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Nuclear imaging

Andrew B Rosenkrantz, Kent P Friedman, Fabio Ponzo, Roy A Raad, Kimberly Jackson, William C Huang, Arjun V Balar
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to conduct a prospective pilot study comparing the diagnostic performance of MRI alone and F-FDG simultaneous PET/MRI using a diuresis protocol in bladder cancer patients. METHODS: Twenty-two bladder cancer patients underwent F-FDG PET/MRI, using intravenous furosemide and oral hydration for bladder clearance. A radiologist scored probability of tumor in 3 locations (urinary bladder, pelvic lymph nodes, nonnodal pelvis) using 1- to 3-point scale (1 = negative, 2 = equivocal, 3 = definite tumor)...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Akio Hayashi, Hiromi Ota, Xavier López, Norihito Hiyoshi, Nao Tsunoji, Tsuneji Sano, Masahiro Sadakane
Dipotassium cation (K(+))-encapsulated Preyssler-type phosphotungstate, [P5W30O110K2](13-), was prepared by heating monobismuth (Bi(3+))-encapsulated Preyssler-type phosphotungstate, [P5W30O110Bi(H2O)](12-), in acetate buffer in the presence of an excess amount of potassium cations. Characterization of the isolated potassium salt, K13[P5W30O110K2] (1a), and its acid form, H13[P5W30O110K2] (1b), by single crystal X-ray structure analysis, (31)P and (183)W nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (HR-ESI-MS), and elemental analysis revealed that two potassium cations are encapsulated in the Preyssler-type phosphotungstate molecule with formal D5h symmetry, which is the first example of a Preyssler-type compound with two encapsulated cations...
October 24, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Srikanth Dasari, Swati Singh, Sri Sivakumar, Ashis K Patra
Dual-photosensitized stable Eu(ΙΙΙ) and Tb(ΙΙΙ) complexes, namely [Eu(dpq)(tfnb)3 ] (1) and [Tb(dpq)(tfnb)3 ] (2), in which dpq=dipyrido[3,2-d:2',3'-f]quinoxaline and Htfnb=4,4,4-trifluoro-1-(2-napthyl)-1,3-butanedione, were designed as bioimaging and light-responsive therapeutic agents. Their X-ray structures, photophysical properties, biological interactions, photoinduced DNA damage, photocytotoxicity, and cellular uptake properties were studied. Discrete mononuclear complexes adopt an eight-coordinated {LnN2 O6 } distorted square antiprism geometry with bidentate N,N-donor dpq and O,O-donor tfnb ligands...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Miguel Flores, Anthony Caram, Edward Derrick, John D Reith, Laura Bancroft, Kurt Scherer
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a primary malignant bone tumor which most commonly arises in children and young adults. The common clinical presentation with ES includes nighttime pain or pain related to activity, though patients may also present with a combination of localized swelling, a palpable mass, pathologic fracture, and constitutional symptoms. Clinical diagnosis may be delayed when a patient presents with clinical or imaging findings that overlap with non-malignant etiologies, such as fibrous dysplasia (FD) or osteomyelitis...
September 18, 2016: Curēus
Zi Long, Meiying Liu, Ruming Jiang, Guangjiang Zeng, Qing Wan, Hongye Huang, Fengjie Deng, Yiqun Wan, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
Aggregation-induced emission (AIE)-active fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FNPs) have been extensively explored for fluorescence "turn-on" bio-imaging applications with the unique advantages over conventional FNPs. Transformation of AIE-active molecules into FNPs can greatly expand their biomedical application potential. Here we reported a novel "one-pot" strategy for fabricating AIE-active FNPs through an ultrasonic-assisted, catalysts-free and solvent-free Kabachnik-Fields (KF) reaction for the first time...
October 11, 2016: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Konstantin Huhn, Robert Lämmer, Hanna Zimmermann, Alexandra Lämmer, Anne Waschbisch, Kathrin Utz, René Markus Gieß, Friedemann Paul, Ralf A Linker, De-Hyung Lee
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the CNS typically affecting younger adults and resulting in neuro-axonal degeneration already at early stages of the disease. Less is known about the effects of a later disease onset (LOMS, onset >50years of age). Analysis of retinal layers by optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive method to investigate retinal and neuro-axonal degeneration. We applied OCT to detect differences in retinal damage depending on a later disease manifestation...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Matthew J Budoff, Dong Li, Ella A Kazerooni, Gregory S Thomas, Jennifer H Mieres, Leslee J Shaw
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Although multiple studies have shown excellent accuracy statistics for noninvasive angiography by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA), most studies comparing nuclear imaging to CCTA were performed on patients already referred for cardiac catheterization, introducing referral and selection bias. This prospective trial evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of 64-row CCTA to detect obstructive coronary stenosis compared to myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), using quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) as a reference standard...
