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hygiene hypothesis and vaccine

Helton da Costa Santiago, Thomas B Nutman
Implied under the rubric of the hygiene hypothesis is that helminth infection can protect against allergic disease. It is well known that helminths induce processes associated with type 2 immune responses, but they also induce important regulatory responses that can modulate these type 2-associated responses-modulation that influences responses to bystander antigens including allergens. Indeed, most epidemiological studies demonstrate a beneficial effect of helminth infection on atopy, but there are also convincing data to demonstrate that helminth infection can precipitate or worsen allergic inflammation/disease...
2016: Critical Reviews in Immunology
E Stein Esser, AndreyA Romanyuk, Elena V Vassilieva, Joshy Jacob, Mark R Prausnitz, Richard W Compans, Ioanna Skountzou
Maternal and neonatal tetanus claim tens of thousands lives every year in developing countries, but could be prevented by hygienic practices and improved immunization of pregnant women. This study tested the hypothesis that skin vaccination can overcome the immunologically transformed state of pregnancy and enhance protective immunity to tetanus in mothers and their newborns. To achieve this goal, we developed microneedle patches (MNPs) that efficiently delivered unadjuvanted tetanus toxoid to skin of pregnant mice and demonstrated that this route induced superior immune responses in female mice conferring 100% survival to tetanus toxin challenge when compared to intramuscular vaccination...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Hermelijn H Smits, Pieter S Hiemstra, Clarissa Prazeres da Costa, Markus Ege, Michael Edwards, Holger Garn, Peter H Howarth, Tuomas Jartti, Esther C de Jong, Rick M Maizels, Ben J Marsland, Henry J McSorley, Anne Müller, Petra I Pfefferle, Huub Savelkoul, Jürgen Schwarze, Wendy W J Unger, Erika von Mutius, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Christian Taube
The worldwide incidence and prevalence of asthma continues to increase. Asthma is now understood as an umbrella term for different phenotypes or endotypes, which arise through different pathophysiologic pathways. Understanding the many factors contributing to development of the disease is important for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for the treatment of certain asthma phenotypes. The hygiene hypothesis has been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence of allergic disease, including asthma...
March 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
J C Li, J I Silverberg
BACKGROUND: Chickenpox infection early in childhood has previously been shown to protect against the development of childhood eczema in line with the hygiene hypothesis. In 1995, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommended routine vaccination against varicella zoster virus in the United States. Subsequently, rates of chickenpox infection have dramatically decreased in childhood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to understand the impact of declining rates of chickenpox infection on the prevalence of eczema...
November 2015: British Journal of Dermatology
Micaela Martinez-Bakker, Aaron A King, Pejman Rohani
Sustained and coordinated vaccination efforts have brought polio eradication within reach. Anticipating the eradication of wild poliovirus (WPV) and the subsequent challenges in preventing its re-emergence, we look to the past to identify why polio rose to epidemic levels in the mid-20th century, and how WPV persisted over large geographic scales. We analyzed an extensive epidemiological dataset, spanning the 1930s to the 1950s and spatially replicated across each state in the United States, to glean insight into the drivers of polio's historical expansion and the ecological mode of its persistence prior to vaccine introduction...
June 2015: PLoS Biology
Ping Shen, Simon Fillatreau
B lymphocytes are often essential to successfully control invading pathogens and play a primary role in the protection afforded by successful vaccines through the production of specific antibodies. However, recent studies have highlighted the complex roles of B cells in infectious diseases, showing unexpectedly that some activated B cells limited host defense towards pathogens. This B-cell function involves production of regulatory cytokines including IL-10 and IL-35 and is reminiscent of the regulatory functions of B cells initially defined in autoimmune diseases...
October 2015: International Immunology
Preeyam S Patel, John F Kearney
Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena...
June 15, 2015: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Margaret Nampijja, Emily L Webb, James Kaweesa, Robert Kizindo, Milly Namutebi, Esther Nakazibwe, Gloria Oduru, Prossy Kabuubi, Joyce Kabagenyi, Dennison Kizito, Lawrence Muhangi, Mirriam Akello, Jaco J Verweij, Barbara Nerima, Edridah Tukahebwa, Alison M Elliott
BACKGROUND: The Hygiene Hypothesis proposes that infection exposure protects against inflammatory conditions. Helminths possess allergen-like molecules and may specifically modulate allergy-related immunological pathways to inhibit responses which protect against them. Mass drug administration is recommended for helminth-endemic communities to control helminth-induced pathology, but may also result in increased rates of inflammation-mediated diseases in resource-poor settings. Immunological studies integrated with implementation of helminth control measures may elucidate how helminth elimination contributes to ongoing epidemics of inflammatory diseases...
2015: Trials
John F Kearney, Preeyam Patel, Emily K Stefanov, R Glenn King
In this review we discuss the effects of microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire. Neonatal exposure to conserved bacterial carbohydrates and phospholipids permanently reprograms the natural antibody repertoire directed toward these antigens by clonal expansion, alterations in clonal dominance, and increased serum antibody levels. These epitopes are present not only in bacterial cell walls, but also in common environmental allergens. Neonatal immunization with bacterial polysaccharide vaccines results in attenuated allergic airway responses to fungi-, house dust mite-, and cockroach-associated allergens in mouse models...
2015: Annual Review of Immunology
Marte Wendel Gustavsen, Christian Magnus Page, Stine Marit Moen, Anja Bjølgerud, Pål Berg-Hansen, Gro Owren Nygaard, Leiv Sandvik, Benedicte Alexandra Lie, Elisabeth Gulowsen Celius, Hanne F Harbo
BACKGROUND: Several environmental exposures, including infection with Epstein-Barr virus, low levels of vitamin D and smoking are established risk factors for multiple sclerosis (MS). Also, high hygienic standard and infection with parasites have been proposed to influence MS risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various environmental exposures on MS risk in a Norwegian cohort, focusing on factors during childhood related to the hygiene hypothesis. METHODS: A questionnaire concerning environmental exposures, lifestyle, demographics and comorbidity was administrated to 756 Norwegian MS patients and 1090 healthy controls...
