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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917185/ghrelin-and-hypothalamic-npy-agrp-expression-in-mice-are-affected-by-chronic-early-life-stress-exposure-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#1
K Y Yam, S R Ruigrok, I Ziko, S N De Luca, P J Lucassen, S J Spencer, A Korosi
Early-life stress (ES) is a risk factor for metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity) with a notoriously higher prevalence in women compared to men. However, mechanisms underlying these effects remain elusive. The development of the hypothalamic feeding and metabolic regulatory circuits occurs mostly in the early sensitive postnatal phase in rodents and is tightly regulated by the metabolic hormones leptin and ghrelin. We have previously demonstrated that chronic ES reduces circulating leptin and alters adipose tissue metabolism early and later in life similarly in both sexes...
September 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915322/hormonal-regulation-of-adipogenesis
#2
Mi-Jeong Lee
Adipose tissue includes multiple anatomical depots that serve as an energy reserve that can expand or contract to maintain metabolic homeostasis. During normal growth and in response to overnutrition, adipose tissue expands by increasing the volume of preexisting adipocytes (hypertrophy) and/or by generating new adipocytes (hyperplasia) via recruitment and differentiation of adipose progenitors. This so-called healthy expansion through hyperplasia is thought to be beneficial in that it protects against obesity associated metabolic disorders by allowing for the "safe" storage of excess energy...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915217/estradiol-modulates-local-gut-injury-induced-by-intestinal-ischemia-reperfusion-in-male-rats
#3
Fernanda Yamamoto Ricardo-da-Silva, Evelyn Thaís Fantozzi, Sara Rodrigues-Garbin, Ricardo Martins Oliveira-Filho, Bernardo Boris Vargaftig, Ana Cristina Breithaupt-Faloppa, Wothan Tavares de Lima
Intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) triggers a systemic inflammatory response characterized by leukocyte mobilization from the bone marrow, release of cytokines to the circulation, and increased microvascular permeability, leading to high mortality. Females have shown attenuated inflammatory response to trauma when compared with males, indicating a role for female sex hormones in this process. Here, we have evaluated the effect of estradiol on the local gut injury induced by I/R in male rats. I/R was induced by the clamping of the superior mesenteric artery for 45 min, followed by 2 h of reperfusion...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914984/hypercalcemic-disorders-in-children
#4
REVIEW
Victoria J Stokes, Morten F Nielsen, Fadil M Hannan, Rajesh V Thakker
Hypercalcemia is defined as a serum calcium concentration that is greater than 2 standard deviations above the normal mean, which in children may vary with age and sex, reflecting changes in the normal physiology at each developmental stage. Hypercalcemic disorders in children may present with hypotonia, poor feeding, vomiting, constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, polyuria, dehydration, failure to thrive and seizures. In severe cases renal failure, pancreatitis and reduced consciousness may also occur and older children and adolescents may present with psychiatric symptoms...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914503/testosterone-therapy-preserves-muscle-strength-and-power-in-aging-men-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
L V Magnussen, L G Hvid, A P Hermann, D M Hougaard, B Gram, P Caserotti, M S Andersen
The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether testosterone replacement therapy improves muscle mechanical and physical function in addition to increasing lean leg mass and total lean body mass in aging men with type 2 diabetes and lowered bio-available testosterone (BioT) levels. Thirty-nine men aged 50-70 years with type 2 diabetes and BioT levels <7.3 nmol/L were included from an academic tertiary-care medical center. Patients were randomized to testosterone gel (testosterone replacement therapy, n = 20) or placebo (n = 19) for 24 weeks, applying a double-blinded design...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914501/andrology-of-male-to-female-transsexuals-influence-of-cross-sex-hormone-therapy-on-testicular-function
#6
REVIEW
F Schneider, S Kliesch, S Schlatt, N Neuhaus
Patients with gender dysphoria are offered cross-sex hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery to achieve the transition between the sex assigned at birth and gender identity. According to international guidelines, cross-sex hormone therapy in trans-women should lead to a psychologically and physiologically healthy body with feminized serum hormone levels, resulting in suppression of spermatogenesis. However, in a recently published multi-center study, we discovered a high proportion of patients with male serum hormone levels and qualitatively intact spermatogenesis on the day of sex reassignment surgery...
