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Nuclear imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355514/a-shared-pattern-of-%C3%AE-catenin-activation-in-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-and-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#1
Jennifer M S Sucre, Gail H Deutsch, Christopher Jetter, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, John T Benjamin, Linda A Gleaves, Bryan A Millis, Lisa R Young, Timothy S Blackwell, Jonathan A Kropski, Susan H Guttentag
Wnt/β-catenin signaling is necessary for normal lung development, and abnormal Wnt signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of both bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), fibrotic lung diseases that occur during infancy and aging, respectively. Using a library of human normal and diseased human lung samples, we identified a distinct signature of nuclear accumulation of β-catenin phosphorylated at tyrosine 489 and epithelial cell cytosolic localization of β-catenin phosphorylated at tyrosine 654 in early normal lung development and fibrotic lung diseases BPD and IPF...
January 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29354167/neonatal-severe-hyperparathyroidism-secondary-to-a-novel-homozygous-casr-gene-mutation
#2
Noman Ahmad, Mona Bahasan, Balgees Abdulhadi Abdullah Al-Ghamdi, Halah Faleh Al-Enizi, Ali Saeed Al-Zahrani
Neonatal severe hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT) is a rare autosomal recessive disease. Children present within the first 6 months of life and more commonly in the first few weeks. Common presentation is poor feeding, polyuria, dehydration, lethargy, failure to thrive, hypotonia, gastrointestinal dysmotility, osteopenia and symptoms of respiratory distress due to a poorly developed chest cage. We present a case of a 2-month old girl with severe hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism. She was found to have a novel homozygous mutation in the acceptor splicing site of intron 4 (c...
September 2017: Clinical Cases in Mineral and Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352993/comparison-of-chorioretinal-layers-in-rhesus-macaques-using-spectral-domain-optical-coherence-tomography-and-high-resolution-histological-sections
#3
Glenn Yiu, Zhe Wang, Christian Munevar, Eric Tieu, Bradley Shibata, Brittany Wong, David Cunefare, Sina Farsiu, Jeffrey Roberts, Sara Thomasy
Nonhuman primates are important preclinical models of retinal diseases because they uniquely possess a macula similar to humans. Ocular imaging technologies such as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) allow noninvasive, in vivo measurements of chorioretinal layers with near-histological resolution. However, the boundaries are based on differences in reflectivity, and detailed correlations with histological tissue layers have not been explored in rhesus macaques, which are widely used for biomedical research...
January 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350783/malignant-mesothelioma-in-situ
#4
Andrew Churg, Harry Hwang, Lawrence Tan, Gefei Qing, Altaf Taher, Amy Tong, AnaMaria Bilawich, Sanja Dacic
The existence of malignant mesothelioma in situ (MIS) is often postulated, but there are no accepted morphologic criteria for making such a diagnosis. Here we report two cases that appear to be true MIS on the basis of in situ genomic analysis. In one case the patient had repeated unexplained pleural unilateral effusions. Two thoracoscopies 9 months apart revealed only visually normal pleura. Biopsies from both thoracoscopies showed only a single layer of mildly reactive mesothelial cells. However, these cells had lost BAP1 and showed loss of CDKN2A ("p16″) by FISH...
January 19, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350616/a-disassembly-driven-mechanism-explains-f-actin-mediated-chromosome-transport-in-starfish-oocytes
#5
Philippe Bun, Serge Dmitrieff, Julio M Belmonte, François J Nédélec, Péter Lénárt
While contraction of sarcomeric actomyosin assemblies is well understood, this is not the case for disordered networks of actin filaments (F-actin) driving diverse essential processes in animal cells. For example, at the onset of meiosis in starfish oocytes a contractile F-actin network forms in the nuclear region transporting embedded chromosomes to the assembling microtubule spindle. Here, we addressed the mechanism driving contraction of this 3D disordered F-actin network by comparing quantitative observations to computational models...
