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Nuclear imaging

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812183/anti-dll4-antibody-inhibits-the-differentiation-of-th17-cells-in-asthmatic-mice
#1
Cuiye Weng, Lei Chong, Xiaoxiao Jia, Rongying Zheng, Yue Huang, Tingting Zhu, Changchong Li, Weixi Zhang
T helper 17 (Th17) cells play an important role in allergic asthma, and the Notch ligand Delta-like ligand (Dll)4 has been reported to direct the differentiation of Th17 cells. In this study, experimental animals were divided into five groups (control group, asthma group, physiological saline group, anti-Dll4 antibody group, and immunoglobulin G group). The study aimed to explore the effect of anti-Dll4 antibody on the differentiation of Th17 cell in asthmatic mice. Dll4 protein expressions were performed by immunohistochemical imaging...
August 15, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810043/amalric-triangular-syndrome-associated-with-outer-nuclear-layer-infarction
#2
Sean T Garrity, Eric J Holz, David Sarraf
An 85-year-old man presented with temporal headache and bilateral paracentral scotomas. Clinical examination, laboratory testing, and temporal artery biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Fluorescein angiography illustrated Amalric triangular choroidal infarction of the left eye. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography of the left eye demonstrated outer nuclear layer abnormalities adjacent to the choroidal infarct. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:668-670.].
August 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807796/high-content-image-analysis-hcia-assay-has-the-highest-correlation-with-direct-counting-cell-suspension-compared-to-the-atp-wst-8-and-alamar-blue-assays-for-measurement-of-cytotoxicity
#3
Haruna Tahara, Shun Matsuda, Yusuke Yamamoto, Hiroe Yoshizawa, Masaharu Fujita, Yasuhiro Katsuoka, Toshihiko Kasahara
INTRODUCTION: Various cytotoxicity assays measuring indicators such as enzyme activity, dye uptake, or cellular ATP content are often performed using 96-well microplates. However, recent reports show that cytotoxicity assays such as the ATP assay and MTS assay underestimate cytotoxicity when compounds such as anti-cancer drugs or mutagens induce cell hypertrophy whilst increasing intracellular ATP content. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the reliability of a high-content image analysis (HCIA) assay to count cell number in a 96-well microplate automatically without using a cell-number indicator...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804703/hybrid-intraoperative-imaging-techniques-in-radioguided-surgery-present-clinical-applications-and-future-outlook
#4
REVIEW
S L Bugby, J E Lees, A C Perkins
PURPOSE: This review aims to summarise the hybrid modality radioguidance techniques currently in clinical use and development, and to discuss possible future avenues of research. Due to the novelty of these approaches, evidence of their clinical relevance does not yet exist. The purpose of this review is to inform nuclear medicine practitioners of current cutting edge research in radioguided surgery which may enter standard clinical practice within the next 5-10 years. Hybrid imaging is of growing importance to nuclear medicine diagnostics, but it is only with recent advances in technology that hybrid modalities are being investigated for use during radioguided surgery...
2017: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804642/e-learning-for-medical-imaging-specialists-introducing-blended-learning-in-a-nuclear-medicine-specialist-course
#5
Torjan Haslerud, Andreas Julius Tulipan, Robert M Gray, Martin Biermann
BACKGROUND: While e-learning has become an important tool in teaching medical students, the training of specialists in medical imaging is still dominated by lecture-based courses. PURPOSE: To assess the potential of e-learning in specialist education in medical imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An existing lecture-based five-day course in Clinical Nuclear Medicine (NM) was enhanced by e-learning resources and activities, including practical exercises...