October 19, 2016: Academic Radiology
Lars Peter Engeset Austdal, Gro H Mathisen, Else Marit Løberg, Ragnhild E Paulsen
Immediate early gene nerve growth factor-induced clone B (NGFI-B), a nuclear receptor important for differentiation and apoptosis, is expressed in mice and rat cerebellum from an early stage of postnatal development. Following apoptotic stimuli NGFI-B translocates to mitochondria to initiate cell death processes. Controlled cell death is critical for correct cerebellar development. Immunohistochemical analysis of NGFI-B in sections of mice cerebella showed NGFI-B to be expressed in granule neurons in vivo at a time (P8-11) when apoptosis is known to occur...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Danielle L Brunjes, Adam Castano, Autumn Clemons, Jonah Rubin, Mathew S Maurer
Wild type transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTRwt), formerly called senile cardiac amyloidosis (SCA), is almost exclusively a disorder of older adults. As the population ages, the diagnosis of ATTRwt will increase making it the most common form of cardiac amyloidosis. An important precondition to reduce under-diagnosis and misdiagnosis is to maintain a high index of suspicion for cardiac amyloidosis. Several clues can be gleaned from the clinical history, physical exam, electrocardiogram and non-invasive imaging techniques...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Mir B Alikhan, Garrison Pease, William Watkin, Raymon Grogan, Thomas Krausz, Tatjana Antic
Epithelioid sarcoma (ES) is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm with some morphologic or immunophenotypic evidence of epithelial differentiation. The "classical" subtype occurs in younger patients, often in distal extremities as compared to the "proximal" type. Tumors of the proximal type primarily arising in solid organs are rare with only few case reports in the literature. We report two cases of primary ES in the kidney of a 27-year-old female and the adrenal gland of a 73-year-old male. Clinical exam and imaging, including computer tomography and positron emission tomography did not reveal tumor elsewhere in both cases...
October 18, 2016: Human Pathology
Jie Yang, Markus Guehr, Xiaozhe Shen, Renkai Li, Theodore Vecchione, Ryan Coffee, Jeff Corbett, Alan Fry, Nick Hartmann, Carsten Hast, Kareem Hegazy, Keith Jobe, Igor Makasyuk, Joseph Robinson, Matthew S Robinson, Sharon Vetter, Stephen Weathersby, Charles Yoneda, Xijie Wang, Martin Centurion
Observing the motion of the nuclear wave packets during a molecular reaction, in both space and time, is crucial for understanding and controlling the outcome of photoinduced chemical reactions. We have imaged the motion of a vibrational wave packet in isolated iodine molecules using ultrafast electron diffraction with relativistic electrons. The time-varying interatomic distance was measured with a precision 0.07 Å and temporal resolution of 230 fs full width at half maximum. The method is not only sensitive to the position but also the shape of the nuclear wave packet...
October 7, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Anurag Mishra, Giorgio Pariani, Thomas Oerther, Markus Schwaiger, Gil Gregor Westmeyer
We introduce hyperpolarizable (13)C-labelled probes that identify multiple biologically important divalent metals via metal-specific chemical shifts. These features enable NMR measurements of calcium concentrations in human serum in the presence of magnesium. In addition, signal enhancement through Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) increases the sensitivity of metal detection to afford measuring micromolar concentrations of calcium as well as simultaneous multi-metal detection by chemical shift imaging. The hyperpolarizable (13)C-MRI sensors presented here enable sensitive NMR measurements and MR imaging of multiple divalent metals in opaque biological samples...
