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Nuclear imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108738/spect-and-pet-radiopharmaceuticals-for-molecular-imaging-of-apoptosis-from-bench-to-clinic
#1
Xiaobo Wang, Han Feng, Shichao Zhao, Junling Xu, Xinyu Wu, Jing Cui, Ying Zhang, Yuhua Qin, Zhiguo Liu, Tang Gao, Yongju Gao, Wenbin Zeng
Owing to the central role of apoptosis in many human diseases and the wide-spread application of apoptosis-based therapeutics, molecular imaging of apoptosis in clinical practice is of great interest for clinicians, and holds great promises. Based on the well-defined biochemical changes for apoptosis, a rich assortment of probes and approaches have been developed for molecular imaging of apoptosis with various imaging modalities. Among these imaging techniques, nuclear imaging (including single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography) remains the premier clinical method owing to their high specificity and sensitivity...
January 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108477/quantitative-microscopy-uncovers-ploidy-changes-during-mitosis-in-live-drosophila-embryos-and-their-effect-on-nuclear-size
#2
Wee Choo Puah, Rambabu Chinta, Martin Wasser
Time-lapse microscopy is a powerful tool to investigate cellular and developmental dynamics. In Drosophila melanogaster, it can be used to study division cycles in embryogenesis. To obtain quantitative information from 3D time-lapse data and track proliferating nuclei from the syncytial stage until gastrulation, we developed an image analysis pipeline consisting of nuclear segmentation, tracking, annotation and quantification. Image analysis of maternal-haploid (mh) embryos revealed that a fraction of haploid syncytial nuclei fused to give rise to nuclei of higher ploidy (2n, 3n, 4n)...
January 20, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107752/genome-nuclear-lamina-interactions-from-cell-populations-to-single-cells
#3
REVIEW
J Omar Yáñez-Cuna, Bas van Steensel
Lamina-associated domains (LADs) are large genomic regions that interact with the nuclear lamina (NL) and help to guide the spatial folding of chromosomes in the interphase nucleus. LADs have been linked to gene repression and other functions. Recent studies have begun to uncover some of the molecular players that drive LAD-NL interactions. A picture emerges in which DNA sequence, chromatin components and nuclear lamina proteins play an important role. Complementary to this, imaging and single-cell genomics approaches have revealed that some LAD-NL interactions are variable from cell to cell, while others are very stable...
January 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107508/prospects-of-targeting-the-gastrin-releasing-peptide-receptor-and-somatostatin-receptor-2-for-nuclear-imaging-and-therapy-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#4
Simone U Dalm, Willemijne A M E Schrijver, Anieta M Sieuwerts, Maxime P Look, Angelique C J Ziel-van der Made, Vanja de Weerd, John W Martens, Paul J van Diest, Marion de Jong, Carolien H M van Deurzen
BACKGROUND: The gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and the somatostatin receptor 2 (SSTR2) are overexpressed on primary breast cancer (BC), making them ideal candidates for receptor-mediated nuclear imaging and therapy. The aim of this study was to determine whether these receptors are also suitable targets for metastatic BC. METHODS: mRNA expression of human BC samples were studied by in vitro autoradiography and associated with radioligand binding. Next, GRPR and SSTR2 mRNA levels of 60 paired primary BCs and metastases from different sites were measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106824/identification-of-the-muc2-promoter-as-a-strong-promoter-for-intestinal-gene-expression-through-generation-of-transgenic-quail-expressing-gfp-in-gut-epithelial-cells
#5
Rachel M Woodfint, Paula R Chen, Jinsoo Ahn, Yeunsu Suh, Seongsoo Hwang, Sang Suk Lee, Kichoon Lee
Identification of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is valuable for delineating the functional roles of specific genes in genetically engineered animals. Here, through the comparison of gene expression in different tissues by analysis of a microarray database, the intestinal specificity of mucin 2 (MUC2) expression was identified in mice and humans, and further confirmed in chickens by RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) analysis. An analysis of cis-acting elements in avian MUC2 gene promoters revealed conservation of binding sites, within a 2...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104744/spect-ct-imaging-of-the-novel-her2-targeted-peptide-probe-99mtc-hynic-h6f-in-breast-cancer-mouse-models
#6
Liqiang Li, Yue Wu, Zihua Wang, Bing Jia, Zhiyuan Hu, Chengyan Dong, Fan Wang
