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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340130/mechanism-action-of-platelets-and-crucial-blood-coagulation-pathways-in-hemostasis
#1
REVIEW
Mercy Halleluyah Periayah, Ahmad Sukari Halim, Arman Zaharil Mat Saad
Blood is considered to be precious because it is the basic necessity for health; our body needs a steady provision of oxygen, supplied via blood, to reach billions of tissues and cells. Hematopoiesis is the process that generates blood cells of all lineages. However, platelets are the smallest blood component produced from the very large bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes and they play a fundamental role in thrombosis and hemostasis. Platelets contribute their hemostatic capacity via adhesion, activation and aggregation, which are triggered upon tissue injury, and these actions stimulate the coagulation factors and other mediators to achieve hemostasis...
October 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337700/increased-resistance-to-tissue-plasminogen-activator-induced-fibrinolysis-in-healthy-subjects-from-thailand
#2
Nathan J White, Nicholas Taflin, Esther B Lim, Osaree Akaraborworn
: There is significant variability in blood coagulation among world populations. In particular, there may exist important differences in regulation of the fibrinolytic system in Asian populations that contribute to diseases of thrombosis and hemostasis. To investigate this issue, we compared fibrinogen concentration, plasma clot formation, and fibrinolytic resistance of healthy Asian subjects from Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand (Thai) vs. healthy North American subjects from Seattle, Washington, USA (SEA). Citrated plasma samples were obtained from healthy adult volunteers...
January 13, 2018: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321571/thrombin-fe3o4-nanoparticles-for-use-as-a-hemostatic-agent-in-internal-bleeding
#3
Emiliya M Shabanova, Andrey S Drozdov, Anna F Fakhardo, Ivan P Dudanov, Marina S Kovalchuk, Vladimir V Vinogradov
Bleeding remains one of the main causes of premature mortality at present, with internal bleeding being the most dangerous case. In this paper, magnetic hemostatic nanoparticles are shown for the first time to assist in minimally invasive treatment of internal bleeding, implying the introduction directly into the circulatory system followed by localization in the bleeding zone due to the application of an external magnetic field. Nanoparticles were produced by entrapping human thrombin (THR) into a sol-gel derived magnetite matrix followed by grinding to sizes below 200 nm and subsequent colloidization...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296928/coordination-of-platelet-agonist-signaling-during-the-hemostatic-response-in-vivo
#4
Jian Shen, Sara Sampietro, Jie Wu, Juan Tang, Shuchi Gupta, Chelsea N Matzko, Chaojun Tang, Ying Yu, Lawrence F Brass, Li Zhu, Timothy J Stalker
The local microenvironment within an evolving hemostatic plug shapes the distribution of soluble platelet agonists, resulting in a gradient of platelet activation. We previously showed that thrombin activity at a site of vascular injury is spatially restricted, resulting in robust activation of a subpopulation of platelets in the hemostatic plug core. In contrast, adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)/P2Y12 signaling contributes to the accumulation of partially activated, loosely packed platelets in a shell overlying the core...
December 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232255/lack-of-grading-agreement-among-international-hemostasis-external-quality-assessment-programs
#5
John D Olson, Ian Jennings, Piet Meijer, Chantal Bon, Roslyn Bonar, Emmanuel J Favaloro, Russell A Higgins, Michael Keeney, Joy Mammen, Richard A Marlar, Roland Meley, Sukesh C Nair, William L Nichols, Anne Raby, Joan C Reverter, Alok Srivastava, Isobel Walker
: Laboratory quality programs rely on internal quality control and external quality assessment (EQA). EQA programs provide unknown specimens for the laboratory to test. The laboratory's result is compared with other (peer) laboratories performing the same test. EQA programs assign target values using a variety of methods statistical tools and performance assessment of 'pass' or 'fail' is made. EQA provider members of the international organization, external quality assurance in thrombosis and hemostasis, took part in a study to compare outcome of performance analysis using the same data set of laboratory results...