July 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803781/myc-regulates-chromatin-decompaction-and-nuclear-architecture-during-b-cell-activation
#6
Kyong-Rim Kieffer-Kwon, Keisuke Nimura, Suhas S P Rao, Jianliang Xu, Seolkyoung Jung, Aleksandra Pekowska, Marei Dose, Evan Stevens, Ewy Mathe, Peng Dong, Su-Chen Huang, Maria Aurelia Ricci, Laura Baranello, Ying Zheng, Francesco Tomassoni Ardori, Wolfgang Resch, Diana Stavreva, Steevenson Nelson, Michael McAndrew, Adriel Casellas, Elizabeth Finn, Charles Gregory, Brian Glenn St Hilaire, Steven M Johnson, Wendy Dubois, Maria Pia Cosma, Eric Batchelor, David Levens, Robert D Phair, Tom Misteli, Lino Tessarollo, Gordon Hager, Melike Lakadamyali, Zhe Liu, Monique Floer, Hari Shroff, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Rafael Casellas
50 years ago, Vincent Allfrey and colleagues discovered that lymphocyte activation triggers massive acetylation of chromatin. However, the molecular mechanisms driving epigenetic accessibility are still unknown. We here show that stimulated lymphocytes decondense chromatin by three differentially regulated steps. First, chromatin is repositioned away from the nuclear periphery in response to global acetylation. Second, histone nanodomain clusters decompact into mononucleosome fibers through a mechanism that requires Myc and continual energy input...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802623/an-analytical-model-which-determines-the-apparent-t1-for-modified-look-locker-inversion-recovery-analysis-of-the-longitudinal-relaxation-under-the-influence-of-discontinuous-balanced-classical-molli-and-spoiled-gradient-echo-readouts
#7
Thomas Kampf, Theresa Reiter, Wolfgang Rudolf Bauer
Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shifts more and more into the focus of clinical research. Especially determination of relaxation times without/and with contrast agents becomes the foundation of tissue characterization, e.g. in cardiac MRI for myocardial fibrosis. Techniques which assess longitudinal relaxation times rely on repetitive application of readout modules, which are interrupted by free relaxation periods, e.g. the Modified Look-Locker Inversion Recovery = MOLLI sequence. These discontinuous sequences reveal an apparent relaxation time, and, by techniques extrapolated from continuous readout sequences, a putative real T1 is determined...
August 9, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801349/c-myc-expression-in-adrenocortical-tumours
#8
Mirkka Pennanen, Jaana Hagström, Ilkka Heiskanen, Timo Sane, Harri Mustonen, Johanna Arola, Caj Haglund
AIMS: Widespread use of high-resolution imaging techniques and thus increased prevalence of adrenal lesions has made diagnostics of adrenocortical tumours an increasingly important clinical issue. In non-metastatic tumours, diagnosis is based on histology. New or enhanced information for clinicopathological diagnosis, revealing the malignant potential of the tumour, could emerge by means of biomarkers. The connection of proto-oncogene c-myc to adrenocortical neoplasias is poorly known, although the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, one of the signalling pathways leading to induction of c-myc expression, has been connected to development of adrenocortical neoplasias...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801331/autoimmune-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-due-to-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Anna Maria Lipowska, Dejan Micic, Allison Cavallo, Edwin McDonald
The diagnosis of autoimmune gastrointestinal dysmotility requires a high level of clinical suspicion when standard work-up is unrevealing. We report the case of a 56-year-old male patient with history of tobacco use and a subacute presentation of weight loss, vomiting and cerebellar ataxia. The discovery of paraneoplastic type 1 antineuronal nuclear antibodies and neuronal acetylcholine receptor antibodies led to further directed imaging and diagnostic studies in spite of prior negative chest imaging. Bronchoscopy with endobronchial ultrasound was used to confirm a diagnosis of small cell lung cancer and paraneoplastic syndrome as the cause of the presenting upper gastrointestinal symptoms...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800760/perceptions-of-patients-and-providers-on-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-for-asymptomatic-patients-choosing-wisely-and-professional-liability
#10
Kristopher P Kline, Leslee Shaw, Rebecca J Beyth, Jared Plumb, Linda Nguyen, Tianyao Huo, David E Winchester
BACKGROUND: Despite efforts by professional societies to reduce low value care, many reports indicate that unnecessary tests, such as nuclear myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), are commonly used in contemporary practice. The degree to which lack of awareness and professional liability concerns drive these behaviors warrants further study. We sought to investigate patient and provider perceptions about MPI in asymptomatic patients, the Choosing Wisely (CW) campaign, and professional liability concerns...