October 21, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Soya Shinkai, Tadasu Nozaki, Kazuhiro Maeshima, Yuichi Togashi
The mammalian genome is organized into submegabase-sized chromatin domains (CDs) including topologically associating domains, which have been identified using chromosome conformation capture-based methods. Single-nucleosome imaging in living mammalian cells has revealed subdiffusively dynamic nucleosome movement. It is unclear how single nucleosomes within CDs fluctuate and how the CD structure reflects the nucleosome movement. Here, we present a polymer model wherein CDs are characterized by fractal dimensions and the nucleosome fibers fluctuate in a viscoelastic medium with memory...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Krishan Kant Agarwal, Anirban Mukherjee, ArunRaj St, Madhavi Tripathi, Chandrasekhar Bal
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incremental value of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate (Tc-MDP) single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) over planar bone scintigraphy (BS) and SPECT for the diagnosis of active condylar hyperplasia (CH). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data of 21 patients (mean age: 21.9±5.3 years, 10 males, 11 females) who underwent Tc-MDP BS along with regional SPECT/CT for the diagnosis of active CH were retrospectively evaluated...
October 19, 2016: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Vasilios P Papastefanou, Clara Vázquez-Alfageme, Pearse A Keane, Mandeep S Sagoo
PURPOSE: Multimodality image analysis of two cases of torpedo maculopathy. METHODS: Imaging with fundus photography, autofluorescence (AF), swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT), en face OCT, and OCT angiography. RESULTS: The basal diameter of the torpedo lesions was 1 mm × 2 mm. One case had a satellite lesion. Autofluorescence indicated variable loss of signal. Swept-source OCT and en face OCT demonstrated fundus excavation, attenuation of nuclear layers and disruption of the outer plexiform layer, loss of photoreceptors and a subretinal cleft...
October 19, 2016: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
Soo Yeon Hahn, Jung Hee Shin, Hyun Kyung Lim, So Lyung Jung, Young Lyun Oh, In Ho Choi, Chan Kwon Jung
BACKGROUND: A recent concept was proposed that the non-invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC) reclassified as "non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is benign. Our aim was to identify the differences between NIFTP and non-NIFTP preoperatively. METHODS: This retrospective study included a total of 208 patients with 208 FVPTCs that were surgically confirmed at 3 university hospitals from 2008 through 2014...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
Naomi Winn, Radhesh Lalam, Victor Cassar-Pullicino
Paget's disease of bone is a disorder of bone remodelling, leading to changes in the architecture and overall appearance of the bone. The disorder may be monostotic or polyostotic and affect any bone in the body, although most commonly it involves the spine, pelvis, skull and femur. This article explores the different imaging modalities used in the assessment of Paget's disease of bone in its different phases. The relative merits of each imaging modality is discussed with illustrative examples, in particular with respect to radiographs, nuclear medicine bone scan, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 19, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Takanobu Inoue, Atsuo Iida, Shingo Maegawa, Atsuko Sehara-Fujisawa, Masato Kinoshita
In this study, we verified nuclear transport activity of an artificial nuclear localization signal (aNLS) in medaka fish (Oryzias latipes). We generated a transgenic medaka strain expresses the aNLS tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) driven by a medaka beta-actin promoter. The aNLS-EGFP was accumulated in the nuclei of somatic tissues and yolk nuclei of oocytes, but undetectable in the spermatozoa. The fluorescent signal was observed from immediately after fertilization by a maternal contribution...
October 19, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Urmila Udayashankar, Vijay Srinivas Guduru, Anuradha Ananthaneni, Sabitha Devi Ramisetty, Puneeth Horatti Kuberappa, Srilekha Namala
AIMS: To determine the cellular and nuclear area of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users, those with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and from normal healthy persons and resolve if any significant difference exists in these three groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprised 100 subjects 20 controls, (40 OSCC patients-20 from lesional sites and 20 from nonlesional sites, 20 tobacco smokers and 20 tobacco chewers) in the age group of 25-75 years...
July 2016: Journal of Cytology
Michael S Hofman, Rodney J Hicks
(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is a pivotal imaging modality for cancer imaging, assisting diagnosis, staging of patients with newly diagnosed malignancy, restaging following therapy and surveillance. Interpretation requires integration of the metabolic and anatomic findings provided by the PET and CT components which transcend the knowledge base isolated in the worlds of nuclear medicine and radiology, respectively. In the manuscript we detail our approach to reviewing and reporting a PET/CT study using the most commonly used radiotracer, FDG...
October 18, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
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