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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730407/venous-thromboembolism-thrombosis-inflammation-and-immunothrombosis-for-clinicians
#1
REVIEW
Eduardo Vazquez-Garza, Carlos Jerjes-Sanchez, Aline Navarrete, Jorge Joya-Harrison, David Rodriguez
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a worldwide disease related with mortality, cardiovascular disability, impaired quality of life and, cause major long-term complications. Clinicians related to the acute and long-term patients care must be involved in the molecular mechanisms of thrombosis. The vessel wall and its inner lining of the endothelium are critical to the maintenance of a patent vasculature. After endothelial disruption, collagen (first line of endothelial defense) and intravascular tissue factor (second line of endothelial defense) are exposed to blood flow, starting the formation of a thrombus...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729433/selective-factor-viii-activation-by-the-tissue-factor-factor-viia-factor-xa-complex
#2
Yuichi Kamikubo, G Loredana Mendolicchio, Antonella Zampolli, Patrizia Marchese, Andrea S Rothmeier, Jennifer Nagrampa Orje, Andrew J Gale, Sriram Krishnaswamy, András Gruber, Henrik Østergaard, Lars C Petersen, Wolfram Ruf, Zaverio M Ruggeri
Safe and effective antithrombotic therapy requires understanding of mechanisms that contribute to pathological thrombosis but have lesser impact on hemostasis. We found that the extrinsic tissue factor (TF) coagulation initiation complex can selectively activate the anti-hemophilic cofactor, FVIII, triggering the hemostatic intrinsic coagulation pathway independently of thrombin feedback loops. In a mouse model with a relatively mild thrombogenic lesion, TF-dependent FVIII activation sets the threshold for thrombus formation through contact phase-generated FIXa...
July 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726978/analysis-of-the-substrate-specificity-of-factor-vii-activating-protease-fsap-and-design-of-specific-and-sensitive-peptide-substrates
#3
Emrah Kara, Dipankar Manna, Geir Åge Løset, Eric L Schneider, Charles S Craik, Sandip Kanse
Factor VII (FVII) activating protease (FSAP) is a circulating serine protease that is likely to be involved in a number of disease conditions such as stroke, atherosclerosis, liver fibrosis, thrombosis and cancer. To date, no systematic information is available about the substrate specificity of FSAP. Applying phage display and positional scanning substrate combinatorial library (PS-SCL) approaches we have characterised the specificity of FSAP towards small peptides. Results were evaluated in the context of known protein substrates as well as molecular modelling of the peptides in the active site of FSAP...
July 20, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720207/thrombotic-microangiopathy-a-multidisciplinary-team%C3%A2-approach
#4
Craig E Gordon, Vipul C Chitalia, J Mark Sloan, David J Salant, David L Coleman, Karen Quillen, Katya Ravid, Jean M Francis
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by the presence of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia along with organ dysfunction, and pathologically, by the presence of microthrombi in multiple microvascular beds. Delays in diagnosis and initiation of therapy are common due to the low incidence, variable presentation, and poor awareness of these diseases, underscoring the need for interdisciplinary approaches to clinical care for TMA. We describe a new approach to improve clinical management via a TMA team that originally stemmed from an Affinity Research Collaborative team focused on thrombosis and hemostasis...
July 15, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720200/influence-of-erythrocyte-aggregation-on-radial-migration-of-platelet-sized-spherical-particles-in-shear-flow
#5
Cyrille Guilbert, Boris Chayer, Louise Allard, François T H Yu, Guy Cloutier
Blood platelets when activated are involved in the mechanisms of hemostasis and thrombosis, and their migration toward injured vascular endothelium necessitates interaction with red blood cells (RBCs). Rheology co-factors such as a high hematocrit and a high shear rate are known to promote platelet mass transport toward the vessel wall. Hemodynamic conditions promoting RBC aggregation may also favor platelet migration, particularly in the venous system at low shear rates. The aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the impact of RBC aggregation on platelet-sized micro particle migration in a Couette flow apparatus...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717586/evaluating-platelet-aggregation-dynamics-from-laser-speckle-fluctuations
#6
Zeinab Hajjarian, Diane M Tshikudi, Seemantini K Nadkarni
Platelets are key to maintaining hemostasis and impaired platelet aggregation could lead to hemorrhage or thrombosis. We report a new approach that exploits laser speckle intensity fluctuations, emanated from a drop of platelet-rich-plasma (PRP), to profile aggregation. Speckle fluctuation rate is quantified by the speckle intensity autocorrelation, g2(t), from which the aggregate size is deduced. We first apply this approach to evaluate polystyrene bead aggregation, triggered by salt. Next, we assess dose-dependent platelet aggregation and inhibition in human PRP spiked with adenosine diphosphate and clopidogrel...
