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Nuclear imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782657/phantom-clinical-and-texture-indices-evaluation-and-optimization-of-a-penalized-likelihood-image-reconstruction-method-q-clear-on-a-bgo-pet-ct-scanner
#1
Gabriel Reynés-Llompart, Cristina Gámez-Cenzano, José Luís Vercher-Conejero, Aida Sabaté-Llobera, Nahúm Calvo-Malvar, Josep M Martí-Climent
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of a penalized-likelihood image reconstruction method (Q.Clear) under different count statistics and lesion-to-background ratios (LBR) on a BGO scanner, in order to obtain an optimum penalization factor (β value) to study and optimize for different acquisition protocols and clinical goals. METHODS: Both phantom and patient images were evaluated. Data from an image quality phantom were acquired using different Lesion-to-Background ratios and acquisition times...
May 21, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782597/low-dose-radiation-18f-fluoride-pet-ct-in-the-assessment-of-unilateral-condylar-hyperplasia-of-the-mandible-preliminary-results-of-a-single-centre-experience
#2
G M Lima, S Diodato, E Costabile, G Cicoria, S Civollani, C Marchetti, P L Guidalotti, C Pettinato, C Nanni, S Fanti
Background: Unilateral condylar hyperplasia (UCH) of the mandible, or Hypercondylia, is a pathological condition that determines an abnormal growth of the affected condyle.Bone SPECT with Tc99m-diphosphonates is a successful tool in the diagnosis of UCH. EANM guidelines also suggest the use of 18F-NaF PET/CT, though it leads to a higher radiation exposure. Aim: As UCH patients are young, we aimed to develop a low dose 18F-Fluoride PET/CT protocol and compare it to a standard injected activity scan, to assess if the image quality remains unchanged...
2018: Eur J Hybrid Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782059/testicular-histomorphometry-and-the-proliferative-and-apoptotic-activities-of-the-seminiferous-epithelium-in-syrian-hamster-during-spontaneous-recrudescence-after-exposure-to-short-photoperiod
#3
Jesús Martínez-Hernández, Vicente Seco-Rovira, Ester Beltrán-Frutos, Concepción Ferrer, Manuel Canteras, María Del Mar Sánchez-Huertas, Luis Miguel Pastor
Syrian hamsters are photoperiodic rodents in which reproduction, including testicular function, is stimulated by long photoperiod exposure and curtailed by exposure to a short photoperiod. The objectives of this study were to characterize the testis histomorphometrically and to determine the role of the proliferation and apoptosis phenomena in the recovery of the seminiferous epithelium during spontaneous recrudescence after exposure to short photoperiod. The study was performed using conventional light microscopy, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling staining, image analysis software, and transmission electron microscopy in three recrudescence groups: initial recrudescence (IR), advanced recrudescence (AR) and total recrudescence (TR)...
May 21, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781988/automated-slide-scanning-and-segmentation-in-fluorescently-labeled-tissues-using-a-widefield-high-content-analysis-system
#4
Candice C Poon, Vincent Ebacher, Katherine Liu, Voon Wee Yong, John James Patrick Kelly
Automated slide scanning and segmentation of fluorescently-labeled tissues is the most efficient way to analyze whole slides or large tissue sections. Unfortunately, many researchers spend large amounts of time and resources developing and optimizing workflows that are only relevant to their own experiments. In this article, we describe a protocol that can be used by those with access to a widefield high-content analysis system (WHCAS) to image any slide-mounted tissue, with options for customization within pre-built modules found in the associated software...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780864/change-in-retinal-structural-anatomy-during-the-preclinical-stage-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Cláudia Y Santos, Lenworth N Johnson, Stuart E Sinoff, Elena K Festa, William C Heindel, Peter J Snyder
Introduction: We conducted a 27-month longitudinal study of mid-life adults with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), using spectral domain optical coherence tomography to compare changes in volume and thickness in all retinal neuronal layers to those of age-matched healthy control subjects. Methods: Fifty-six older adults (mean age = 65.36 years) with multiple risk factors for AD completed spectral domain optical coherence tomography retinal imaging and cognitive testing at baseline...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780557/pd-nanosheets-with-their-surface-coordinated-by-radioactive-iodide-as-a-high-performance-theranostic-nanoagent-for-orthotopic-hepatocellular-carcinoma-imaging-and-cancer-therapy
#6
Mei Chen, Zhide Guo, Qinghua Chen, Jingping Wei, Jingchao Li, Changrong Shi, Duo Xu, Dawang Zhou, Xianzhong Zhang, Nanfeng Zheng
Radiolabeled nanoparticles (NPs), taking advantage of nanotechnology and nuclear medicine, have shown attractive potential for cancer diagnosis and therapy. However, the high background signal in the liver and long-term toxic effects of radioisotopes caused by the nonselective accumulation of radiolabeled nanoparticles in organs have become the major challenges. Here, we report a pH-sensitive multifunctional theranostic platform with radiolabeled Pd nanosheets through a simple mixture of ultra-small Pd nanosheets and radioisotopes utilizing the strong adsorption of 131 I and 125 I on their surfaces (denoted as 131 I-Pd-PEG or 125 I-Pd-PEG)...
