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Nuclear imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161014/toward-an-axial-nanoscale-ruler-for-fluorescence-microscopy
#1
Sabrina Simoncelli, Maria Makarova, William Wardley, Dylan M Owen
In the discussion of resolution in optical microscopy, axial precision has often come second to its lateral counterpart. However, biological systems make no special arrangements for our preferred direction of imaging. The ability to measure axial distances, that is, the heights of fluorophores relative to a plane of reference, is thus of paramount importance and has been the subject of several recent advances. A novel method is to modify the fluorescence emission based on the height of the individual fluorophore, such that its z-position is encoded somehow in the detected signal...
November 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160306/discovery-of-a-big-void-in-khufu-s-pyramid-by-observation-of-cosmic-ray-muons
#2
Kunihiro Morishima, Mitsuaki Kuno, Akira Nishio, Nobuko Kitagawa, Yuta Manabe, Masaki Moto, Fumihiko Takasaki, Hirofumi Fujii, Kotaro Satoh, Hideyo Kodama, Kohei Hayashi, Shigeru Odaka, Sébastien Procureur, David Attié, Simon Bouteille, Denis Calvet, Christopher Filosa, Patrick Magnier, Irakli Mandjavidze, Marc Riallot, Benoit Marini, Pierre Gable, Yoshikatsu Date, Makiko Sugiura, Yasser Elshayeb, Tamer Elnady, Mustapha Ezzy, Emmanuel Guerriero, Vincent Steiger, Nicolas Serikoff, Jean-Baptiste Mouret, Bernard Charlès, Hany Helal, Mehdi Tayoubi
The Great Pyramid or Khufu's Pyramid was built on the Giza Plateau (Egypt) during the IV(th) dynasty by the pharaoh Khufu (Cheops), who reigned from 2509 to 2483 BC(1). Despite being one of the oldest and largest monuments on Earth, there is no consensus about how it was built(2,3). To better understand its internal structure, we imaged the pyramid using muons, which are by-products of cosmic rays that are only partially absorbed by stone(4-6). The resulting cosmic-ray muon radiography allows us to visualize the known and potentially unknown voids in the pyramid in a non-invasive way...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159779/simultaneous-whole-body-and-breast-18f-fdg-pet-mri-examinations-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-a-comparison-of-apparent-diffusion-coefficients-and-maximum-standardized-uptake-values
#3
Michiro Sasaki, Mitsuhiro Tozaki, Kazunori Kubota, Wakana Murakami, Daisuke Yotsumoto, Yasuaki Sagara, Yasuyo Ohi, Shunichi Oosako, Yoshiaki Sagara
PURPOSE: To compare standardized uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values acquired using a PET/MRI scanner in breast cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Whole-body PET/MRI and breast PET/MRI were performed in 108 consecutive patients. Ninety-four patients who had a total of 100 breast cancers were analyzed. SUVmax and ADCmean acquired using breast PET/MRI were compared with pathologic prognostic factors. RESULTS: All the lesions were visually detectable using PET and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) on breast PET/MRI; however, lesions were visually undetectable on whole-body DWI in 13 patients (13%) or on whole-body PET in 7 patients (7%)...
November 20, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159572/comparison-of-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-posttherapy-evaluation-in-patients-with-advanced-cervical-cancer-receiving-definitive-concurrent-chemoradiotherapy
#4
Tzu-Pei Su, Gigin Lin, Yu-Ting Huang, Feng-Yuan Liu, Chun-Chieh Wang, Angel Chao, Hung-Hsueh Chou, Tzu-Chen Yen, Chyong-Huey Lai
PURPOSE: Our purpose was to assess the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and pelvic/abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for posttherapy evaluation in patients with advanced cervical cancer. METHODS: Patients with cervical squamous cell carcinoma, either with advanced FIGO stage or with positive pelvic or para-aortic lymph node (PALN), received PET/CT using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose and MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging between 2 and 3 months after CCRT completion...