July 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715386/live-cell-imaging-of-platelet-degranulation-and-secretion-under-flow
#7
Arjan D Barendrecht, Johan J F Verhoef, Silvia Pignatelli, Gerard Pasterkamp, Harry F G Heijnen, Coen Maas
Blood platelets are essential players in hemostasis, the formation of thrombi to seal vascular breaches. They are also involved in thrombosis, the formation of thrombi that occlude the vasculature and injure organs, with life-threatening consequences. This motivates scientific research on platelet function and the development of methods to track cell-biological processes as they occur under flow conditions. A variety of flow models are available for the study of platelet adhesion and aggregation, two key phenomena in platelet biology...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705934/gq-pathway-regulates-proximal-c-type-lectin-like-receptor-2-clec-2-signaling-in-platelets
#8
Rachit Badolia, Vaishali Inamdar, Bhanu Kanth Manne, Carol Dangelmaier, Satya P Kunapuli
Platelets play a key role in the physiological hemostasis or pathological process of thrombosis. Rhodocytin, an agonist of the C-type lectin like receptor-2 (CLEC-2), elicits powerful platelet activation signals in conjunction with Src family kinases (SFKs), spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk), and phospholipase γ2 (PLCγ2). Previous reports have shown that rhodocytin-induced platelet aggregation depends on secondary mediators such as thromboxane (TxA2) and ADP, which are agonists for G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) on platelets...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705341/-is-ultrasound-guidance-contributive-to-vascular-access-in-endovascular-therapy
#9
B Dakhil, F Couineau, J Hernigou, J Bardet, E Tella, P Bagan
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of ultrasound guidance (UG) to vascular puncture in endovascular therapy. Ultrasound guidance was evaluated by comparison with the rates of failures and complications of the traditional techniques of percutaneous vascular access. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed all the consecutive percutaneous revascularizations (percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and/or stenting, treatment of aneurysms and vascular traumatisms) since the standardization of the systems of closing (extra- and endovascular)...
July 2017: J Med Vasc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704925/licochalcone-a-prevents-platelet-activation-and-thrombus-formation-through-the-inhibition-of-plc%C3%AE-2-pkc-akt-and-mapk-pathways
#10
Li-Ming Lien, Kuan-Hung Lin, Li-Ting Huang, Mei-Fang Tseng, Hou-Chang Chiu, Ray-Jade Chen, Wan-Jung Lu
Platelet activation is involved in cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and ischemic stroke. Licochalcone A (LA), an active ingredient of licorice, exhibits multiple biological activities such as anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. However, its role in platelet activation remains unclear. Therefore, the study investigated the antiplatelet mechanism of LA. Our data revealed that LA (2-10 μM) concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, but not thrombin and U46619...
July 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698680/activated-monocytes-enhance-platelet-driven-contraction-of-blood-clots-via-tissue-factor-expression
#11
Alina D Peshkova, Giang Le Minh, Valerie Tutwiler, Izabella A Andrianova, John W Weisel, Rustem I Litvinov
Platelet-driven reduction in blood clot volume (clot contraction or retraction) has been implicated to play a role in hemostasis and thrombosis. Although these processes are often linked with inflammation, the role of inflammatory cells in contraction of blood clots and thrombi has not been investigated. The aim of this work was to study the influence of activated monocytes on clot contraction. The effects of monocytes were evaluated using a quantitative optical tracking methodology to follow volume changes in a blood clot formed in vitro...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687614/signal-integration-at-the-pi3k-p85-xbp1-hub-endows-coagulation-protease-activated-protein-c-with-insulin-like-function
#12
Thati Madhusudhan, Hongjie Wang, Sanchita Ghosh, Wei Dong, Varun Kumar, Moh'd Mohanad Al-Dabet, Jayakumar Manoharan, Sumra Nazir, Ahmed Elwakiel, Fabian Bock, Shrey Kohli, Andi Marquardt, Ibrahim Sögüt, Khurrum Shahzad, Andreas J Müller, Charles T Esmon, Peter P Nawroth, Jochen Reiser, Triantafyllos Chavakis, Wolfram Ruf, Berend Isermann
Coagulation proteases have increasingly recognized functions beyond hemostasis and thrombosis. Disruption of activated protein C (aPC) or insulin signaling both impair function of podocytes and ultimately cause dysfunction of the glomerular filtration barrier and diabetic kidney disease (DKD). We here show that insulin and aPC converge on a common spliced-X-box binding protein-1 (sXBP1) signaling pathway to maintain endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-homeostasis. Analogous to insulin, physiological levels of aPC maintain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) proteostasis in DKD...
July 7, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681241/platelet-rna-signatures-for-the-detection-of-cancer
#13
Nik Sol, Thomas Wurdinger
Platelets are equipped with RNA processing machineries, such as pre-mRNA splicing, pre-miRNA processing, and mRNA translation. Since platelets are devoid of a nucleus, most RNA transcripts in platelets are derived from megakaryocytes during thrombocytogenesis. However, platelets can also ingest RNA molecules during circulation and/or interaction with other cell types. Since platelets were first described by Bizzozero in 1881, their well-established role in hemostasis and thrombosis has been intensively studied...