January 19, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349488/one-step-synthesis-of-an-18f-labeled-boron-derived-methionine-analog-a-substitute-for-11c-methionine
#6
EDITORIAL
Zhen Liu, Emily B Ehlerding, Weibo Cai, Xiaoli Lan
Amino acid-based tracers have been extensively investigated for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of brain tumors, and 11C-methionine (11C-MET) is one of the most extensively investigated. However, widespread clinical use of 11C-MET is challenging due to the short half-life of 11C and low radiolabeling yield. In this issue of the European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Yang and colleagues report an 18F-labeled boron-derived methionine analog, 18F-B-MET, as a potential substitute for 11C-MET in PET imaging of glioma...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348593/temporal-diabetes-induced-biochemical-changes-in-distinctive-layers-of-mouse-retina
#7
Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Christine M Sorenson, Alex J Schofield, Miriam Unger, Nader Sheibani, Carol J Hirschmugl
To discover the mechanisms underlying the progression of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a more comprehensive understanding of the biomolecular processes in individual retinal cells subjected to hyperglycemia is required. Despite extensive studies, the changes in the biochemistry of retinal layers during the development of DR are not well known. In this study, we aimed to determine a more detailed understanding of the natural history of DR in Akita/+ (type 1 diabetes model) male mice with different duration of diabetes...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348472/viral-highway-to-nucleus-exposed-by-image-correlation-analyses
#8
Elina Mäntylä, Jenu V Chacko, Vesa Aho, Colin R Parrish, Victor Shahin, Michael Kann, Michelle A Digman, Enrico Gratton, Maija Vihinen-Ranta
Parvoviral genome translocation from the plasma membrane into the nucleus is a coordinated multistep process mediated by capsid proteins. We used fast confocal microscopy line scan imaging combined with image correlation methods including auto-, pair- and cross-correlation, and number and brightness analysis, to study the parvovirus entry pathway at the single-particle level in living cells. Our results show that the endosome-associated movement of virus particles fluctuates from fast to slow. Fast transit of single cytoplasmic capsids to the nuclear envelope is followed by slow movement of capsids and fast diffusion of capsid fragments in the nucleoplasm...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346759/nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-chromatin-interactions-drive-diverse-phenotypes-by-modulating-transcriptional-noise
#9
Victor C Wong, Victor L Bass, M Elise Bullock, Arvind K Chavali, Robin E C Lee, Walther Mothes, Suzanne Gaudet, Kathryn Miller-Jensen
Noisy gene expression generates diverse phenotypes, but little is known about mechanisms that modulate noise. Combining experiments and modeling, we studied how tumor necrosis factor (TNF) initiates noisy expression of latent HIV via the transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and how the HIV genomic integration site modulates noise to generate divergent (low-versus-high) phenotypes of viral activation. We show that TNF-induced transcriptional noise varies more than mean transcript number and that amplification of this noise explains low-versus-high viral activation...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346094/reweighted-low-rank-matrix-analysis-with-structural-smoothness-for-image-denoising
#10
Hengyou Wang, Yigang Cen, Zhiquan He, Zhihai He, Ruizhen Zhao, Fengzhen Zhang
In this paper, we develop a new low-rank matrix recovery algorithm for image denoising. We incorporate the total variation (TV) norm and the pixel range constraint into the existing reweighted low-rank matrix analysis to achieve structural smoothness and to significantly improve quality in the recovered image. Our proposed mathematical formulation of the low-rank matrix recovery problem combines the nuclear norm, TV norm, and norm, thereby allowing us to exploit the low-rank property of natural images, enhance the structural smoothness, and detect and remove large sparse noise...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344924/reliability-of-the-123i-mibg-heart-mediastinum-ratio-results-of-a-multicenter-test-retest-reproducibility-study
#11
Timothy M Bateman, Karthikeyan Ananthasubramaniam, Daniel S Berman, Myron Gerson, Robert Gropler, Milena Henzlova, Fernando Mendoza, Michael Miyamoto, Mahesh Shah, Frederick Weiland
A quantitative measurement, the Heart-to-Mediastinum (H/M) ratio of counts derived from a planar acquisition approximately 4 hours after injection of 123I-mIBG, is a strong predictor of outcomes in patients with stable class II-III heart failure and LVEF ≤ 35%. This study assessed the test-retest reproducibility of the H/M ratio in such patients. 47 subjects with class II-III systolic heart failure and LVEF ≤ 35% were tested at two time intervals separated by 5 to 14 days. Subjects were imaged twice on the same camera using the same radionuclide dose...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344518/current-modalities-for-the-assessment-of-future-remnant-liver-function
#12
REVIEW
Fadi Rassam, Pim B Olthof, Roelof J Bennink, Thomas M van Gulik
While imaging studies such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging allow the volumetric assessment of the liver segments, only indirect information is provided concerning the quality of the liver parenchyma and its actual functional capacity. Assessment of liver function is therefore crucial in the preoperative workup of patients who require extensive liver resection and in whom portal vein embolization is considered. This review deals with the modalities currently available for the measurement of liver function...
December 2017: Visceral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343869/spatiotemporal-allele-organization-by-allele-specific-crispr-live-cell-imaging-snp-cling
#13
Philipp G Maass, A Rasim Barutcu, David M Shechner, Catherine L Weiner, Marta Melé, John L Rinn
Imaging and chromatin capture techniques have provided important insights into our understanding of nuclear organization. A limitation of these techniques is the inability to resolve allele-specific spatiotemporal properties of genomic loci in living cells. Here, we describe an allele-specific CRISPR live-cell DNA imaging technique (SNP-CLING) to provide the first comprehensive insights into allelic positioning across space and time in mouse embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts. With 3D imaging, we studied alleles on different chromosomes in relation to one another and relative to nuclear substructures such as the nucleolus...
