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Nuclear imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651424/estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-renal-scan-and-volumetric-assessment-of-the-kidney-before-and-after-partial-nephrectomy-a-review-of-the-current-literature
#1
Riccardo G Bertolo, Homayoun Zargar, Riccardo Autorino, Cristian Fiori, Jihad H Kaouk, Paul Russo, Robert H Thompson, Francesco Porpiglia
INTRODUCTION: The best method for assessing renal function after partial nephrectomy (PN) continues to be a matter of debate. Early studies evaluated kidney function by measuring serum creatinine (sCr) and/or the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), potentially underestimating the contribution of the contralateral kidney in masking alterations in renal function. Since then, researchers have studied the operated renal unit with the aid of nuclear renal scans (RS). However, taking into consideration the importance of the amount of renal parenchyma spared or sacrificed during PN, many novel methods have been proposed for determining kidney volume before and after PN...
June 23, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650662/glucose-restriction-combined-with-autophagy-inhibition-and-chemotherapy-in-hct-116-spheroids-decreases-cell-clonogenicity-and-viability-regulated-by-tumor-suppressor-genes
#2
Monica M Schroll, Gabriel J LaBonia, Katelyn R Ludwig, Amanda B Hummon
Drug resistance is a prevalent phenomenon that decreases the efficacy of cancer treatments and contributes to cancer progression and metastasis. Weakening drug resistant cancer cells prior to chemotherapy is a potential strategy to combat chemoresistance. One approach to damage resistant cancer cells is modulation of nutritional intake. The combination of nutrient restriction with targeted compound treatment results in pronounced molecular changes. This study provides valuable information about augmenting existing chemotherapeutic regimes with simultaneous glucose restriction and autophagy inhibition in colorectal cancer cells...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650133/imaging-in-primary-hyperparathyroidism-focus-on-the-evidence-based-diagnostic-performance-of-different-methods
#3
Giorgio Treglia, Pierpaolo Trimboli, Martin Huellner, Luca Giovanella
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a common endocrine disorder usually due to hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands (HP). Surgical removal of HP is the main treatment in PHPT, particularly in symptomatic patients. The correct detection and localization of HP is challenging and crucial as it may guide surgical treatment in patients with PHPT. To date, different imaging methods have been used to detect and localize HP in patients with PHPT including radiology, nuclear medicine and hybrid techniques...
June 23, 2017: Minerva Endocrinologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648678/single-plane-illumination-microscopy-as-a-tool-for-studying-nucleome-dynamics
#4
Jörg Langowski
Single plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) is a new optical method that has become extremely important in recent years. It is based on the formation of a "light slice" in the specimen in which fluorescently tagged molecules are observed. The spatial resolution is close to that of confocal optics, but without the disadvantages inherent to scanning or high laser irradiation doses. A recent development is light sheet fluctuation microscopy, which exploits the dynamic information contained in the fluorescence intensity fluctuations of each image pixel...
June 22, 2017: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646645/comorbidity-assessment-in-patients-with-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-can-imaging-techniques-fludeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomographic-computed-tomography-and-contrast-enhanced-computed-tomography-provide-additional-information
#5
Matthias Troeltzsch, Florian Andreas Probst, Axel Rominger, Ulrich Müller-Lisse, Monika Probst, Katharina Obermeier, Michael Ehrenfeld, Sven Otto
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the role of imaging staging examinations (positron-emission tomographic computed tomography [PET/CT] and contrast-enhanced computed tomography [ceCT]) for the assessment of the comorbidity status of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). A binary null hypothesis was drafted: 1) imaging staging examinations do not augment knowledge about the comorbidity status of patients with OSCC and 2) there is no difference between PET/CT and ceCT in this regard...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646547/a-dual-fluorescence-reporter-in-the-eomes-locus-for-live-imaging-and-medium-term-lineage-tracing
#6
Simone Probst, Ray A Daza, Natalie Bader, Jonas F Hummel, Matthias Weiß, Yakup Tanriver, Robert F Hevner, Sebastian J Arnold
The T-box transcription factor Eomes (also known as Tbr2) shows short-lived expression in various localized domains of the embryo, including epiblast cells during gastrulation and intermediate progenitor cells in the cerebral cortex. In these tissues Eomes fulfills crucial roles for lineage specification of progenitors. To directly observe Eomes-dependent cell lineages in the living embryo, we generated a novel dual-fluorescence reporter allele that expresses a membrane-bound tdTomato protein for investigation of cell morphology and a nuclear GFP for cell tracing...