OBJECTIVES: Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) plays important roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression in breast cancer. Nuclear imaging of HER2 expression in tumors might detect all HER2-positive tumors throughout the body and guide HER2-targeted therapies for patients. We therefore aimed to develop a HER2-targeted peptide probe for breast cancer imaging. A novel single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging probe, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-H6F, was prepared and then evaluated in breast cancer animal models...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104248/continuous-hemifacial-myokymia-as-the-revealing-symptom-of-demyelinating-disease-of-the-cns
#7
Frédéric London, Nawal Hadhoum, Hélène Zéphir, Patrick Vermersch, Olivier Outteryck
Facial myokymia (FM) is an uncommon involuntary movement, disorder of the musculature supplied by the facial nerve and, characterized by spontaneous undulating, vermicular movements beneath the, skin. It has rarely been described as a form of presentation of multiple, sclerosis. We describe a 31-year-old man presenting with continuous, unilateral facial myokymia as the revealing symptom of a demyelinating, disorder of central nervous system. Brain magnetic resonance imaging, showed an ipsilateral pontine T2/FLAIR hyperintensity close to the, postgenu course of facial nerve, suggestive of a segmental demyelination, of facial nerve causing facial nuclear hyperactivity and resulting in FM...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103554/robust-neighborhood-preserving-projection-by-nuclear-l2-1-norm-regularization-for-image-feature-extraction
#8
Zhao Zhang, Fanzhang Li, Mingbo Zhao, Li Zhang, Shuicheng Yan
We propose two nuclear- and L2,1-norm regularized two-dimensional neighborhood preserving projection (2DNPP) methods for extracting representative 2D image features. 2DNPP extracts neighborhood preserving features via minimizing the Frobenius norm based reconstruction error that is very sensitive to noise and outliers in data. To make the distance metric more reliable and robust, and encode the neighborhood reconstruction error more accurately, we minimize the nuclear- and L2,1-norm based reconstruction error respectively and measure it over each image...
January 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102961/assessing-the-use-of-4dct-ventilation-in-pre-operative-surgical-lung-cancer-evaluation
#9
Yevgeniy Vinogradskiy, Matthew Jackson, Leah Schubert, Bernard Jones, Richard Castillo, Edward Castillo, Thomas Guerrero, John Mitchell, Chad Rusthoven, Moyed Miften, Brian Kavanagh
PURPOSE: A primary treatment option for lung cancer patients is surgical resection. Patients who have poor lung function prior to surgery are at increased risk of developing serious and life-threatening complications after surgical resection. Surgeons use nuclear medicine ventilation-perfusion (VQ) scans along with pulmonary function test (PFT) information to assess a patient's pre-surgical lung function. The nuclear medicine images and pre-surgery PFTs are used to calculate percent predicted postoperative (%PPO) PFT values by estimating the amount of functioning lung tissue that would be lost with surgical resection...
January 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100661/weak-beam-scanning-transmission-electron-microscopy-for-quantitative-dislocation-density-measurement-in-steels
#10
Kenta Yoshida, Masaki Shimodaira, Takeshi Toyama, Yasuo Shimizu, Koji Inoue, Toshimasa Yoshiie, Konstantinovic J Milan, Robert Gerard, Yasuyoshi Nagai
To evaluate dislocations induced by neutron irradiation, we developed a weak-beam scanning transmission electron microscopy (WB-STEM) system by installing a novel beam selector, an annular detector, a high-speed CCD camera and an imaging filter in the camera chamber of a spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The capabilities of the WB-STEM with respect to wide-view imaging, real-time diffraction monitoring and multi-contrast imaging are demonstrated using typical reactor pressure vessel steel that had been used in an European nuclear reactor for 30 years as a surveillance test piece with a fluence of 1...
January 17, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099101/myeloperoxidase-nuclear-imaging-for-epileptogenesis
#11
Yinian Zhang, Daniel P Seeburg, Benjamin Pulli, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Lionel Bure, Wendy Atkinson, Stefan Schob, Yoshiko Iwamoto, Muhammad Ali, Wei Zhang, Elisenda Rodriguez, Andrew Milewski, Edmund J Keliher, Cuihua Wang, Yawen Pan, Filip K Swirski, John W Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098734/multimodal-fundus-imaging-of-outer-retinal-tubulations-in-choroidal-osteoma-patients
#12
Yi Xuan, Yongjin Zhang, Min Wang, Jinli Guo, Lei Li, Wei Liu, Xiaofeng Ye
PURPOSE: To evaluate the morphological findings of outer retinal tubulations (ORTs) shown on multimodal imaging modalities in patients with choroidal osteoma. METHODS: Nineteen eyes of 17 patients with choroidal osteoma underwent full clinical and imaging assessments. Color fundus photography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT), and en face OCT were used to identify and detect the characteristics of ORT structures, including the shape, configuration, location, and distribution in the fundus...