December 11, 2017: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224675/mechanisms-of-thrombosis-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-antiphospholipid-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Philip G de Groot, Bas de Laat
The presence of antiphospholipid antibodies is one of the most common acquired risk factors for thrombosis. Antiphospholipid antibodies is a collective term for a set of autoantibodies with closely related but different specificity. Experiments in which isolated patient antibodies were injected into mice have shown that a specific subset of autoantibodies, those directed against the first domain of plasma protein β2-glycoprotein I, can explain the increased risk of thrombosis. Experiments performed with these mice have shown that autoantibodies against β2-glycoprotein I bind to and activate cells such as endothelial cells, monocytes, and platelets...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220852/commentary-controversies-in-thrombosis-and-hemostasis-part-1-hematidrosis-blood-sweat-and-fears-or-a-pigment-of-fertile-imaginations
#7
Emmanuel J Favaloro, Giuseppe Lippi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215808/prognostic-performance-evaluation-of-the-international-society-on-thrombosis-and-hemostasis-and-the-korean-society-on-thrombosis-and-hemostasis-scores-in-the-early-phase-of-trauma
#8
Hong Sug Kim, Dong Hun Lee, Byung Kook Lee, Yong Soo Cho
BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) contributes to poor outcome in the early phase of trauma. We aimed to analyze and compare the prognostic performances of the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) and the Korean Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (KSTH) scores in the early phase of trauma. METHODS: Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to examine the prognostic performance of both scores, and multivariate analysis was used to estimate the prognostic impact of the ISTH and KSTH scores in the early phase of trauma...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209618/platelet-derived-microvesicles-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Maria T K Zaldivia, James D McFadyen, Bock Lim, Xiaowei Wang, Karlheinz Peter
Microvesicles (MVs) circulating in the blood are small vesicles (100-1,000 nm in diameter) derived from membrane blebs of cells such as activated platelets, endothelial cells, and leukocytes. A growing body of evidence now supports the concept that platelet-derived microvesicles (PMVs), the most abundant MVs in the circulation, are important regulators of hemostasis, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Compared with healthy individuals, a large increase of circulating PMVs has been observed, particularly in patients with cardiovascular diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208598/myosin-iia-is-critical-for-camp-mediated-endothelial-secretion-of-von-willebrand-factor
#10
Pin Li, Guoqin Wei, Yang Cao, Qiuping Deng, Xiaofan Han, Xiaoshuai Huang, Yingqing Huo, Yulong He, Liangyi Chen, Jincai Luo
Non-muscle myosin II has been implicated in regulation of von Willebrand factor (VWF) release from endothelial Weibel-Palade bodies (WPBs), but the specific role of myosin IIa isoform is poorly defined. Here, we report that myosin IIa is expressed both in primary human endothelial cells and intact mouse vessels, essential for cAMP-mediated endothelial VWF secretion. Down-regulation of myosin IIa by shRNAs significantly suppressed both forskolin- and epinephrine-induced VWF secretion. Endothelium-specific myosin IIa knockout mice exhibited impaired epinephrine-stimulated VWF release, prolonged bleeding time and thrombosis...
December 5, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206190/direct-fibrinolytic-snake-venom-metalloproteinases-affecting-hemostasis-structural-biochemical-features-and-therapeutic-potential
#11
REVIEW
Eladio F Sanchez, Renzo J Flores-Ortiz, Valeria G Alvarenga, Johannes A Eble
Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are predominant in viperid venoms, which provoke hemorrhage and affect hemostasis and thrombosis. P-I class enzymes consist only of a single metalloproteinase domain. Despite sharing high sequence homology, only some of them induce hemorrhage. They have direct fibrin(ogen)olytic activity. Their main biological substrate is fibrin(ogen), whose Aα-chain is degraded rapidly and independently of activation of plasminogen. It is important to understand their biochemical and physiological mechanisms, as well as their applications, to study the etiology of some human diseases and to identify sites of potential intervention...
December 5, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206074/a-novel-flow-cytometry-assay-using-dihydroethidium-as-redox-sensitive-probe-reveals-nadph-oxidase-dependent-generation-of-superoxide-anion-in-human-platelets-exposed-to-amyloid-peptide-%C3%AE
#12
Aisha Alsheikh Abubaker, Dina Vara, Ian Eggleston, Ilaria Canobbio, Giordano Pula
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is critical in the regulation of platelets, which has important implications in the modulation of hemostasis and thrombosis. Nonetheless, despite several assays have been described and successfully utilized in the past, the analysis of ROS generation in human platelets remains challenging. Here we show that dihydroethidium (DHE) allows the characterization of redox responses upon platelet activation by physiological and pathological stimuli. In particular, the flow cytometry assay that we describe here allowed us to confirm that thrombin, collagen-related peptide (CRP) and arachidonic acid but not adenosine diphosphate (ADP) stimulate superoxide anion formation in a concentration-dependent manner...
December 5, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204246/constricted-microfluidic-devices-to-study-the-effects-of-transient-high-shear-exposure-on-platelets
#13
Nesreen Z Alsmadi, Sarah J Shapiro, Christopher S Lewis, Vinit M Sheth, Trevor A Snyder, David W Schmidtke
Due to the critical roles that platelets play in thrombosis during many biological and pathological events, altered platelet function may be a key contributor to altered hemostasis, leading to both thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. Platelet adhesion at arterial shear rates occurs through binding to von Willebrand Factor via the glycoprotein (GP) GPIb receptor. GPIb binding can induce platelet activation distinguishable by P-selectin (CD62P) surface expression and αIIbβ3 activation, resulting in platelet aggregation and formation of the primary hemostatic plug to stop bleeding...
November 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202320/screening-itself-for-disseminated-intravascular-coagulation-may-reduce-mortality-in-sepsis-a-nationwide-multicenter-registry-in-japan
#14
Yutaka Umemura, Kazuma Yamakawa, Mineji Hayakawa, Toshimitsu Hamasaki, Satoshi Fujimi
OBJECTIVES: Screening of patients with sepsis for disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) has been recommended in several guidelines. However, DIC screening is still not widely accepted as an essential component of sepsis management, partly because of a lack of evidence that DIC screening has an effect on mortality. We investigated whether DIC screening was associated with a survival benefit in patients with sepsis. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a nationwide multicenter retrospective cohort study...
