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selenoprotein K

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905752/gga-let-7f-3p-promotes-apoptosis-in-selenium-deficiency-induced-skeletal-muscle-by-targeting-selenoprotein-k
#1
Rui-Feng Fan, Chang-Yu Cao, Meng-Hao Chen, Qun-Xiang Shi, Shi-Wen Xu
Selenoprotein K (SELENOK) is primarily observed in the endoplasmic reticulum, and serves to maintain the normal physiological functions of skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle development and regeneration are associated with significant changes in the expression of specific microRNAs (miRNAs). Downregulated SELENOK expression is observed in chicken muscles deficient of Se. However, the mechanisms of miRNA regulation of SELENOK expression remain elusive. Here, deep sequencing was used to detect the miRNA profiles of muscle in Se deficient (-Se group) and normal (C group) chickens...
June 15, 2018: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719207/the-intricate-role-of-selenium-and-selenoproteins-in-erythropoiesis
#2
REVIEW
Chang Liao, Bradley A Carlson, Robert F Paulson, K Sandeep Prabhu
Selenium (Se) is incorporated as the 21st amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) into the growing polypeptide chain of proteins involved in redox gatekeeper functions. Erythropoiesis presents a particular problem to redox regulation as the presence of iron, heme, and unpaired globin chains lead to high levels of free radical-mediated oxidative stress, which are detrimental to erythroid development and can lead to anemia. Under homeostatic conditions, bone marrow erythropoiesis produces sufficient erythrocytes to maintain homeostasis...
April 30, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669130/distinct-patterns-of-selection-in-selenium-dependent-genes-between-land-and-aquatic-vertebrates
#3
Gaurab K Sarangi, Frédéric Romagné, Sergi Castellano
Selenium (Se), a sparse element on earth, is an essential micronutrient in the vertebrate diet and its intake depends on its content in soils and waters worldwide. Selenium is required due to its function in selenoproteins, which contain selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid in the genetic code, as one of their constituent residues. Selenocysteine is analogous to the amino acid cysteine (Cys), which uses the abounding element sulfur instead. Despite the irregular distribution of Se worldwide, its distinct biochemical properties have made the substitution of Sec for Cys rare in vertebrate proteins...
July 1, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615406/selenoproteins-regulate-stress-erythroid-progenitors-and-spleen-microenvironment-during-stress-erythropoiesis
#4
Chang Liao, Ross C Hardison, Mary J Kennett, Bradley A Carlson, Robert F Paulson, K Sandeep Prabhu
Micronutrient selenium (Se) plays a key role in redox regulation through its incorporation into selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Because Se deficiency appears to be a cofactor in the anemia associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, we reasoned that selenoproteins may contribute to erythropoietic recovery from anemia, referred to as stress erythropoiesis. Here, we report that loss of selenoproteins through Se deficiency or by mutation of the Sec tRNA (tRNA [Sec] ) gene ( Trsp ) severely impairs stress erythropoiesis at two stages...
April 3, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568366/selenoprotein-k-deficiency-inhibits-melanoma-by-reducing-calcium-flux-required-for-tumor-growth-and-metastasis
#5
Michael P Marciel, Vedbar S Khadka, Youpeng Deng, Pascal Kilicaslan, Andrew Pham, Pietro Bertino, Katie Lee, Suzie Chen, Natalija Glibetic, FuKun W Hoffmann, Michelle L Matter, Peter R Hoffmann
Interest has emerged in the therapeutic potential of inhibiting store operated calcium (Ca2+ ) entry (SOCE) for melanoma and other cancers because malignant cells exhibit a strong dependence on Ca2+ flux for disease progression. We investigated the effects of deleting Selenoprotein K (SELENOK) in melanoma since previous work in immune cells showed SELENOK was required for efficient Ca2+ flux through the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ channel protein, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R), which is due to the role SELENOK plays in palmitoylating and stabilizing the expression of IP3R...
March 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559580/emerging-roles-of-endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-selenoproteins-in-the-regulation-of-cellular-stress-responses-and-the-implications-for-metabolic-disease
#6
REVIEW
Alex B Addinsall, Craig R Wright, Sof Andrikopoulos, Chris van der Poel, Nicole Stupka
Chronic metabolic stress leads to cellular dysfunction, characterized by excessive reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The ER is gaining recognition as a key organelle in integrating cellular stress responses. ER homeostasis is tightly regulated by a complex antioxidant system, which includes the seven ER-resident selenoproteins - 15 kDa selenoprotein, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase and selenoproteins S, N, K, M and T...
March 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555379/on-elongation-factor-eefsec-its-role-and-mechanism-during-selenium-incorporation-into-nascent-selenoproteins
#7
REVIEW
Miljan Simonović, Anupama K Puppala
BACKGROUND: Selenium, an essential dietary micronutrient, is incorporated into proteins as the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec) in response to in-frame UGA codons. Complex machinery ensures accurate recoding of Sec codons in higher organisms. A specialized elongation factor eEFSec is central to the process. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Selenoprotein synthesis relies on selenocysteinyl-tRNASec (Sec-tRNASec ), selenocysteine inserting sequence (SECIS) and other selenoprotein mRNA elements, an in-trans SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2) protein factor, and eEFSec...