January 16, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098202/superresolution-imaging-of-clinical-formalin-fixed-paraffin-embedded-breast-cancer-with-single-molecule-localization-microscopy
#13
Matthew K Creech, Jing Wang, Xiaolin Nan, Summer L Gibbs
Millions of archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens contain valuable molecular insight into healthy and diseased states persevered in their native ultrastructure. To diagnose and treat diseases in tissue on the nanoscopic scale, pathology traditionally employs electron microscopy (EM), but this platform has significant limitations including cost and painstaking sample preparation. The invention of single molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) optically overcame the diffraction limit of light to resolve fluorescently labeled molecules on the nanoscale, leading to many exciting biological discoveries...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097654/melanopsin-expressing-ganglion-cells-in-human-retina-morphology-distribution-and-synaptic-connections
#14
Subha Nasir-Ahmad, Sammy C S Lee, Paul R Martin, Ulrike Grünert
Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive cells that are involved in non-image forming visual processes such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian entrainment but also contribute to visual perception. Here we used immunohistochemistry to study the morphology, density, distribution and synaptic connectivity of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in four post mortem human donor retinas. Two types of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells were distinguished based on their dendritic stratification near either the outer or the inner border of the inner plexiform layer...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097498/clinical-applications-of-a-ct-window-blending-algorithm-radio-relative-attenuation-dependent-image-overlay
#15
Jacob C Mandell, Bharti Khurana, Les R Folio, Hyewon Hyun, Stacy E Smith, Ruth M Dunne, Katherine P Andriole
A methodology is described using Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Extendscript to process DICOM images with a Relative Attenuation-Dependent Image Overlay (RADIO) algorithm to visualize the full dynamic range of CT in one view, without requiring a change in window and level settings. The potential clinical uses for such an algorithm are described in a pictorial overview, including applications in emergency radiology, oncologic imaging, and nuclear medicine and molecular imaging.
January 17, 2017: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096269/differentiation-between-radiation-necrosis-and-tumor-progression-using-chemical-exchange-saturation-transfer
#16
Hatef Mehrabian, Kimberly L Desmond, Hany Soliman, Arjun Sahgal, Gregory J Stanisz
PURPOSE: Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a common treatment used in patients with brain metastases and is associated with high rates of local control, however, at the risk of radiation necrosis. It is difficult to differentiate radiation necrosis from tumor progression using conventional MRI making it a major diagnostic dilemma for practitioners. This prospective study investigated whether chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) was able to differentiate these two conditions. MATERIALS & METHODS: Fifteen patients with brain metastases who had been previously treated with SRS were included...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094808/butterfly-eyespot-organiser-in-vivo-imaging-of-the-prospective-focal-cells-in-pupal-wing-tissues
#17
Mayo Iwasaki, Yoshikazu Ohno, Joji M Otaki
Butterfly wing eyespot patterns are determined in pupal tissues by organisers located at the centre of the prospective eyespots. Nevertheless, organiser cells have not been examined cytochemically in vivo, partly due to technical difficulties. Here, we directly observed organiser cells in pupal forewing epithelium via an in vivo confocal fluorescent imaging technique, using 1-h post-pupation pupae of the blue pansy butterfly, Junonia orithya. The prospective eyespot centre was indented from the plane of the ventral tissue surface...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092513/automatic-nuclear-segmentation-using-multi-scale-radial-line-scanning-with-dynamic-programming
#18
Hongming Xu, Cheng Lu, Richard Berendt, Naresh Jha, Mrinal Mandal
In the diagnosis of various cancers by analyzing histological images, automatic nuclear segmentation is an important step. However, nuclear segmentation is a difficult problem because of overlapping nuclei, inhomogeneous staining, and presence of noisy pixels and other tissue components. In this paper, we present an automatic technique for nuclear segmentation in skin histological images. The proposed technique first applies a bank of generalized Laplacian of Gaussian (gLoG) kernels to detect nuclear seeds...
January 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092459/toward-high-throughput-and-multiplexed-imaging-of-genome-organization
#19
Eric F Joyce
Dr. Eric Joyce from the Department of Genetics at the University of Pennsylvania was awarded The President's Innovation award at the annual Society of Biomolecular Imaging and Informatics meeting held in Boston, September 2016. Chromosome interactions are a fundamental aspect of nuclear organization that can activate and silence genes or even direct chromosome rearrangements. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying how chromosomal segments find each other and form stable interactions within cells remain unknown...
January 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091870/perspectives-using-polymer-modeling-to-understand-the-formation-and-function-of-nuclear-compartments
#20
REVIEW
N Haddad, D Jost, C Vaillant
Compartmentalization is a ubiquitous feature of cellular function. In the nucleus, early observations revealed a non-random spatial organization of the genome with a large-scale segregation between transcriptionally active-euchromatin-and silenced-heterochromatin-parts of the genome. Recent advances in genome-wide mapping and imaging techniques have strikingly improved the resolution at which nuclear genome folding can be analyzed and have revealed a multiscale spatial compartmentalization with increasing evidences that such compartment may indeed result from and participate to genome function...
January 14, 2017: Chromosome Research
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