November 26, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197153/recommendations-for-future-research-in-relation-to-pediatric-pulmonary-embolism-communication-from-the-ssc-of-the-isth
#15
T T Biss, M Rajpurkar, S Williams, C H van Ommen, A K C Chan, N A Goldenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 10, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195076/migrating-platelets-are-mechano-scavengers-that-collect-and-bundle-bacteria
#16
Florian Gaertner, Zerkah Ahmad, Gerhild Rosenberger, Shuxia Fan, Leo Nicolai, Benjamin Busch, Gökce Yavuz, Manja Luckner, Hellen Ishikawa-Ankerhold, Roman Hennel, Alexandre Benechet, Michael Lorenz, Sue Chandraratne, Irene Schubert, Sebastian Helmer, Bianca Striednig, Konstantin Stark, Marek Janko, Ralph T Böttcher, Admar Verschoor, Catherine Leon, Christian Gachet, Thomas Gudermann, Michael Mederos Y Schnitzler, Zachary Pincus, Matteo Iannacone, Rainer Haas, Gerhard Wanner, Kirsten Lauber, Michael Sixt, Steffen Massberg
Blood platelets are critical for hemostasis and thrombosis and play diverse roles during immune responses. Despite these versatile tasks in mammalian biology, their skills on a cellular level are deemed limited, mainly consisting in rolling, adhesion, and aggregate formation. Here, we identify an unappreciated asset of platelets and show that adherent platelets use adhesion receptors to mechanically probe the adhesive substrate in their local microenvironment. When actomyosin-dependent traction forces overcome substrate resistance, platelets migrate and pile up the adhesive substrate together with any bound particulate material...
November 30, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194002/auranofin-a-thioredoxin-reductase-inhibitor-causes-platelet-death-through-calcium-overload
#17
Matthew T Harper
Platelets are central to normal hemostasis and must be tightly controlled to prevent thrombosis. However, drug treatments that also affect platelets could lead to unwanted side effects on hemostasis or thrombosis. In this study, the effect of auranofin on platelets was tested. Auranofin, a gold-based thioredoxin reductase (TRXR) inhibitor, has been previously used in arthritis. Recently, auranofin and other inhibitors of the thioredoxin system have been proposed as novel anti-cancer therapies. TRXR is an important part of the antioxidant defenses in many cells that maintain intracellular proteins in their reduced state...
December 1, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191915/platelets-and-vascular-integrity-how-platelets-prevent-bleeding-in-inflammation
#18
Benoit Ho-Tin-Noé, Yacine Boulaftali, Eric Camerer
Platelets play a central role in primary hemostasis by forming aggregates that plug holes in injured vessels. Half a century ago, detailed studies of the microvasculature by electron microscopy revealed that under inflammatory conditions that do not induce major disruption to vascular structure, individual platelets are mobilised to the vessel wall, where they interact with leukocytes and appear to seal gaps that arise between endothelial cells. Recent developments in genetic engineering and intravital microscopy have allowed further molecular and temporal characterization of these events...
November 30, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191910/host-dnases-prevent-vascular-occlusion-by-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#19
Miguel Jiménez-Alcázar, Chandini Rangaswamy, Rachita Panda, Josephine Bitterling, Yashin J Simsek, Andy T Long, Rostyslav Bilyy, Veit Krenn, Christoph Renné, Thomas Renné, Stefan Kluge, Ulf Panzer, Ryushin Mizuta, Hans Georg Mannherz, Daisuke Kitamura, Martin Herrmann, Markus Napirei, Tobias A Fuchs
Platelet and fibrin clots occlude blood vessels in hemostasis and thrombosis. Here we report a noncanonical mechanism for vascular occlusion based on neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), DNA fibers released by neutrophils during inflammation. We investigated which host factors control NETs in vivo and found that two deoxyribonucleases (DNases), DNase1 and DNase1-like 3, degraded NETs in circulation during sterile neutrophilia and septicemia. In the absence of both DNases, intravascular NETs formed clots that obstructed blood vessels and caused organ damage...
December 1, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189568/tranexamic-acid-decreases-visible-and-hidden-blood-loss-without-affecting-prethrombotic-state-molecular-markers-in-transforaminal-thoracic-interbody-fusion-for-treatment-of-thoracolumbar-fracture-dislocation
#20
Wentao Wang, Kun Duan, Minjie Ma, Yong Jiang, Tuanjiang Liu, Jijun Liu, Dingjun Hao
STUDY DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial OBJECTIVE.: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) administered during the surgical correction of thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation surgery is generally associated with substantial blood loss and a high risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). TXA has been shown to improve hemostasis in surgical procedures. METHODS: We investigated 80 patients with thoracolumbar fracture-dislocation who underwent transforaminal thoracic interbody fusion (TTIF) between March 2014 and December 2016...
November 17, 2017: Spine
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