2014: BMC Neurology
Anita Kondrashova, Heikki Hyöty
Type 1 diabetes is caused by an immune-mediated destruction of insulin producing beta-cells in the pancreas. The risk of the disease is determined by interactions between more than 40 different susceptibility genes and yet unidentified environmental factors. The rapidly increasing incidence indicates that these environmental agents have a significant role in the pathogenesis. Microbes have associated with both increased and decreased risk reflecting their possible role as risk or protective factors. Two main hypotheses have been proposed to explain these effects: the hygiene hypothesis suggests that microbial exposures in early childhood stimulate immunoregulatory mechanisms which control autoimmune reactions (analogy with allergy), while the triggering hypothesis suggests that specific microbes damage insulin producing cells...
July 2014: International Reviews of Immunology
Dennis Bourdette, Robert T Naismith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 7, 2014: Neurology
Apurvi R Patel, John Zietlow, Robert M Jacobson, Gregory A Poland, Young J Juhn
BACKGROUND: According to the 'hygiene hypothesis', an increase in microbial exposure in childhood leads to a T-helper cell 1 (Th1) predominant immune response and protection against asthma and atopic conditions. AIMS: To assess the prevalence of asthma and other atopic conditions in Somali immigrants and to determine the humoral immune response to the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine viruses in Somali immigrants with asthma. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Olmsted County, Minnesota...
September 2013: Primary Care Respiratory Journal: Journal of the General Practice Airways Group
Katerina Oikonomopoulou, Davor Brinc, Kyriacos Kyriacou, Eleftherios P Diamandis
Several studies have shown that persistent infections and inflammation can favor carcinogenesis. At the same time, certain types of pathogens and antitumor immune responses can decrease the risk of tumorigenesis or lead to cancer regression. Infectious agents and their products can orchestrate a wide range of host immune responses, through which they may positively or negatively modulate cancer development and/or progression. The factors that direct this dichotomous influence of infection-mediated immunity on carcinogenesis are not well understood...
June 1, 2013: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Nicholas W Kin, Emily K Stefanov, Brian L P Dizon, John F Kearney
There has been a sharp rise in allergic asthma and asthma-related deaths in the developed world, in contrast to many childhood illnesses that have been reduced or eliminated. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that excessively sanitary conditions early in life result in autoimmune and allergic phenomena because of a failure of the immune system to receive proper microbial stimulation during development. We demonstrate that Abs generated against conserved bacterial polysaccharides are reactive with and dampen the immune response against chitin and Aspergillus fumigatus...
September 1, 2012: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Joanne G Lisciandro, Susan L Prescott, Marie G Nadal-Sims, Catherine J Devitt, William Pomat, Peter M Siba, Meri C Tulic, Patrick G Holt, Deborah Strickland, Anita H J van den Biggelaar
Studies addressing the ontogeny of the innate immune system in early life have reported mainly on Toll-like receptor (TLR) responses in infants living in high-income countries, with little or even no information on other pattern recognition receptors or on early life innate immune responses in children living under very different environmental conditions in less-developed parts of the world. In this study, we describe whole blood innate immune responses to both Toll-like and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor agonists including the widely used vaccine adjuvant 'alum' in a group of Papua New Guinean infants aged 1-3 (n = 18), 4-6 (n = 18), 7-12 (n = 21) and 13-18 (n = 10) months old...
2012: PloS One
Katherine Wander, Kathleen O'Connor, Bettina Shell-Duncan
BACKGROUND: Multiple lines of evidence suggest that infections in early life prevent the development of pathological immune responses to allergens and autoantigens (the hygiene hypothesis). Early infections may also affect later immune responses to pathogen antigen. METHODS: To evaluate an association between early infections and immune responses to pathogen antigen, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to Candida albicans was evaluated among 283 2- to 7-year-old children in Kilimanjaro, Tanzania...
2012: PloS One
Bengt Björkstén
Numerous epidemiological studies suggest that there is an inverse relationship between "immunologically mediated diseases of affluence", such as allergy, diabetes and inflammatory bowel disease on one hand and few infections encountered in early childhood, on the other hand. Careful analysis of the epidemiological, clinical and animal studies taken together, however, suggests that the protection is mediated by broad exposure to a wealth of commensal, non-pathogenic microorganisms early in life, rather than by infections...
June 19, 2012: Vaccine
Girish Deshpande, Shripad Rao, Sanjay Patole
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The interest and scope for research in the field of probiotics has significantly widened in recent years. This brief review covers the significant advances in the field of probiotics. RECENT FINDINGS: These include conclusive evidence for the benefits of probiotics in preventing all cause mortality and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates, understanding the role of probiotics as vaccine adjuvants, and in modulating inflammatory bowel diseases, bowel cancer, type 1 diabetes mellitus, obesity, high cholesterol levels, and bacterial resistance...
January 2011: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Carsten Flohr, Lindsey Yeo
BACKGROUND: We published a systematic review on atopic dermatitis (AD) and the hygiene hypothesis in 2005. Since then, the body of literature has grown significantly. OBJECTIVES: We therefore repeated our systematic review to examine the evidence from population-based studies for an association between AD risk and specific infections, childhood immunizations, the use of antibiotics and environmental exposures that lead to a change in microbial burden. METHODS: Medline was searched from 1966 until June 2010 to identify relevant studies...
2011: Current Problems in Dermatology
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