September 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914051/chromosome-centric-human-proteome-project-allies-with-developmental-biology-a-case-study-of-the-role-of-y-chromosome-genes-in-organ-development
#7
Anna Meyfour, Paria Pooyan, Sara Pahlavan, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Hamid Gourabi, Hossein Baharvand, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
One of the main goals of Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Project is to identify protein evidence for missing proteins (MPs). Here, we present a case study of the role of Y chromosome genes in organ development and how to overcome the challenges facing MPs identification by employing human pluripotent stem cell differentiation into cells of different organs yielding unprecedented biological insight into adult silenced proteins. Y chromosome is a male-specific sex chromosome which escapes meiotic recombination...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912783/sex-differences-in-asthma-a-key-role-of-androgen-signaling-in-group-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#8
REVIEW
Sophie Laffont, Eve Blanquart, Jean-Charles Guéry
Infectious diseases, autoimmune diseases, and also allergy differentially affect women and men. In general, women develop strongest immune responses and thus the proportion of infected individuals and the severity of many viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections are increased in men. However, heightened immunity in women makes them more susceptible than men to autoimmunity and allergy. While sex differences in immunity are well documented, little is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these immunological differences, particularly in allergic asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912339/reproductive-and-metabolic-features-during-puberty-in-sons-of-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#9
Nicolas Crisosto, Barbara Echiburú, Manuel Maliqueo, Marta Luchsinger, Pedro Rojas, Sergio Recabarren, Teresa Sir-Petermann
CONTEXT: Intrauterine life may be implicated in the origin of polycystic cvary syndrome (PCOS) modifying the endocrine and metabolic function of children born to PCOS mothers independently of the genetic inheritance and gender. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the reproductive and metabolic function in sons of women with PCOS during puberty. METHODS: Sixty nine PCOSs and 84 control sons (Cs) 7 to 18 years old matched by Tanner stage score were studied...
September 14, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912255/sex-hormones-and-the-development-of-sexual-size-dimorphism-dihydrotestosterone-inhibits-growth-in-a-female-larger-lizard-sceloporus-undulatus
#10
Nicholas B Pollock, Stephanie Feigin, Marko Drazenovic, Henry B John-Alder
Sexual differences in adult body size (sexual size dimorphism; SSD) and color (sexual dichromatism) are widespread, and both male- and female-biased dimorphisms are observed even among closely related species. A growing body of evidence indicates testosterone (T) can regulate growth, thus the development of SSD, and sexual dichromatism. However, the mechanism(s) underlying these effects are conjectural, including possible conversions of T to estradiol (E2) or 5 α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In the present study, we hypothesized that effects of T are physiological responses mediated by androgen receptors, and we tested two specific predictions: 1) that DHT would mimic effects of T by inhibiting growth and enhancing coloration, and 2) that removal of endogenous T via surgical castration would stimulate growth...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912031/hormones-and-the-coolidge-effect
#11
REVIEW
Elisa Ventura-Aquino, Alonso Fernández-Guasti, Raúl G Paredes
The Coolidge effect is the renewal of sexual behavior after the presentation of a novel sexual partner and possibly occurs as the result of habituation and dishabituation processes. This re-motivation to copulate is well studied in males and is commonly related to sexual satiety, which involves several neurobiological changes in steroid receptors and their mRNA expression in the CNS. On the other hand, there are few reports studying sexual novelty in females and have been limited to behavioral aspects. Here we report that the levels of rat proceptive behavior, a sign of sexual motivation, declines after 4 h of continuous mating, particularly in females that were unable to regulate the time of mating...
September 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912012/the-effects-of-aerobic-exercise-on-depression-like-anxiety-like-and-cognition-like-behaviours-over-the-healthy-adult-lifespan-of-c57bl-6-mice
#12
Julie A Morgan, Gaurav Singhal, Frances Corrigan, Emily J Jaehne, Magdalene C Jawahar, Bernhard T Baune
Preclinical studies have demonstrated exercise improves various types of behaviours such as anxiety-like, depression-like, and cognition-like behaviours. However, these findings were largely conducted in studies utilising short-term exercise protocols, and the effects of lifetime exercise on these behaviours remain unknown. This study investigates the behavioural effects of lifetime exercise in normal healthy aging C57BL/6 mice over the adult lifespan. 12 week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel running or non-exercise (control) groups...
September 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911998/establishing-age-specific-reference-intervals-for-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-in-adult-chinese-women-based-on-a-multicenter-population
#13
Xinqi Cheng, Qiong Zhang, Min Liu, Shijun Li, Zhihua Tao, Kiyoshi Ichihara, Songlin Yu, Kai Zhang, Pengchang Li, Jianhua Han, Ling Qiu
AIM OF THIS STUDY: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is useful for the assessment of ovarian reserve and treatment of individualized in vitro fertilization (IVF). The aim of this study is to establish AMH reference interval for adult Chinese women on the Beckman Beckman DxI 800 platform. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From May to September 2013, serum from 1169 apparently healthy adult females from five representative cities in China (Beijing, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, Dalian and Urumqi) were collected, and AMH was analyzed on the platform of Beckman DxI 800 automated chemiluminescence immunoassay...