June 24, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645289/degenerative-changes-of-the-canine-cervical-spine-after-discectomy-procedures-an-in-vivo-study
#7
Peter Grunert, Yu Moriguchi, Brian P Grossbard, Rodolfo J Ricart Arbona, Lawrence J Bonassar, Roger Härtl
BACKGROUND: Discectomies are a common surgical treatment for disc herniations in the canine spine. However, the effect of these procedures on intervertebral disc tissue is not fully understood. The objective of this study was to assess degenerative changes of cervical spinal segments undergoing discectomy procedures, in vivo. RESULTS: Discectomies led to a 60% drop in disc height and 24% drop in foraminal height. Segments did not fuse but showed osteophyte formation as well as endplate sclerosis...
June 23, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644644/highly-nuclear-spin-polarized-deuterium-atoms-from-the-uv-photodissociation-of-deuterium-iodide
#8
Dimitris Sofikitis, Pavle Glodic, Greta Koumarianou, Hongyan Jiang, Lykourgos Bougas, Peter C Samartzis, Alexander Andreev, T Peter Rakitzis
We report a novel highly spin-polarized deuterium (SPD) source, via the photodissociation of deuterium iodide at 270 nm. I(^{2}P_{3/2}) photofragments are ionized with m-state selectivity, and their velocity distribution measured via velocity-map slice imaging, from which the D polarization is determined. The process produces ∼100% electronically polarized D at the time of dissociation, which is then converted to ∼60% nuclear D polarization after ∼1.6  ns. These production times for SPD allow collision-limited densities of ∼10^{18}  cm^{-3} and at production rates of ∼10^{21}  s^{-1} which are 10^{6} and 10^{4} times higher than conventional (Stern-Gerlach separation) methods, respectively...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644643/first-demonstration-of-a-scintillating-xenon-bubble-chamber-for-detecting-dark-matter-and-coherent-elastic-neutrino-nucleus-scattering
#9
D Baxter, C J Chen, M Crisler, T Cwiok, C E Dahl, A Grimsted, J Gupta, M Jin, R Puig, D Temples, J Zhang
A 30-g xenon bubble chamber, operated at Northwestern University in June and November 2016, has for the first time observed simultaneous bubble nucleation and scintillation by nuclear recoils in a superheated liquid. This chamber is instrumented with a CCD camera for near-IR bubble imaging, a solar-blind photomultiplier tube to detect 175-nm xenon scintillation light, and a piezoelectric acoustic transducer to detect the ultrasonic emission from a growing bubble. The time of nucleation determined from the acoustic signal is used to correlate specific scintillation pulses with bubble-nucleating events...
June 9, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644482/one-thousand-fold-enhancement-of-high-field-liquid-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-signals-at-room-temperature
#10
Guoquan Liu, Marcel Levien, Niels Karschin, Giacomo Parigi, Claudio Luchinat, Marina Bennati
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a fundamental spectroscopic technique for the study of biological systems and materials, molecular imaging and the analysis of small molecules. It detects interactions at very low energies and is thus non-invasive and applicable to a variety of targets, including animals and humans. However, one of its most severe limitations is its low sensitivity, which stems from the small interaction energies involved. Here, we report that dynamic nuclear polarization in liquid solution and at room temperature can enhance the NMR signal of (13)C nuclei by up to three orders of magnitude at magnetic fields of ∼3 T...