March 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494512/selenium-and-selenoproteins-in-gut-inflammation-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Shaneice K Nettleford, K Sandeep Prabhu
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), characterized by severe flares and remissions, is a debilitating condition. While the etiology is unknown, many immune cells, such as macrophages, T cells and innate lymphoid cells, are implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Previous studies have shown the ability of micronutrient selenium (Se) and selenoproteins to impact inflammatory signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. In particular, two transcription factors, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)γ, which are involved in the activation of immune cells, and are also implicated in various stages of inflammation and resolution, respectively, are impacted by Se status...
March 1, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286308/selenoprotein-k-increases-efficiency-of-dhhc6-catalyzed-protein-palmitoylation-by-stabilizing-the-acyl-dhhc6-intermediate
#9
Gregory J Fredericks, FuKun W Hoffmann, Robert J Hondal, Sharon Rozovsky, Johann Urschitz, Peter R Hoffmann
Selenoprotein K (SELENOK) is a selenocysteine (Sec)-containing protein localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane where it interacts with the DHHC6 (where single letter symbols represent Asp-His-His-Cys amino acids) enzyme to promote protein acyl transferase (PAT) reactions. PAT reactions involve the DHHC enzymatic capture of palmitate via a thioester bond to cysteine (Cys) residues that form an unstable palmitoyl-DHHC intermediate, followed by transfer of palmitate to Cys residues of target proteins...
December 29, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124976/rethinking-mercury-the-role-of-selenium-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mercury-toxicity
#10
Henry A Spiller
INTRODUCTION: There is increasing evidence that the pathophysiological target of mercury is in fact selenium, rather than the covalent binding of mercury to sulfur in the body's ubiquitous sulfhydryl groups. The role of selenium in mercury poisoning is multifaceted, bidirectional, and central to understanding the target organ toxicity of mercury. METHODS: An initial search was performed using Medline/PubMed, Toxline, Google Scholar, and Google for published work on mercury and selenium...
May 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112715/refseq-an-update-on-prokaryotic-genome-annotation-and-curation
#11
Daniel H Haft, Michael DiCuccio, Azat Badretdin, Vyacheslav Brover, Vyacheslav Chetvernin, Kathleen O'Neill, Wenjun Li, Farideh Chitsaz, Myra K Derbyshire, Noreen R Gonzales, Marc Gwadz, Fu Lu, Gabriele H Marchler, James S Song, Narmada Thanki, Roxanne A Yamashita, Chanjuan Zheng, Françoise Thibaud-Nissen, Lewis Y Geer, Aron Marchler-Bauer, Kim D Pruitt
The Reference Sequence (RefSeq) project at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) provides annotation for over 95 000 prokaryotic genomes that meet standards for sequence quality, completeness, and freedom from contamination. Genomes are annotated by a single Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline (PGAP) to provide users with a resource that is as consistent and accurate as possible. Notable recent changes include the development of a hierarchical evidence scheme, a new focus on curating annotation evidence sources, the addition and curation of protein profile hidden Markov models (HMMs), release of an updated pipeline (PGAP-4), and comprehensive re-annotation of RefSeq prokaryotic genomes...
January 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054417/the-regulation-of-pathways-of-inflammation-and-resolution-in-immune-cells-and-cancer-stem-cells-by-selenium
#12
Bastihalli T Diwakar, Arvind M Korwar, Robert F Paulson, K Sandeep Prabhu
Cancer is a complex disease where cancer stem cells (CSCs) maintain unlimited replicative potential, but evade chemotherapy drugs through cellular quiescence. CSCs are able to give rise to bulk tumor cells that have the capability to override antiproliferative signals and evade apoptosis. Numerous pathways are dysregulated in tumor cells, where increased levels of prooxidant reactive oxygen and nitrogen species can lead to localized inflammation to exacerbate all three stages of tumorigenesis: initiation, progression, and metastasis...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983820/selenoprotein-k-mediates-the-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-human-choriocarcinoma-cells-by-negatively-regulating-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-expression-via-erk-p38-mapk-and-akt-signaling-pathway
#13
Mengdi Li, Wanpeng Cheng, Tingting Nie, Hehuan Lai, Xiaoyan Hu, Jincheng Luo, Fenglan Li, Hui Li
Selenoprotein K (SelK), a member of selenoprotein family, is identified as a single endoplasmic reticulum (ER) transmembrane protein. Although over-expression of SelK inhibits adherence and migration of human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells, the effects of SelK in human choriocarcinoma (CCA) are not well understood. In this study, the expression levels of SelK in three CCA cell lines, BeWo, JEG-3, and JAR, were examined. The effects of silencing or over-expressing SelK on expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit (β-hCG) were detected by western blotting...
