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O C Smibert, A K Aung, E Woolnough, G P Carter, M B Schultz, B P Howden, T Seemann, D Spelman, S McGloughlin, A Y Peleg
Few studies have used molecular epidemiological methods to study transmission links to clinical isolates in intensive care units. Ninety-four multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) cultured from routine specimens from intensive care unit (ICU) patients over 13 weeks were stored (11 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), two vancomycin-resistant enterococci and 81 Gram-negative bacteria). Medical staff personal mobile phones, departmental phones, and ICU keyboards were swabbed and cultured for MDROs; MRSA was isolated from two phones...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
Matthieu Jabaudon, Pauline Berthelin, Thibaut Pranal, Laurence Roszyk, Thomas Godet, Jean-Sébastien Faure, Russell Chabanne, Nathanael Eisenmann, Alexandre Lautrette, Corinne Belville, Raiko Blondonnet, Sophie Cayot, Thierry Gillart, Julien Pascal, Yvan Skrzypczak, Bertrand Souweine, Loic Blanchon, Vincent Sapin, Bruno Pereira, Jean-Michel Constantin
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) prediction remains challenging despite available clinical scores. To assess soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE), a marker of lung epithelial injury, as a predictor of ARDS in a high-risk population, adult patients with at least one ARDS risk factor upon admission to participating intensive care units (ICUs) were enrolled in a multicentre, prospective study between June 2014 and January 2015. Plasma sRAGE and endogenous secretory RAGE (esRAGE) were measured at baseline (ICU admission) and 24 hours later (day one)...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Taka-Aki Nakada, Petch Wacharasint, James A Russell, John H Boyd, Emiri Nakada, Simone A Thair, Tadanaga Shimada, Keith R Walley
BACKGROUND: The IL10 family of genes includes crucial immune regulators. We tested the hypothesis that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL10, IL19, IL20, and IL24 of the IL10 family gene cluster alter the clinical outcome of septic shock. METHODS: Patients with septic shock (n = 1,193) were genotyped for 13 tag SNPs of IL10, IL19, IL20, and IL24. IL20 gene expression was measured in genotyped lymphoblastoid cells in vitro. Cardiac surgical ICU patients (n = 981) were genotyped for IL20 rs2981573 A/G...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
Rong Chen, Yu Feng, Xiaohui Wang, Jingyu Yang, Xiaoxia Zhang, Xiaoju Lü, Zhiyong Zong
Clostridium difficile consists of six clades but studies on Clade 3 are limited. Here, we report genome sequences of three Clade 3 C. difficile strains carrying genes encoding toxin A and B and the binary toxin. Isolates 103 and 133 (both of ST5) and isolate 106 (ST285) were recovered from three ICU patients. Whole genome sequencing using HiSeq 2500 revealed 4.1-Mb genomes with 28-29% GC content. There were ≥1,104 SNP between the isolates, suggesting they were not of a single clone. The toxin A and B gene-carrying pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) of the three isolates were identical and had the insertion of the transposon Tn6218...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yongyue Wei, Paula Tejera, Zhaoxi Wang, Ruyang Zhang, Feng Chen, Li Su, Xihong Lin, Ednan K Bajwa, B Taylor Thompson, David C Christiani
RATIONALE: Platelets are believed to contribute to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) pathogenesis through inflammatory coagulation pathways. We recently reported that leucine-rich repeat-containing 16A (LRRC16A) modulates baseline platelet counts to mediate ARDS risk. OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of LRRC16A in ARDS survival and its mediating effect through platelets. METHODS: A total of 414 cases with ARDS from intensive care units (ICUs) were recruited who had exome-wide genotyping data, detailed platelet counts, and follow-up data during ICU hospitalization...
May 15, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Carolina Montoya-Ruiz, Fabián A Jaimes, Maria T Rugeles, Juan Álvaro López, Gabriel Bedoya, Paula A Velilla
The aim of this study was to explore the association between some SNPs of the TNF, LTA, IL1B and IL10 genes with cytokine concentrations and clinical course in Colombian septic patients. We conducted a cross-sectional study to genotype 415 septic patients and 205 patients without sepsis for the SNPs -308(G/A) rs1800629 of TNF; +252 (G/A) rs909253 of LTA; -511(A/G) rs16944 and +3953(C/T) rs1143634 of IL1B; and -1082(A/G) rs1800896, -819(C/T) rs1800871 and -592(C/A) rs1800872 of IL10. The association of theses SNPs with the following parameters was evaluated: (1) the presence of sepsis; (2) severity and clinical outcomes; (3) APACHE II and SOFA scores; and (4) procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor, lymphotoxin alpha, interleukin 1 beta and interleukin 10 plasma concentrations...