September 12, 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911267/the-behavioral-and-molecular-evaluation-of-effects-of-social-instability-stress-as-a-model-of-stress-related-disorders-in-adult-female-rats
#14
Marta Maria Nowacka-Chmielewska, Daniela Kasprowska-Liśkiewicz, Jarosław Jerzy Barski, Ewa Obuchowicz, Andrzej Małecki
The study aimed to test the hypotheses that chronic social instability stress (CSIS) alters behavioral and physiological parameters and expression of selected genes important for stress response and social behaviors. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to the 4-week CSIS procedure, which involves unpredictable rotation between phases of isolation and overcrowding. Behavioral analyses (Experiment 1) were performed on the same rats before and after CSIS (n = 16) and physiological and biochemical measurements (Experiment 2) were made on further control (CON; n = 7) and stressed groups (CSIS; n = 8)...
September 15, 2017: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911176/new-insights-into-the-role-of-estrogens-in-male-fertility-based-on-findings-in-aromatase-deficient-zebrafish
#15
Haipei Tang, Yu Chen, Yun Liu, Yike Yin, Gaofei Li, Yin Guo, Xiaochun Liu, Haoran Lin
It has been demonstrated that estrogens are indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Aromatase (encoded by CYP19) catalyzes the final step of estradiol biosynthesis. However, less is known about the role of aromatase in male fertility in nonmammalian species. Fish aromatase is encoded by two separate genes: the gonad-specific cyp19a1a and the brain-specific cyp19a1b. In a recent study, we used transcription activatorlike effector nucleases to systematically generate cyp19a1a and cyp19a1b mutant lines and a cyp19a1a;cyp19a1b double-mutant line in zebrafish and demonstrated that cyp19a1a was indispensable for sex differentiation...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911172/androgens-mediate-sex-dependent-gonadotropin-expression-during-late-prenatal-development-in-the-mouse
#16
Michael J Kreisman, Christopher I Song, Kathleen Yip, Bryony V Natale, David R Natale, Kellie M Breen
Central organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is initiated during fetal life. At this critical time, gonadal hormones mediate sex-specific development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which then dictates reproductive physiology and behavior in adulthood. Although studies have investigated the effects of prenatal androgens on central factors influencing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, the impact of fetal androgens on gonadotrope function has been overlooked. In the current study, we demonstrated that gonadotropin gene expression and protein production were robustly elevated in female mice compared with males during late fetal development and that this sex difference was dependent on fetal androgens...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911153/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-a-sex-dependent-predictor-of-aggressiveness-in-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas-sstr-and-sex-hormone-receptor-distribution-in-nfpa
#17
Kristin Astrid Øystese, Olivera Casar-Borota, Kjersti Ringvoll Normann, Manuela Zucknick, Jens Petter Berg, Jens Bollerslev
Context: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are fairly common and require a multidisciplinary approach. Reliable markers of a clinically aggressive course are lacking. Medical treatment is not available, and transsphenoidal surgery is the preferred primary treatment. Objective: We aimed to characterize the somatostatin, estrogen, and progesterone receptor distribution for NFPAs and compare it with factors of tumor aggressiveness. Design: Tumor samples for immunohistochemistry (n = 145) and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (n = 106) analyses of somatostatin receptor (SSTR) 1, SSTR2, SSTR3, SSTR5, estrogen receptor α (ERα), and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunoreactive score (IRS) and messenger RNA relative quantity and retrospectively compared with variables of aggressiveness...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911133/kisspeptin-is-a-novel-regulator-of-human-fetal-adrenocortical-development-and-function-a-finding-with-important-implications-for-the-human-fetoplacental-unit
#18
Harshini Katugampola, Peter J King, Sumana Chatterjee, Muriel Meso, Andrew J Duncan, John C Achermann, Leo Guasti, Lea Ghataore, Norman F Taylor, Rebecca Allen, Shemoon Marlene, Joseph Aquilina, Ali Abbara, Channa N Jaysena, Waljit S Dhillo, Leo Dunkel, Ulla Sankilampi, Helen L Storr
Context: The human fetal adrenal (HFA) is an integral component of the fetoplacental unit and important for the maintenance of pregnancy. Low kisspeptin levels during pregnancy are associated with miscarriage, and kisspeptin and its receptor are expressed in the HFA. However, the role of kisspeptin in fetal adrenal function remains unknown. Objective: To determine the role of kisspeptin in the developing HFA. Design: Experiments using H295R and primary HFA cells as in vitro models of the fetal adrenal...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910205/gender-differences-in-the-relationship-between-sex-hormone-deficiency-and-soft-drusen
#19
Han Jo Kwon, Seung Min Lee, Kang Yeun Pak, Sung Who Park, Ji Eun Lee, Ik Soo Byon
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between sex hormone deficiency and soft drusen in women and men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and fundus photographs of subjects who underwent a health screening for additional examination of climacterium and age-related changes including sex hormone status. In women, sex hormone deficiency was defined as cessation of menstruation that had lasted for at least 12 months and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) levels ≥ 25 mIU/mL; in men, it was defined as testosterone levels ≤ 3...
September 14, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905746/re-a-possible-relationship-between-serum-sex-hormones-and-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-in-men-who-underwent-transurethral-prostate-resection
#20
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