maximal signal divergence in the cerebellar cortex with an estimated number of about 60 billion synaptic contacts in the rat and 100,000 billions in humans. At the same time, the Purkinje cell dendritic tree is a site of remarkable convergence of more than 100,000 parallel fiber synapses. Parallel fiber activity generates fast postsynaptic currents via α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, and slower signals, mediated by mGlu1 receptors, resulting in Purkinje cell depolarization accompanied by sharp calcium elevation within dendritic regions...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825584/autism-in-patients-with-propionic-acidemia
#18
Peter Witters, Eric Debbold, Kea Crivelly, Kristel Vande Kerckhove, Karen Corthouts, Brett Debbold, Hans Andersson, Lena Vannieuwenborg, Sam Geuens, Matthias Baumgartner, Tamas Kozicz, Lisa Settles, Eva Morava
Certain inborn errors of metabolism have been suggested to increase the risk of autistic behavior. In an animal model, propionic acid ingestion triggered abnormal behavior resembling autism. So far only a few cases were reported with propionic acidemia and autistic features. From a series of twelve consecutively diagnosed cases with propionic acidemia, we report on eight patients with autistic features. The patients were followed 2-4 times a year and underwent regular clinical, dietary and laboratory investigations...
December 2016: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739580/establishing-motion-control-in-children-with-autism-and-intellectual-disability-applications-for-anatomical-and-functional-mri
#19
Alison D Cox, Javier Virues-Ortega, Flavia Julio, Toby L Martin
Excessive motion makes magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) extremely challenging among children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The medical risks of sedation establish the need for behavioral interventions to promote motion control among children with ASD undergoing MRI scans. We present a series of experiments aimed at establishing both tolerance of the MRI environment and a level of motion control that would be compatible with a successful MRI. During Study 1, we evaluated the effects of prompting and contingent reinforcement on compliance with a sequence of successive approximations to an MRI using a mock MRI...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679841/picture-exchange-communication-system-and-pals-a-peer-mediated-augmentative-and-alternative-communication-intervention-for-minimally-verbal-preschoolers-with-autism
#20
Kathy Thiemann-Bourque, Nancy Brady, Sara McGuff, Keenan Stump, Amy Naylor
Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of a social intervention that integrates peer-mediated approaches and the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Method: Effects were evaluated using a series of A-B designs replicated across 4 children with severe autism and limited verbal skills. Seven peers without disabilities were trained to use PECS and facilitative social skills. Measures of changes included rates of communication behaviors, modes, functions, and engagement...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
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