July 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643771/dynamics-of-valence-shell-electrons-and-nuclei-probed-by-strong-field-holography-and-rescattering
#11
Samuel G Walt, Niraghatam Bhargava Ram, Marcos Atala, Nikolay I Shvetsov-Shilovski, Aaron von Conta, Denitsa Baykusheva, Manfred Lein, Hans Jakob Wörner
Strong-field photoelectron holography and laser-induced electron diffraction (LIED) are two powerful emerging methods for probing the ultrafast dynamics of molecules. However, both of them have remained restricted to static systems and to nuclear dynamics induced by strong-field ionization. Here we extend these promising methods to image purely electronic valence-shell dynamics in molecules using photoelectron holography. In the same experiment, we use LIED and photoelectron holography simultaneously, to observe coupled electronic-rotational dynamics taking place on similar timescales...
June 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642276/dedifferentiation-proliferation-and-redifferentiation-of-adult-mammalian-cardiomyocytes-after-ischemic-injury
#12
Wei Eric Wang, Liangpeng Li, Xuewei Xia, Wenbin Fu, Qiao Liao, Cong Lan, Dezhong Yang, Hongmei Chen, Rongchuan Yue, Cindy S Zeng, Lin Zhou, Bin Zhou, Dayue D Duan, Xiongwen Chen, Steven R Houser, Chunyu Zeng
Background -Adult mammalian hearts have a limited ability to generate new cardiomyocytes. Proliferation of existing adult cardiomyocytes (ACM) is a potential source of new cardiomyocytes. Understanding the fundamental biology of ACM proliferation could be of great clinical significance for treating myocardial infarction (MI). We aim to understand the process and regulation of ACM proliferation and its role in new cardiomyocyte formation of post-MI mouse hearts. Methods -β-actin-GFP transgenic mice and fate-mapping Myh6-MerCreMer-tdTomato/lacZ mice were used to trace the fate of ACMs...
June 22, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640297/preparation-of-tetrazine-containing-2-1-complexes-of-99m-tc-and-in-vivo-targeting-using-bioorthogonal-inverse-electron-demand-diels-alder-chemistry
#13
Abdolreza Yazdani, Nancy Janzen, Shannon Czorny, Robert G Ungard, Tanya Miladinovic, Gurmit Singh, John F Valliant
The aim of this work was to synthesize and evaluate [2 + 1] (99m)Tc(i) polypyridine complexes containing tetrazines, which along with the corresponding Re(i) complexes, represent a new class of isostructural nuclear and turn-on luminescent probes that can be derivatized and targeted using bioorthogonal chemistry. To this end, [2 + 1] complexes of (99m)Tc(i) of the type [(99m)Tc(CO)3(N^N)(L)] (N^N = bathophenanthroline disulfonate (BPS) or 2,2'-bipyridine (bipy)), where the monodentate ligand (L) was a tetrazine linked to the metal through an imidazole derivative, were prepared...
June 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639953/impressive-paget-disease-of-the-lumbar-spine-masks-the-coexisting-multiple-myeloma
#14
Xiao Zhong, Yunxia Ye, Xiaohong Ou
Multimodality imaging, including MRI, bone scintigraphy, and FDG PET/CT, was performed to evaluate a 49-year-old man who had right hip and lower limb pain for 4 months because possible malignancy was suspected. All 3 modalities showed obvious Paget disease of the lumbar spine. However, less impressive increased activity was also noted on FDG PET/CT images. Subsequent laboratory tests and pathology examination leads to diagnosis of multiple myeloma. Our case further confirms the notion that it is insufficient to focus on the most obvious and unintentionally overlook the less impressive findings in interpreting nuclear medicine images...
June 20, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639924/cushing-syndrome-diagnostic-workup-and-imaging-features-with-clinical-and-pathologic-correlation
#15
Nicolaus A Wagner-Bartak, Ali Baiomy, Mouhammed Amir Habra, Shalini V Mukhi, Ajaykumar C Morani, Brinda R Korivi, Steven G Waguespack, Khaled M Elsayes
OBJECTIVE: Cushing syndrome (CS) is a constellation of clinical signs and symptoms resulting from chronic exposure to excess cortisol, either exogenous or endogenous. Exogenous CS is most commonly caused by administration of glucocorticoids. Endogenous CS is subdivided into two types: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) dependent and ACTH independent. CONCLUSION: Cushing disease, which is caused by a pituitary adenoma, is the most common cause of ACTH-dependent CS for which pituitary MRI can be diagnostic, with bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling useful in equivocal cases...