December 2016: Immunologic Research
Max E Seaton, Brodie A Parent, Ravi F Sood, Mark M Wurfel, Lara A Muffley, Grant E O'Keefe, Nicole S Gibran
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine if melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with complicated sepsis after trauma. BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after trauma. Several SNPs in inflammation-related genes have been associated with sepsis. MC1R is an anti-inflammatory mediator that may be involved in the immune response after trauma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We genotyped eight common MC1R SNPs in genomic DNA from subjects enrolled in a previously reported prospective cohort study...
January 2017: Shock
Patrick McGann, Jessica L Bunin, Erik Snesrud, Seema Singh, Rosslyn Maybank, Ana C Ong, Yoon I Kwak, Scott Seronello, Robert J Clifford, Mary Hinkle, Stephen Yamada, Jason Barnhill, Emil Lesho
Whole genome sequencing (WGS) is increasingly employed in clinical settings, though few assessments of turnaround times (TAT) have been performed in real-time. In this study, WGS was used to investigate an unfolding outbreak of vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) among 3 patients in the ICU of a tertiary care hospital. Including overnight culturing, a TAT of just 48.5 h for a comprehensive report was achievable using an Illumina Miseq benchtop sequencer. WGS revealed that isolates from patient 2 and 3 differed from that of patient 1 by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), indicating nosocomial transmission...
July 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
Fernanda Majolo, Francis Jackson de Oliveira Paludo, Aline Ponzoni, Pietra Graebin, Fernando Suparregui Dias, Clarice Sampaio Alho
During critical illness and sepsis there is severe antioxidant depletion, and this scenario raises the critical ill patient's mortality risk. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is one of the first endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes, and it works cooperatively with superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) to detoxify free radicals from the cellular environment. Genetic studies are important to understand the complexity of human oxidative stress and how the organism responds to an extreme situation such as critically care conditions...
February 2015: Cytokine
Guadalupe Martin, Víctor Asensi, A Hugo Montes, Julio Collazos, Victoria Alvarez, Laura Pérez-Is, José A Carton, Francisco Taboada, Eulalia Valle-Garay
INTRODUCTION: Nitric oxide (NO) influences susceptibility to infection and hemodynamic failure (HF) in sepsis. NOS3 and NOS2 SNPs might modify plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels, sepsis development, hemodynamics and survival. METHODS: 90 severely septic and 91 non-infected ICU patients were prospectively studied. NOS3 (E298D), NOS3 (-786 T/C), NOS3 (27 bp-VNTR), and NOS2A (exon 22) SNPs and plasma NOx levels were assessed. RESULTS: 21 patients (11...
November 15, 2014: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Kartik Ramakrishna, Srinivasan Pugazhendhi, Jayakanthan Kabeerdoss, John Victor Peter
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the following study is to evaluate the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70) gene, gene expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and medical intensive care unit (MICU) stay and organ failure in sepsis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MICU patients with sepsis were genotyped for rs1061581, rs2227956, rs1008438 and rs1043618 polymorphisms in HSP70 gene using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis or allele-specific PCR...
April 2014: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Tomonori Kimura, Eizo Watanabe, Teruo Sakamoto, Osamu Takasu, Toshiaki Ikeda, Kazumi Ikeda, Joji Kotani, Nobuya Kitamura, Tomohito Sadahiro, Yoshihisa Tateishi, Koichiro Shinozaki, Shigeto Oda
OBJECTIVE: Autophagy is the regulated catabolic process for recycling damaged or unnecessary organelles, which plays crucial roles in cell survival during nutrient deficiency, and innate immune defense against pathogenic microorganisms. Autophagy has been also reported to be involved in various conditions including inflammatory diseases. IRGM (human immunity-related GTPase) has an important function in eliminating Mycobacterium tuberculosis from host cells via autophagy. We examined the association between genetic polymorphism and clinical course/outcome in severely septic patients...
2014: PloS One
Karolina Maria Burghardt, Vishal Avinashi, Christina Kosar, Wei Xu, Paul W Wales, Yaron Avitzur, Aleixo Muise
Recently, genetic associations have been described in intestinal transplants. Namely, Crohn's disease susceptibility gene NOD2 polymorphisms have been reported to be more prevalent in patients with graft failure following intestinal transplantation (IT). Therefore, we sought to determine if polymorphisms in the NOD2 signaling cascade, including NOD2, CARD9, RAC1 and ATG16L1 are associated with intestinal failure (IF) or its complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study of 59 children with IF and 500 healthy Caucasian controls...
2014: PloS One
Daniela Hauer, Ines Kaufmann, Claudia Strewe, Isabel Briegel, Patrizia Campolongo, Gustav Schelling
Critically ill patients are at an increased risk for traumatic memories and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Memories of one or more traumatic events play an important part in the symptom pattern of PTSD. Studies in long-term survivors of intensive care unit (ICU) treatment demonstrated a clear and vivid recall of traumatic experiences and the incidence and intensity of PTSD symptoms increased with the number of traumatic memories present. Preclinical evidence has clearly shown that the consolidation and retrieval of traumatic memories is regulated by an interaction between the noradrenergic, the glucocorticoid and the endocannabinoid system...