January 8, 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341944/nuclear-medicine-methods-for-evaluation-of-abnormal-parathyroid-glands-in-patients-with-primary-and-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#14
Albena D Botushanova, Nikolay P Botushanov, Marianna P Yaneva
Considered rare disease in the past, primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) has dramatically increased in incidence over the past thirty years with the introduction of routine calcium measurements; it is now approximately 42 per 100 000 persons. By far, the most common lesion found in patients with PHPT is the solitary parathyroid adenoma, occurring in 85%-90% of patients, while in the rest 10%- 15% primary hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is present. Currently, the most widely used surgical approach is minimally invasive parathyroidectomy which is associated with less post-surgery complications and shorter operation time...
December 20, 2017: Folia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341161/modalities-for-image-and-molecular-guided-cancer-surgery
#15
REVIEW
M A Stammes, S L Bugby, T Porta, K Pierzchalski, T Devling, C Otto, J Dijkstra, A L Vahrmeijer, L-F de Geus-Oei, J S D Mieog
BACKGROUND: Surgery is the cornerstone of treatment for many solid tumours. A wide variety of imaging modalities are available before surgery for staging, although surgeons still rely primarily on visual and haptic cues in the operating environment. Image and molecular guidance might improve the adequacy of resection through enhanced tumour definition and detection of aberrant deposits. Intraoperative modalities available for image- and molecular-guided cancer surgery are reviewed here...
January 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341016/oxygenation-imaging-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-methods
#16
Heling Zhou, Nuria Arias-Ramos, Pilar López-Larrubia, Ralph P Mason, Sebastián Cerdán, Jesús Pacheco-Torres
Oxygen monitoring is a topic of exhaustive research due to its central role in many biological processes, from energy metabolism to gene regulation. The ability to monitor in vivo the physiological distribution and the dynamics of oxygen from subcellular to macroscopic levels is a prerequisite to better understand the mechanisms associated with both normal and disease states (cancer, neurodegeneration, stroke, etc.). This chapter focuses on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based techniques to assess oxygenation in vivo...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339573/-sup-18-sup-f-choline-pet-ct-for-parathyroid-scintigraphy-significantly-lower-radiation-exposure-of-patients-in-comparison-to-conventional-nuclear-medicine-imaging-approaches
#17
Sebastijan Rep, Marko Hocevar, Janja Vaupotič, Urban Zdesar, Katja Zaletel, Luka Lezaic
Parathyroid subtraction scintigraphy is the most commonly used imaging method for localization of hyperfunctioning parathyroid glands (HPG) in primary hyperparathyroidism, a common endocrine disorder. Hybrid (SPECT/CT) imaging with 99mTc-sestaMIBI (MIBI) at an early and delayed phase (dual-phase imaging) may be the most accurate conventional imaging approach, but includes additional radiation exposure due to added CT imaging. Recently, 18F-choline (FCH) PET/CT was introduced for HPG imaging, which can also be performed using the dual-phase approach...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339179/primary-diffuse-leptomeningeal-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-diagnosed-by-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytology-case-report-with-molecular-genetic-analysis
#18
Ran Tomomasa, Satoshi Nakata, Sumihito Nobusawa, Keishi Horiguchi, Nozomi Matsumura, Hayato Ikota, Junko Hirato, Yuhei Yoshimoto, Hideaki Yokoo
Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (AT/RT) are rare malignant neoplasms that mainly affect infants and young children, and are typically located in the cerebellar hemispheres. These tumors are histologically characterized by varying proportions of rhabdoid cells, and nuclear INI1 immunonegativity. Here, we report a case of a 15-year-old male with primary diffuse leptomeningeal AT/RT. The patient had symptoms similar to those of meningitis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed leptomeningeal thickening. Cytological examination using cerebrospinal fluid was repeatedly performed and revealed rhabdoid cells with loss of INI1 reactivity, and shortly after, the diagnosis of AT/RT was confirmed by tissue biopsy...
January 12, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337047/imaging-flow-cytometry-a-method-for-examining-dynamic-native-foxo1-localization-in-human-lymphocytes
#19
Molly K Hritzo, Jean-Paul Courneya, Amit Golding
While flow cytometry can reliably assess surface and intracellular marker expression within small cell populations, it does not provide any information on protein localization. Several key transcription factors (TF) downstream of lymphocyte surface receptors are regulated by nuclear versus cytoplasmic localization, and one such TF is Forkhead box O1 (FOXO1). FOXO1 integrates antigen-binding, co-receptor activation and metabolic signals in lymphocytes, leading to proliferation and differentiation. Importantly, the nuclear or cytoplasmic localization of FOXO1 is key for gene expression leading to different lymphocyte phenotypes...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335763/18f-fluorocholine-pet-ct-as-a-second-line-nuclear-imaging-technique-before-surgery-for-primary-hyperparathyroidism
#20
EDITORIAL
Alessio Imperiale, David Taïeb, Elif Hindié
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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