May 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780498/direct-and-indirect-hyperpolarisation-of-amines-using-para-hydrogen
#7
Wissam Iali, Peter J Rayner, Adel Alshehri, A Jonathan Holmes, Amy J Ruddlesden, Simon B Duckett
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are two widely used techniques for the study of molecules and materials. Hyperpolarisation methods, such as Signal Amplification By Reversible Exchange (SABRE), turn typically weak magnetic resonance responses into strong signals. In this article we detail how it is possible to hyperpolarise the 1 H, 13 C and 15 N nuclei of a range of amines. This involved showing how primary amines form stable but labile complexes of the type [Ir(H)2 (IMes)(amine)3 ]Cl that allow para hydrogen to relay its latent polarisation into the amine...
April 21, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780233/spinal-meningeal-melanocytoma-in-a-5-year-old-child-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Ahmed M Salah El-Din, Hashem M Aboul-Ela, Mohamed F Alsawy, Ahmed Koheil, Ahmed H Ashry
Background: Meningeal melanocytoma is considered a rare lesion arising from leptomeningeal melanocytes. Nearly two thirds of meningeal melanocytomas were reported in the intracranial compartment and the remaining one third in the spine. Spinal melanocytomas can be extradural or intradural, with extradural variant being more common, and the majority of cases have been single reports. Methods: A 5-year-old male presented with a 4-month history of non-radiating low back pain persistent at rest, with otherwise non-remarkable medical history...
2018: Egypt J Neurol Psychiatr Neurosurg
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780145/reversible-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-onset-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-successfully-treated-with-aggressive-immunosuppressive-therapy
#9
Yuya Fujita, Shoichi Fukui, Midori Ishida, Yushiro Endo, Sosuke Tsuji, Ayuko Takatani, Takashi Igawa, Toshimasa Shimizu, Masataka Umeda, Remi Sumiyoshi, Ayako Nishino, Tomohiro Koga, Shin-Ya Kawashiri, Naoki Iwamoto, Kunihiro Ichinose, Mami Tamai, Hideki Nakamura, Tomoki Origuchi, Atsushi Kawakami
A 70-year-old Japanese woman presented to our hospital with gait disturbance and cognitive dysfunction. Since she had arthritis, leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypocomplementemia, and anti-nuclear and anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies, she was diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging revealed bilateral hyperintensities in the putamen. Based on her cognitive impairment, muscle rigidity, and high levels of interleukin-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid, we believed she had developed a complication of a neuropsychiatric disease and administered corticosteroids and intravenous cyclophosphamide therapy...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779258/hyperpolarized-porous-silicon-nanoparticles-potential-theragnostic-material-for-%C3%A2-%C3%A2-si-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Hyeonglim Seo, Ikjang Choi, Nicholas Whiting, Jingzhe Hu, Quy Son Luu, Shivanand Pudakalakatti, Caitlin McCowan, Yaewon Kim, Niki Zacharias, Seunghyun Lee, Pratip Bhattacharya, Youngbok Lee
Porous silicon nanoparticles have recently garnered attention as potentially-promising biomedical platforms for drug delivery and medical diagnostics. Here, we demonstrate porous silicon nanoparticles as contrast agents for ²⁹Si magnetic resonance imaging. Size-controlled porous silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by magnesiothermic reduction of silica nanoparticles and were surface activated for further functionalization. Particles were hyperpolarized via dynamic nuclear polarization to enhance their ²⁹Si MR signals; the particles demonstrated long ²⁹Si spin-lattice relaxation (T₁) times (~ 25 mins), which suggests potential applicability for medical imaging...
May 20, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779072/intratumoral-heterogeneity-on-dedicated-breast-positron-emission-tomography-predicts-malignancy-grade-of-breast-cancer
#11
Norio Masumoto, Takayuki Kadoya, Shinsuke Sasada, Akiko Emi, Koji Arihiro, Morihito Okada
PURPOSE: Dedicated breast positron emission tomography (DbPET) provides detailed high-resolution images and can detect intratumoral heterogeneity using 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). We aimed to evaluate the correlation between FDG uptake on DbPET and the clinicopathological features of breast cancer, particularly those with an intratumoral heterogeneous distribution of FDG on DbPET. METHODS: We evaluated 195 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer who underwent preoperative whole-body PET (WBPET) and DbPET concurrently between January 2016 and March 2017...
May 19, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778317/appropriate-use-of-noninvasive-ischemia-testing-to-guide-revascularization-decision-making-following-acute-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-in-latin-american-countries-results-from-an-expert-panel-meeting-of-the-international-atomic-energy-agency
#12
I Berrocal, A Peix, F Mut, L J Shaw, G Karthikeyan, E Estrada Lobato, D Paez
Across Latin American and Caribbean countries, cardiovascular disease and especially ischemic heart disease is currently the main cause of death both in men and in women. For most Latin American and Caribbean countries, public and community health efforts aim to define care strategies which are both clinically and cost effective and promote primary and secondary prevention, resulting in improved patient outcomes. The optimal approach to deal with acute events such as ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is a matter of controversy; however, there is an expanding role for assessing residual ischemic burden in STEMI patients following primary percutaneous coronary intervention...