November 20, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158829/past-present-and-future-development-of-theranostic-agents-targeting-carbonic-anhydrase-ix
#5
REVIEW
Joseph Lau, Kuo-Shyan Lin, François Bénard
Theranostics is the integration of diagnostic information with pharmaceuticals to increase effectiveness and safety of cancer treatments. Nuclear medicine provides a non-invasive means to visualize drug target expression across primary and metastatic sites, and assess pharmacokinetics and efficacy of companion therapeutic agents. This is significant given the increasing recognition of the importance of clonal heterogeneity in treatment response and resistance. Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) has been advocated as an attractive diagnostic and therapeutic biomarker for targeting hypoxia in solid malignancies...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158037/quantitative-imaging-dosimetry-and-metrology-where-do-national-metrology-institutes-fit-in
#6
A J Fenwick, J L Wevrett, K M Ferreira, A M Denis-Bacelar, A P Robinson
In External Beam Radiotherapy, National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) play a critical role in the delivery of accurate absorbed doses to patients undergoing treatment. In contrast for nuclear medicine the role of the NMI is less clear and although significant work has been done in order to establish links for activity measurement, the calculation of administered absorbed doses is not traceable in the same manner as EBRT. Over recent decades the use of novel radiolabelled pharmaceuticals has increased dramatically...
November 11, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157313/calpain-5-gene-expression-in-the-mouse-eye-and-brain
#7
Kellie Schaefer, MaryAnn Mahajan, Anuradha Gore, Stephen H Tsang, Alexander G Bassuk, Vinit B Mahajan
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize CAPN5 gene expression in the mouse central nervous system. Mouse brain and eye sections were probed with two high-affinity RNA oligonucleotide analogs designed to bind CAPN5 RNA and one scramble, control oligonucleotide. Images were captured in brightfield. RESULTS: CAPN5 RNA probes were validated on mouse breast cancer tumor tissue. In the eye, CAPN5 was expressed in the ganglion cell, inner nuclear and outer nuclear layers of the retina...
November 21, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156828/the-%C3%AE-glucan-from-lentinus-edodes-suppresses-cell-proliferation-and-promotes-apoptosis-in-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancers
#8
Hui Xu, Siwei Zou, Xiaojuan Xu
Breast cancer is now the most common cancer in worldwide women, and novel interventions are needed to overcome the resistance occurring in the estrogen-targeted endocrine therapy. Herein, we demonstrate that the β-glucan from Lentinus edodes (LNT) exhibited a profound inhibition ratio of ∼53% against estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 tumor growth in nude mice similar to the positive control of cisplatin. Immunohistochemistry images showed that LNT evidently suppressed cell proliferation and promoted apoptosis in MCF-7 tumor tissues...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155562/quantification-of-nanomaterial-nanomedicine-trafficking-in-vivo
#9
Liming Wang, Liang Yan, Jing Liu, Chunying Chen, Yuliang Zhao
Absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of nanomaterials (NMs) or nanomedicines (NMs), are fundamental biological processes that dominate their nanomedical functions or nanotoxicities. Mostly, NMs exist in biological systems as a form of nanoparticles (NPs). However, to determine the composition, spatial distribution, and states of existence of NMs/NPs in vivo, upon entry into the body, as well as to monitor the dynamic changes of these information over time remain a challenge for the current analytical methodology due to their limited efficiently in characterizing interactions between these complex(nano)-complex(bio) systems...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154256/patient-doses-from-medical-examinations-in-russia-2009-2015
#10
Mikhail I Balonov, Vladislav Golikov, Irina Zvonova, Larisa Chipiga, Sergey Kalnitsky, Svetlana Sarycheva, Alexander Vodovatov
The aim of current study was to evaluate adult patient doses in Russia in context of patient protection. Effective doses from X-ray and nuclear medicine examinations were assessed using two approaches. The first was based on data collection performed by authors in hospitals in St-Petersburg and other 17 Russian regions. The second approach was to assess mean doses through the collective dose estimated annually within the federal data bank ESKID. In 2015, 203 million examinations were conducted in Russia, i...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154145/evaluation-of-a-novel-grpr-antagonist-for-prostate-cancer-pet-imaging-64-cu-dotha2-peg-rm26
#11
Nematallah Mansour, Michel Paquette, Samia Ait-Mohand, Véronique Dumulon-Perreault, Brigitte Guérin
INTRODUCTION: Gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) are significantly over-expressed on a large proportion of prostate cancers making them prime candidates for receptor-mediated nuclear imaging by PET. Recently, we synthesized a novel bifunctional chelator (BFC) bearing hydroxamic acid arms (DOTHA2). Here we investigated the potential of a novel DOTHA2-conjugated, (64)Cu-radiolabeled GRPR peptide antagonist, [D-Phe(6)-Sta(13)-Leu(14)-NH2]bombesin(6-14) (DOTHA2-PEG-RM26) to visualize prostate tumors by PET imaging...