August 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800386/3d-correlative-single-cell-imaging-utilizing-fluorescence-and-refractive-index-tomography
#11
Mirjam Schürmann, Gheorghe Cojoc, Salvatore Girardo, Elke Ulbricht, Jochen Guck, Paul Müller
Cells alter the path of light, a fact that leads to well-known aberrations in single cell or tissue imaging. Optical diffraction tomography (ODT) measures the biophysical property that causes these aberrations, the refractive index (RI). ODT is complementary to fluorescence imaging and does not require any markers. The present study introduces RI and fluorescence tomography with optofluidic rotation (RAFTOR) of suspended cells, facilitating the segmentation of the 3D-correlated RI and fluorescence data for a quantitative interpretation of the nuclear RI...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800003/evaluation-of-tomographic-image-quality-of-extended-and-conventional-parallel-hole-collimators-using-maximum-likelihood-expectation-maximization-algorithm-by-monte-carlo-simulations
#12
Vahid Moslemi, Mansour Ashoor
OBJECTIVE: One of the major problems associated with parallel hole collimators (PCs) is the trade-off between their resolution and sensitivity. To solve this problem, a novel PC - namely, extended parallel hole collimator (EPC) - was proposed, in which particular trapezoidal denticles were increased upon septa on the side of the detector. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, an EPC was designed and its performance was compared with that of two PCs, PC35 and PC41, with a hole size of 1...
August 10, 2017: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798990/myocardial-123-i-metaiodobenzylguanidine-imaging-in-hypertension-and-left-ventricular-hypertrophy
#13
Riccardo Liga, Alessia Gimelli, Paolo Marzullo, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Matteo Cameli, Elisabetta Cerbai, Stefano Coiro, Michele Emdin, Rossella Marcucci, Doralisa Morrone, Alberto Palazzuoli, Anna Sonia Petronio, Ketty Savino, Luigi Padeletti, Roberto Pedrinelli
Sympathetic nervous system plays a pivotal role in essential hypertension and in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, cardiac sympathetic dys-regulation has been demonstrated as a key con-causal factor in the genesis and progression of pathologic conditions such as congestive heart failure and ischemic heart disease to which hypertension predisposes as a risk factor. However, despite its fundamental role in cardiac pathophysiology, the evaluation of cardiac sympathetic nervous system has never gained a wide clinical application, remaining mostly a research tool...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798218/imaging-biomarkers-for-adult-medulloblastomas-genetic-entities-may-be-identified-by-their-mr-imaging-radiophenotype
#14
V C Keil, M Warmuth-Metz, C Reh, S J Enkirch, C Reinert, D Beier, D T W Jones, T Pietsch, H H Schild, E Hattingen, P Hau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The occurrence of medulloblastomas in adults is rare; nevertheless, these tumors can be subdivided into genetic and histologic entities each having distinct prognoses. This study aimed to identify MR imaging biomarkers to classify these entities and to uncover differences in MR imaging biomarkers identified in pediatric medulloblastomas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eligible preoperative MRIs from 28 patients (11 women; 22-53 years of age) of the Multicenter Pilot-study for the Therapy of Medulloblastoma of Adults (NOA-7) cohort were assessed by 3 experienced neuroradiologists...
August 10, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795370/surgical-upstaging-rates-for-vacuum-assisted-biopsy-proven-dcis-implications-for-active-surveillance-trials
#15
Lars J Grimm, Marc D Ryser, Ann H Partridge, Alastair M Thompson, Jeremy S Thomas, Jelle Wesseling, E Shelley Hwang
PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine invasive cancer upstaging rates at surgical excision following vacuum-assisted biopsy of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) among women meeting eligibility for active surveillance trials. METHODS: Patients with vacuum-assisted, biopsy-proven DCIS at a single center from 2008 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Imaging and pathology reports were interrogated for the imaging appearance, tumor grade, hormone receptor status, and presence of comedonecrosis...