October 6, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957736/gene-expression-of-selenoproteins-can-be-regulated-by-thioredoxin-txn-silence-in-chicken-cardiomyocytes
#14
Jie Yang, Sattar Hamid, Qi Liu, Jingzeng Cai, Shiwen Xu, Ziwei Zhang
Thioredoxin (Txn) system is the most crucial antioxidant defense mechanism in myocardium. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of Txn low expression on 25 selenoproteins in chicken cardiomyocytes. We developed a Se-deficient model (0.033mg/kg) and Txn knock down cardiomyocytes model (siRNA) studies. Western Blot, Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) were performed, and correlation analysis, heat map were used for further analysis. Both low expression of Txn models are significantly decreased (P<0...
December 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917050/preparation-of-selenocysteine-containing-forms-of-human-selenok-and-selenos
#15
Zhengqi Zhang, Jun Liu, Sharon Rozovsky
Selenoprotein K (SELENOK) and Selenoprotein S (SELENOS) are the members of the endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) complex, which is responsible for translocating misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol for degradation. Besides its involvement in the ERAD, SELENOK was shown to bind and stabilize the palmitoyl transferase DHHC6, and thus contributes to palmitoylation. SELENOK and SELENOS reside in the ER membrane by the way of a single transmembrane helix. Both contain an intrinsically disordered region with a selenocysteine (Sec) located one or two residues away from the C-terminus...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917040/studying-selenoprotein-mrna-translation-using-rna-seq-and-ribosome-profiling
#16
Brian K Dalley, Lisa Baird, Michael T Howard
Deep sequencing of ribosome protected mRNA footprints, also called ribosome profiling or Ribo-Seq, is a relatively new methodology well suited to address questions regarding the mechanisms and efficiency of protein expression. Specifically, the ability of this technique to quantify ribosome abundance with codon resolution enables experiments aimed at studying many aspects of translation, including gene-specific translational efficiency, translation of regulatory upstream short open reading frames, sites of ribosome pausing, and most importantly for selenoproteins, the efficiency by which UGA codons are redefined to encode selenocysteine...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855418/analyses-of-selenotranscriptomes-and-selenium-concentrations-in-response-to-dietary-selenium-deficiency-and-age-reveal-common-and-distinct-patterns-by-tissue-and-sex-in-telomere-dysfunctional-mice
#17
Lei Cao, Li Zhang, Huawei Zeng, Ryan Ty Wu, Tung-Lung Wu, Wen-Hsing Cheng
Background: The hierarchies of tissue selenium distribution and selenotranscriptomes are thought to critically affect healthspan and longevity. Objective: We determined selenium status and selenotranscriptomes in response to long-term dietary selenium deficiency and age in tissues of male and female mice. Methods: Weanling telomerase RNA component knockout C57BL/6 mice were fed a selenium-deficient (0.03 mg Se/kg) Torula yeast-based AIN-93G diet or a diet supplemented with sodium selenate (0.15 mg Se/kg) until age 18 or 24 mo...
October 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808125/insights-into-substrate-promiscuity-of-human-seryl-trna-synthetase
#18
Kaitlyn M Holman, Anupama K Puppala, Jonathan W Lee, Hyun Lee, Miljan Simonović
Seryl-tRNA synthetase (SerRS) attaches L-serine to the cognate serine tRNA (tRNASer ) and the noncognate selenocysteine tRNA (tRNASec ). The latter activity initiates the anabolic cycle of selenocysteine (Sec), proper decoding of an in-frame Sec UGA codon, and synthesis of selenoproteins across all domains of life. While the accuracy of SerRS is important for overall proteome integrity, it is its substrate promiscuity that is vital for the integrity of the selenoproteome. This raises a question as to what elements in the two tRNA species, harboring different anticodon sequences and adopting distinct folds, facilitate aminoacylation by a common aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase...
November 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733900/the-putative-role-of-environmental-mercury-in-the-pathogenesis-and-pathophysiology-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-subtypes
#19
REVIEW
G Morris, B K Puri, R E Frye, M Maes
Exposure to organic forms of mercury has the theoretical capacity to generate a range of immune abnormalities coupled with chronic nitro-oxidative stress seen in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The paper discusses possible mechanisms explaining the neurotoxic effects of mercury and possible associations between mercury exposure and ASD subtypes. Environmental mercury is neurotoxic at doses well below the current reference levels considered to be safe, with evidence of neurotoxicity in children exposed to environmental sources including fish consumption and ethylmercury-containing vaccines...
June 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506443/endoplasmic-reticulum-resident-selenoproteins-as-regulators-of-calcium-signaling-and-homeostasis
#20
REVIEW
Matthew W Pitts, Peter R Hoffmann
The human selenoprotein family contains 25 members that share the common feature of containing the amino acid, selenocysteine (Sec). Seven selenoproteins are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and exhibit different structural features contributing to a range of cellular functions. Some of these functions are either directly or indirectly related to calcium (Ca2+ ) flux or homeostasis. The presence of the unique Sec residue within these proteins allows some to exert oxidoreductase activity, while the function of the Sec in other ER selenoproteins remains unclear...
March 2018: Cell Calcium
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