October 23, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151544/-creation-and-evaluation-of-educational-programs-for-additional-delayed-scan-of-fdg-pet-ct
#12
Ryota Wada, Takashi Kamiya, Kouichi Fujino, Junpei Ueda, Kayako Isohashi, Mitsuaki Tatsumi, Jun Hatazawa
Generally, FDG-PET/CT image is acquired at the 60th minute after tracer administration. Depending on the clinical case, additional delayed scans may be useful. However, it is difficult to judge whether additional delayed scan is useful or not. The purposes of this study were creation and evaluation of educational programs to help radiological technologists to decide the usefulness of additional delayed scan of FDG-PET/CT. METHODS: Educational programs consisted of the instructional materials and the judgment test of clinical cases...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150982/visualization-within-the-ventricles-of-the-brain-a-micro-focus-x-ray-study
#13
Edwin John de Jager, André Francois du Plessis, Jakobus Willem Hoffman, Anna Catherina Oettlé, Marius Casparus Bosman
Conceptualization of the ventricular system of the brain by macroscopic studies is complicated by the lack of physical structure of these interconnected cavities. Dissection procedures designed to display the structures in the walls of the ventricles are destructive and not conducive for the appreciation of the ventricular system in its entirety. The application of Micro-focus X-ray tomography affords the possibility to appreciate hidden structures in a non-destructive manner. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using micro-focus X-ray tomography in the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the ventricular system as well as the various neuroanatomical structures within its walls for educational purposes...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150742/associations-between-nucleus-size-and-immunohistochemical-galectin-3-cytokeratine-19-and-hbme-1-markers-in-thyroid-papillary-carcinoma-a-morphometric-analyze
#14
Hatice Toy, Ozlem Etli, Zeliha Esin Celik, Arsenal Sezgin Alikanoglu
This study aimed to evaluate the morphometric measurements in cases with papillary thyroid carcinoma, and determine a cut-off value to support diagnosis. Fifty cases with a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) were included in the study with their Galectine-3, CK-19 and HBME-1 immunohistochemical staining results. Demographic and clinical data gathered from pathology reports, which included demographic information such as patients' sex, age, macroscopic tumor size, number of tumor focuses; prognostic parameters such as lenfovascular invasion, perineural invasion, thyroid capsule invasion; and results of immunohistochemical CK- 19, Galectin-3 and HBME-1 staining...
November 17, 2017: Pathology Oncology Research: POR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149238/diabetic-neuroglial-changes-in-the-superficial-and-deep-nonperfused-areas-on-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography
#15
Yoko Dodo, Tomoaki Murakami, Kiyoshi Suzuma, Shin Yoshitake, Tatsuya Yoshitake, Kenji Ishihara, Masahiro Fujimoto, Yuko Miwa, Akitaka Tsujikawa
Purpose: To evaluate the relationship between lamellar capillary nonperfusion on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) images and neuroglial changes on structural optical coherence tomography (OCT) images in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 101 consecutive eyes of 69 patients with DR. OCTA and OCT images within a 3 × 3-mm square centered on the fovea were acquired simultaneously. The nonperfused areas (NPAs) in the superficial capillary layer (sNPA) (from the nerve fiber layer [NFL] to the inner plexiform layer [IPL]), the deep layer (dNPA) (corresponding mainly to the inner nuclear layer [INL]), or both layers (bNPA) were measured individually along 10 transverse lines...