May 16, 2018: Revista Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777480/the-evolving-landscape-of-nuclear-imaging-in-cardiac-amyloidosis
#13
EDITORIAL
Steven J Promislow, Terrence D Ruddy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772060/nucleocytoplasmic-shuttling-the-ins-and-outs-of-quantitative-imaging
#14
Chris Molenaar, Kate L Weeks
Nucleocytoplasmic protein shuttling is integral to the transmission of signals between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. The nuclear/cytoplasmic distribution of proteins of interest can be determined via fluorescence microscopy, following labelling of the target protein with fluorophore-conjugated antibodies (immunofluorescence) or by tagging the target protein with an autofluorescent protein, such as green fluorescent protein (GFP). The latter enables live cell imaging, a powerful approach that precludes many of the artefacts associated with indirect immunofluorescence in fixed cells...
May 17, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771445/tirofiban-combined-with-rt-pa-intraarterial-thrombolysis-improves-the-recanalization-rate-of-acute-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-in-rabbits
#15
Y-J Yu, W Xiong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the curative effect of tirofiban combined with recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator (rt-PA) selective intra-arterial thrombolysis on acute middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 60 adult male Japanese white rabbits weighing 2.5-3.0 kg were selected, and the acute cerebral infarction model was established via autologous thromboembolism of middle cerebral artery. Rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: tirofiban group (Ti group, 5 μg/kg, n=15), rt-PA group (rt-PA group, 2 mg/kg, n=15), tirofiban + rt-PA group (Ti + rt-PA group, 3 μg/kg Ti + 1 mg/kg rt-PA, n=15), and control group (Co group, n=15)...
May 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770639/effect-of-cataract-grade-according-to-wide-field-fundus-images-on-measurement-of-macular-thickness-in-cataract-patients
#16
Mingue Kim, Youngsub Eom, Jong Suk Song, Hyo Myung Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of cataract grade based on wide-field fundus imaging on macular thickness measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). METHODS: Two hundred cataract patients (200 eyes) with preoperative measurements by wide-field fundus imaging and macular SD-OCT were enrolled. Cataract severity was graded from 1 to 4 according to the degree of macular obscuring by cataract artifact in fundus photo images...
May 15, 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769479/-chinese-journal-of-nuclear-medicine-and-molecular-imaging-volume-38-number-4-april-25-2018
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Kaku Igaku. the Japanese Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767962/targeting-photo-induced-dna-destruction-by-ru-ii-tetraazaphenathrene-in-live-cells-by-signal-peptide
#18
Christopher S Burke, Aisling Byrne, Tia E Keyes
Exploiting NF-κB transcription factor peptide conjugation, a Ru(II)-bis-tap complex (tap = 1,4,5,8-tetraazaphenanthrene) was targeted specifically to the nuclei of live mammalian (HeLa and CHO) cells for the first time. DNA binding in the nucleus of live cells was evident from gradual extinction of the metal complex luminescence after it had crossed the nuclear envelope, attributed to guanine quenching of the ruthenium emission via photoinduced electron transfer. Resonance Raman imaging confirmed that the complex remained in the nucleus after emission is extinguished...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766758/anti-inflammatory-peptide-attenuates-edema-and-promotes-bmp-2-induced-bone-formation-in-spine-fusion
#19
Juliane D Glaeser, Khosrowdad Salehi, Linda Kanim, Dmitriy Sheyn, Zachary NaPier, Phillip Behrens, Leslie Garcia, Jason M Cuéllar, Hyun W Bae
Recombinant human bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded absorbable collagen sponges (ACS) have been successfully used to enhance bone formation and to induce spinal fusion in humans. However, side effects, such as soft-tissue edema and inflammation, have been reported. NEMO binding domain peptide (NBD) inhibits activation of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), a central regulator of immune response. In this study, we investigated NBD's potential to reduce BMP-2-induced soft-tissue inflammation without affecting BMP-2-mediated spinal fusion in rat...
May 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765539/crm1-xpo1-expression-in-pancreatic-adenocarcinoma-correlates-with-survivin-expression-and-the-proliferative-activity
#20
David M Saulino, Pamela S Younes, Jennifer M Bailey, Mamoun Younes
CRM1/XPO1 (CRM1) is a nuclear export chaperone that mediates the export of proteins essential to growth regulation and tumor suppression. Its overexpression in tumors was found to be associated with poor prognosis. Selective inhibitors of nuclear export are in phase I and II clinical trials for several tumor types. Our aim was to investigate CRM1 expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) and its relationship to survivin expression and the proliferative activity. Sections of tissue microarray containing 76 formalin fixed and paraffin embedded PAC were stained by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CRM1, survivin, and Cyclin A...
April 20, 2018: Oncotarget
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