July 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639310/high-resolution-31-p-echo-planar-spectroscopic-imaging-in-vivo-at-7t
#16
Andreas Korzowski, Peter Bachert
PURPOSE: Conventional (31) P chemical shift imaging is time-consuming and yields only limited spatial resolution. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate feasibility of (31) P echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) in vivo at 7T. METHODS: A 3D (31) P EPSI sequence with trapezoidal-shaped gradient pulses was implemented on a 7T MR scanner. To increase spectral width with reduced demand on gradient performance, a multishot approach was chosen. Acquisition weighting and (31) P-{(1) H} double resonance for nuclear Overhauser signal enhancement were applied to increase sensitivity...
June 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638298/uncertainty-of-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-in-chest-pain-risk-stratification
#17
Htoo Kyaw, Sivacharan Buddhavarapu, Joseph Abboud, Deepika Misra
BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common presenting symptom in the emergency department (ED). Although the diagnostic workup for chest pain is well established, the best time to perform invasive cardiac catheterization in patients with low to moderate risk of coronary artery disease is still unclear, particularly if noninvasive tests such as the electrocardiogram (ECG) and nuclear myocardial perfusion scan show nonsignificant findings. CASE REPORT: We present the case of a 52-year-old female who presented to the ED with acute-onset chest pain that had started early in the morning while she was sleeping...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632200/the-beginning-and-development-of-the-theranostic-approach-in-nuclear-medicine-as-exemplified-by-the-radionuclide-pair-86-y-and-90-y
#18
Frank Rösch, Hans Herzog, Syed M Qaim
In the context of radiopharmacy and molecular imaging, the concept of theranostics entails a therapy-accompanying diagnosis with the aim of a patient-specific treatment. Using the adequate diagnostic radiopharmaceutical, the disease and the state of the disease are verified for an individual patient. The other way around, it verifies that the radiopharmaceutical in hand represents a target-specific and selective molecule: the "best one" for that individual patient. Transforming diagnostic imaging into quantitative dosimetric information, the optimum radioactivity (expressed in maximum radiation dose to the target tissue and tolerable dose to healthy organs) of the adequate radiotherapeutical is applied to that individual patient...
June 20, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631929/-13-c-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-using-a-trimeric-gd-3-complex-as-an-additive
#19
Peter Niedbalski, Christopher Parish, Qing Wang, Andhika Kiswandhi, Zahra Hayati, Likai Song, Lloyd Laporca Lumata
Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) is one of the most successful techniques that resolves the insensitivity problem in liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging (MRI) by amplifying the signal by several thousand-fold. One way to further improve the DNP signal is the inclusion of trace amounts of lanthanides in DNP samples doped with trityl OX063 free radical as the polarizing agent. In practice, stable monomeric gadolinium complexes such as Gd-DOTA or Gd-HP-DO3A are used as beneficial additives in DNP samples, further boosting the DNP-enhanced solid-state 13C polarization by a factor of 2 or 3...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630948/near-theoretical-gigabit-link-efficiency-for-distributed-data-acquisition-systems
#20
Faisal T Abu-Nimeh, Woon-Seng Choong
Link efficiency, data integrity, and continuity for high-throughput and real-time systems is crucial. Most of these applications require specialized hardware and operating systems as well as extensive tuning in order to achieve high efficiency. Here, we present an implementation of gigabit Ethernet data streaming which can achieve 99.26% link efficiency while maintaining no packet losses. The design and implementation are built on OpenPET, an opensource data acquisition platform for nuclear medical imaging, where (a) a crate hosting multiple OpenPET detector boards uses a User Datagram Protocol over Internet Protocol (UDP/IP) Ethernet soft-core, that is capable of understanding PAUSE frames, to stream data out to a computer workstation; (b) the receiving computer uses Netmap to allow the processing software (i...
March 2017: IEEE transactions on radiation and plasma medical sciences
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