July 2014: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Pablo Cardinal-Fernández, Antonio Ferruelo, Mariam El-Assar, Catalina Santiago, Félix Gómez-Gallego, Ana Martín-Pellicer, Fernando Frutos-Vivar, Oscar Peñuelas, Nicolás Nin, Andrés Esteban, José A Lorente
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the association between candidate gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: Patients older than 18 years admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with the diagnosis of severe sepsis were prospectively included. A blood sample was drawn on the first day of ICU admission, and DNA was extracted. We genotyped the insertion/deletion polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene (polymerase chain reaction) and the following single-nucleotide polymorphisms (TaqMan SNP genotyping assay): tumor necrosis factor α -376 G/A, -308 G/A, and -238 G/A; interleukin 8 -251 T/A; pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor -1001 G/T; and vascular endothelial growth factor +405 C/G and +936 C/T...
March 2013: Shock
P R V Fallavena, T de Jesus Borges, D D Paskulin, H S Thurow, F J de Oliveira Paludo, C Dos Santos Froes, P Graebin, F S Dias, O de Toledo Nóbrega, C S Alho
Literature suggests that the analysis of several polymorphic genetic markers is more informative than the analysis of a single polymorphism. In this study, we tested whether the shared inheritance of TLR2 and TLR4 and TNF-α allelic variants may act in synergy with -260C>T CD14 SNP on the outcome from critical conditions. We monitored 524 critically ill patients from South Brazilian, daily from the ICU admission to their discharge from hospital, or death. Our results revealed that TLR2, TLR4 or TNF-α SNPs alone did not show a significant role in the outcome from critical illness...
January 2013: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Parviz Ahmad-Nejad, Christof Denz, Wilma Zimmer, Jennifer Wacker, Peter Bugert, Christel Weiss, Michael Quintel, Michael Neumaier
AIMS: Members of the toll-like receptor (TLR) family have been shown to play important roles in inflammatory responses. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) altering receptor activity may either have detectable effects or might be without results due to compensatory mechanisms. We determined the genotype frequencies of functionally relevant SNPs in TLR2, 4 and 5 in critically ill patients (n=150) from a multidisciplinary surgical intensive care unit (ICU). The inflammatory response (procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, white blood count) and clinical classification (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation Score II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment) were monitored daily...
September 2011: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Diego D'Ávila Paskulin, Paulo Rv Fallavena, Francis Jo Paludo, Thiago J Borges, Juliane B Picanço, Fernando S Dias, Clarice Sampaio Alho
BACKGROUND: The susceptibility to adverse outcome from critical illness (occurrence of sepsis, septic shock, organ dysfunction/failure, and mortality) varies dramatically due to different degrees of inflammatory response. An over expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) can lead to the progression of the inflammatory condition. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship of the genotype distribution of -308G >A TNF-α polymorphism with regard to the development of sepsis, septic shock, higher organ dysfunction or mortality in critically ill patients...
May 2011: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Melanie Rushefski, Richard Aplenc, Nuala Meyer, Mingyao Li, Rui Feng, Paul N Lanken, Robert Gallop, Scarlett Bellamy, A Russell Localio, Sheldon I Feinstein, Aron B Fisher, Steven M Albelda, Jason D Christie
BACKGROUND: Peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6) is involved in redox regulation of the cell and is thought to be protective against oxidant injury. Little is known about genetic variation within the PRDX6 gene and its association with acute lung injury (ALI). In this study we sequenced the PRDX6 gene to uncover common variants, and tested association with ALI following major trauma. METHODS: To examine the extent of variation in the PRDX6 gene, we performed direct sequencing of the 5' UTR, exons, introns and the 3' UTR in 25 African American cases and controls and 23 European American cases and controls (selected from a cohort study of major trauma), which uncovered 80 SNPs...
2011: BMC Medical Genetics
S Schlebusch, G R Price, S Hinds, C Nourse, J M Schooneveldt, M H Tilse, H G Liley, T Wallis, F Bowling, D Venter, G R Nimmo
The purpose of this brief report is to describe the first outbreak of a community-associated nonmultiresistant and PVL-positive MRSA strain (CC30) in a neonatal intensive care unit in Australia. The utility of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for microbial typing is compared with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) plus binary gene analysis. The composite correlation index analysis of the MALDI-TOF-MS data demonstrated the similar inter-strain relatedness found with the SNP-plus-binary gene typing used to confirm the outbreak...
October 2010: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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