July 5, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680365/the-approval-of-revised-diagnostic-criteria-for-dic-from-the-japanese-society-on-thrombosis-and-hemostasis
#14
Hideo Wada, Hoyu Takahashi, Toshimasa Uchiyama, Yutaka Eguchi, Kohji Okamoto, Kazuo Kawasugi, Seiji Madoiwa, Hidesaku Asakura
As proposed diagnostic criteria for DIC from the Japanese Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis has been approved and revised, the contents and changes are informed.
2017: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679481/activation-of-the-coagulation-cascade-in-patients-with-scrub-typhus
#15
Hee-Jeong Lee, Chi-Young Park, Sang-Gon Park, Na-Ra Yoon, Dong-Min Kim, Choon-Hae Chung
This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the levels of coagulation factors and presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) in patients with scrub typhus. We included patients confirmed to have scrub typhus at the Chosun University Hospital between September 2004 and December 2009. The DIC scores were evaluated in 365 patients and 36 healthy controls. The median concentrations of fibrinogen, d-dimer, and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) were compared between patients and healthy controls (p<0...
June 19, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677768/thromboxane-a2-receptor-antagonist-sq29548-suppresses-the-lps%C3%A2-induced-release-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-bv2-microglia-cells-via-suppressing-mapk-and-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathways
#16
Aijuan Yan, Gaoyu Cai, Weiliang Xia, Yi Fu
Inflammation in the brain, characterized by the activation of microglia, is hypothesized to participate in the pathogenesis of neuronal disorders. It is proposed that thromboxane A2 receptor (TXA2R) activation is involved in thrombosis/hemostasis and inflammation responses. In the present study, the anti‑inflammatory effects of SQ29548 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‑stimulated BV2 microglial cells and its molecular mechanisms were investigated. In the BV2 cell line, LPS‑stimulated nitric oxide (NO) and inflammatory cytokine release, and the phosphorylation of mitogen‑activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear factor (NF)‑κB were assessed using an NO assay kit, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively...
September 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674875/preparation-of-platelet-concentrates-for-research-and-transfusion-purposes
#17
David W Greening, Richard J Simpson, Rosemary L Sparrow
Platelets are specialized cellular elements of the blood that play central roles in physiologic and pathologic processes of hemostasis, wound healing, host defense, thrombosis, inflammation, and tumor metastasis. Activation of platelets is crucial for platelet function that includes a complex interplay of adhesion, signaling molecules, and release of bioactive factors. Transfusion of platelet concentrates is an important treatment component for thrombocytopenia and bleeding. Recent progress in high-throughput mRNA and protein profiling techniques has advanced the understanding of platelet biological functions toward identifying novel platelet-expressed and secreted proteins, analyzing functional changes between normal and pathologic states, and determining the effects of processing and storage on platelet concentrates for transfusion...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673898/platelet-derived-factor-v-is-a-critical-mediator-of-arterial-thrombosis
#18
Meiping Ren, Rong Li, Ni Chen, Ningbo Pang, Yongjie Li, Xin Deng, Liqun Wang, Mao Luo, Yan Liu, Haiyan Hao, Yong Liu, Hongmin Sun, Jianbo Wu
BACKGROUND: Coagulation factor V (FV) plays a key role in hemostasis, is present in plasma and platelets, and has both pro- and anticoagulant properties; however, the contribution of platelet-derived FV to arterial thrombosis remains undetermined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using transgenic mice with various levels of FV gene expression that was restricted to the plasma or platelets, the roles of platelet FV were evaluated in the regulation of arterial thrombosis and platelet activation...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671350/von-willebrand-factor-and-inflammation
#19
C Kawecki, P J Lenting, C V Denis
Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is a plasma glycoprotein best known for its crucial hemostatic role in serving as a molecular bridge linking platelets to subendothelial components following vascular injury. In addition, VWF functions as chaperone for coagulation factor VIII. In pathological settings, VWF is recognized as a risk factor for both arterial and venous thrombosis, as well as a molecular player that directly promotes the thrombotic process. Recent years have seen the emergence of the concept of immuno-thrombosis by which inflammatory cells participate in thrombotic processes...
July 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667366/normal-platelet-function
#20
REVIEW
Michael Holinstat
Platelets play an important role in the vessel. Following their formation from megakaryocytes, platelets exist in circulation for 5-7 days and primarily function as regulators of hemostasis and thrombosis. Following vascular insult or injury, platelets become activated in the blood resulting in adhesion to the exposed extracellular matrix underlying the endothelium, formation of a platelet plug, and finally formation and consolidation of a thrombus consisting of both a core and shell. In pathological conditions, platelets are essential for formation of occlusive thrombus formation and as a result are the primary target for prevention of arterial thrombus formation...
June 30, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
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