November 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149195/age-of-heart-disease-presentation-and-dysmorphic-nuclei-in-patients-with-lmna-mutations
#16
Jason Q Core, Mehrsa Mehrabi, Zachery R Robinson, Alexander R Ochs, Linda A McCarthy, Michael V Zaragoza, Anna Grosberg
Nuclear shape defects are a distinguishing characteristic in laminopathies, cancers, and other pathologies. Correlating these defects to the symptoms, mechanisms, and progression of disease requires unbiased, quantitative, and high-throughput means of quantifying nuclear morphology. To accomplish this, we developed a method of automatically segmenting fluorescently stained nuclei in 2D microscopy images and then classifying them as normal or dysmorphic based on three geometric features of the nucleus using a package of Matlab codes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148723/dna-microviscosity-characterization-with-particle-diffusometry-for-downstream-dna-detection-applications
#17
Katherine Noel Clayton, Gregory D Berglund, Jacqueline C Linnes, Tamara L Kinzer-Ursem, Steven T Wereley
Analytical characterization of DNA microviscosity provides critical biophysical insights into nuclear crowding, nucleic acid-based pharmaceutical development, and nucleic acid-based biosensor device design. However, most viscosity characterization methods require large sample volumes and destructive testing. In contrast, particle diffusometry, permits in situ analysis of DNA microviscosity with short measurement times (8 seconds) using small volumes (< 3L) which are compatible with DNA preparatory procedures...
November 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148428/-sup-135-sup-la-as-an-auger-electron-emitter-for-targeted-internal-radiotherapy
#18
Jesper Fonslet, Boon Quan Lee, Thuy A Tran, Mattia Siragusa, Mikael Jensen, Tibor Kibedi, Andrew E Stuchbery, Gregory W Severin
<b>Introduction:</b> <sup>135</sup>La has favorable nuclear and chemical properties for Auger-based targeted internal radiotherapy. Here we present detailed investigations of the production, emissions, imaging characteristics, and dosimetry related to <sup>135</sup>La therapy. <b>Methods and Results:</b> <sup>135</sup>La was produced by 16.5 MeV proton irradiation of metallic <sup>nat</sup>Ba on a medical cyclotron, and was isolated and purified by trap-and-release on weak cation-exchange resin...
November 17, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147830/asymptomatic-adult-intrapericardial-diaphragmatic-hernia-detected-on-cardiac-spect-ct
#19
Muhammad Yasir Adeel, Saad Sikanderkhel, Zartashia Shahab, Isabel Oliva, Jaime Gerber
An 83-year-old man underwent exercise stress test with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging for new electrocardiogram (EKG) changes. The stress EKG did not show any significant changes. Myocardial perfusion imaging with SPECT demonstrated an inferior wall defect and extracardiac uptake of nuclear tracer. Simultaneous cardiac computed tomography performed for attenuation correction showed presence of intrapericardial hepatic tissue in an anterior diaphragmatic hernia...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145346/role-of-delayed-time-point-imaging-during-abdominal-and-pelvic-cancer-screening-using-fdg-pet-ct-in-the-general-population
#20
Shotaro Naganawa, Takeharu Yoshikawa, Koichiro Yasaka, Eriko Maeda, Naoto Hayashi, Osamu Abe
Although delayed-time-point imaging is expected to improve the results of [F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), how examinees will benefit from dual-time-point imaging versus initial-time-point imaging alone, remains unclear. This study investigated the role of delayed-time-point imaging in improving the results of abdominal and pelvic cancer screening using FDG-PET/CT.This retrospective review included 3131 screening results (average subject age: 55.5 years, range: 40-88 years)...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
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