August 9, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795246/bilateral-multiple-evanescent-white-dot-syndrome
#16
Chiara Veronese, Chiara Maiolo, Mariachiara Morara, Grayson W Armstrong, Antonio P Ciardella
PURPOSE: To present a single case of bilateral multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). METHODS: A single case with three months of follow-up using imaging studies including fundus color photography (FP), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), en face SD-OCT and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is presented. RESULTS: The patient presented with bilateral MEWDS, ultimately with complete resolution of symptoms...
August 9, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793782/direct-activation-of-nadph-oxidase-2-by-2-deoxyribose-1-phosphate-triggers-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-dependent-angiogenesis
#17
Dina Vara, Joanna M Watt, Tiago M Fortunato, Harry Mellor, Matthew Burgess, Kate Wicks, Kimberly Mace, Shaun Reeksting, Anneke T Lubben, Caroline Pd Wheeler-Jones, Giordano Pula
AIMS: Deoxyribose-1-phosphate (dRP) is a pro-angiogenic paracrine stimulus released by cancer cells, platelets and macrophages and acting on endothelial cells. The objective of this study was to clarify how dRP stimulates angiogenic responses in human endothelial cells. RESULTS: Live cell imaging, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), pull-down of dRP-interacting proteins followed by immunoblotting, gene silencing of different NOXs and their regulatory co-subunits by siRNA transfection, and experiments with inhibitors of the sugar transporter GLUT1 were utilized to demonstrate that dRP acts intracellularly by directly activating the endothelial NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) complex, but not NOX4...
August 10, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792506/can-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-differentiate-malignant-and-benign-causes-of-lymphadenopathy-an-in-vitro-approach
#18
Lionel Buré, Louis-Martin Boucher, Miriam Blumenkrantz, Stefan Schob, Pierre Lafaye de Micheaux, Caroline Reinhold, Benoit Gallix
Lymphadenopathy continues to be a common problem to radiologists and treating physicians because of the difficulty in confidently categorizing a node as being benign or malignant using standard diagnostic techniques. The goal of our research was to assess whether magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy contains the necessary information to allow differentiation of benign from malignant lymph nodes in an in-vitro approach using a modern pattern recognition method. Tissue samples from a tissue bank were analyzed on a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790995/trehalose-polyphleates-external-cell-wall-lipids-in-mycobacterium-abscessus-are-associated-with-the-formation-of-clumps-with-cording-morphology-which-have-been-associated-with-virulence
#19
Marta Llorens-Fons, Míriam Pérez-Trujillo, Esther Julián, Cecilia Brambilla, Fernando Alcaide, Thomas F Byrd, Marina Luquin
Mycobacterium abscessus is a reemerging pathogen that causes pulmonary diseases similar to tuberculosis, which is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When grown in agar medium, M. abscessus strains generate rough (R) or smooth colonies (S). R morphotypes are more virulent than S morphotypes. In searching for the virulence factors responsible for this difference, R morphotypes have been found to form large aggregates (clumps) that, after being phagocytozed, result in macrophage death. Furthermore, the aggregates released to the extracellular space by damaged macrophages grow, forming unphagocytosable structures that resemble cords...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783477/a-high-content-live-cell-viability-assay-and-its-validation-on-a-diverse-12k-compound-screen
#20
Jeanne Chiaravalli, J Fraser Glickman
We have developed a new high-content cytotoxicity assay using live cells, called "ImageTOX." We used a high-throughput fluorescence microscope system, image segmentation software, and the combination of Hoechst 33342 and SYTO 17 to simultaneously score the relative size and the intensity of the nuclei, the nuclear membrane permeability, and the cell number in a 384-well microplate format. We then performed a screen of 12,668 diverse compounds and compared the results to a standard cytotoxicity assay. The ImageTOX assay identified similar sets of compounds to the standard cytotoxicity assay, while identifying more compounds having adverse effects on cell structure, earlier in treatment time...
August 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
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