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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780962/challenging-aspects-of-contemporary-cochlear-implant-electrode-array-design
#1
REVIEW
Pavel Mistrík, Claude Jolly, Daniel Sieber, Ingeborg Hochmair
Objective: A design comparison of current perimodiolar and lateral wall electrode arrays of the cochlear implant (CI) is provided. The focus is on functional features such as acoustic frequency coverage and tonotopic mapping, battery consumption and dynamic range. A traumacity of their insertion is also evaluated. Methods: Review of up-to-date literature. Results: Perimodiolar electrode arrays are positioned in the basal turn of the cochlea near the modiolus...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766395/nonword-repetition-stimuli-for-vietnamese-speaking-children
#2
Giang Pham, Kerry Danahy Ebert, Kristine Thuy Dinh, Quynh Dam
Nonword repetition (NWR) has been a widely used measure of language-learning ability in children with and without language disorders. Although NWR tasks have been created for a variety of languages, minimal attention has been given to Asian tonal languages. This study introduces a new set of NWR stimuli for Vietnamese. The stimuli include 20 items ranging in length from one to four syllables. The items consist of dialect-neutral phonemes in consonant-vowel (CV) and CVC sequences that follow the phonotactic constraints of the language...
May 15, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765620/reducing-language-to-rhythm-amazonian-bora-drummed-language-exploits-speech-rhythm-for-long-distance-communication
#3
Frank Seifart, Julien Meyer, Sven Grawunder, Laure Dentel
Many drum communication systems around the world transmit information by emulating tonal and rhythmic patterns of spoken languages in sequences of drumbeats. Their rhythmic characteristics, in particular, have not been systematically studied so far, although understanding them represents a rare occasion for providing an original insight into the basic units of speech rhythm as selected by natural speech practices directly based on beats. Here, we analyse a corpus of Bora drum communication from the northwest Amazon, which is nowadays endangered with extinction...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723069/prosodic-and-segmental-aspects-of-nonword-repetition-in-4-to-6-year-old-children-who-are-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-compared-to-controls-with-normal-hearing
#4
Simon Sundström, Ulrika Löfkvist, Björn Lyxell, Christina Samuelsson
Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) are at an increased risk of speech and language deficits. Nonword repetition (NWR) is a potential predictor of problems with phonology, grammar and lexicon in DHH children. The aim of the present study was to examine repetition of prosodic features and segments in nonwords by DHH children compared to children with normal hearing (NH) and to relate NWR performance to measures of language ability and background variables. In this cross-sectional study, 14 Swedish-speaking children with mild-profound sensorineural hearing loss, aged 4-6 years, and 29 age-matched controls with NH and typical language development participated...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720729/electrophysiological-dynamics-of-chinese-phonology-during-visual-word-recognition-in-chinese-english-bilinguals
#5
Yun Wen, Ruth Filik, Walter J B van Heuven
Silent word reading leads to the activation of orthographic (spelling), semantic (meaning), as well as phonological (sound) information. For bilinguals, native language information can also be activated automatically when they read words in their second language. For example, when Chinese-English bilinguals read words in their second language (English), the phonology of the Chinese translations is automatically activated. Chinese phonology, however, consists of consonants and vowels (segmental) and tonal information...
May 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670555/lexical-tones-in-mandarin-chinese-infant-directed-speech-age-related-changes-in-the-second-year-of-life
#6
Mengru Han, Nivja H de Jong, René Kager
Tonal information is essential to early word learning in tone languages. Although numerous studies have investigated the intonational and segmental properties of infant-directed speech (IDS), only a few studies have explored the properties of lexical tones in IDS. These studies mostly focused on the first year of life; thus little is known about how lexical tones in IDS change as children's vocabulary acquisition accelerates in the second year (Goldfield and Reznick, 1990; Bloom, 2001). The present study examines whether Mandarin Chinese mothers hyperarticulate lexical tones in IDS addressing 18- and 24-month-old children-at which age children are learning words at a rapid speed-vs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628900/perception-of-lexical-neutral-tone-among-adults-and-infants
#7
Shanshan Fan, Aijun Li, Ao Chen
Neutral tone (T0) is a special tone form in Mandarin that contains tonal and stress information. Compared with canonical tones, T0 has a much shorter duration and reduced pitch contour. Its tonal contour is determined by the preceding canonical tone. However, not much is known about the perception of tonal and stress information in T0. In the current study, we investigate (1) whether T0 can be perceived as lexically unstressed by stress-language listeners; and (2) how Mandarin (tone language)- and Dutch (stress language)-learning infants perceive T0...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615941/one-way-or-another-evidence-for-perceptual-asymmetry-in-pre-attentive-learning-of-non-native-contrasts
#8
Liquan Liu, Jia Hoong Ong, Alba Tuninetti, Paola Escudero
Research investigating listeners' neural sensitivity to speech sounds has largely focused on segmental features. We examined Australian English listeners' perception and learning of a supra-segmental feature, pitch direction in a non-native tonal contrast, using a passive oddball paradigm and electroencephalography. The stimuli were two contours generated from naturally produced high-level and high-falling tones in Mandarin Chinese, differing only in pitch direction (Liu and Kager, 2014). While both contours had similar pitch onsets, the pitch offset of the falling contour was lower than that of the level one...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599730/monolingual-and-bilingual-infants-ability-to-use-non-native-tone-for-word-learning-deteriorates-by-the-second-year-after-birth
#9
Liquan Liu, René Kager
Previous studies reported a non-native word learning advantage for bilingual infants at around 18 months. We investigated developmental changes in infant interpretation of sounds that aid in object mapping. Dutch monolingual and bilingual (exposed to Dutch and a second non-tone-language) infants' word learning ability was examined on two novel label-object pairings using syllables differing in Mandarin tones as labels (flat vs. falling). Infants aged 14-15 months, regardless of language backgrounds, were sensitive to violations in the label-objects pairings when lexical tones were switched compared to when they were the same as habituated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560782/early-l2-spoken-word-recognition-combines-input-based-and-knowledge-based-processing
#10
Seth Wiener, Kiwako Ito, Shari R Speer
This study examines the perceptual trade-off between knowledge of a language's statistical regularities and reliance on the acoustic signal during L2 spoken word recognition. We test how early learners track and make use of segmental and suprasegmental cues and their relative frequencies during non-native word recognition. English learners of Mandarin were taught an artificial tonal language in which a tone's informativeness for word identification varied according to neighborhood density. The stimuli mimicked Mandarin's uneven distribution of syllable+tone combinations by varying syllable frequency and the probability of particular tones co-occurring with a particular syllable...
March 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534831/vowel-and-tone-recognition-in-quiet-and-in-noise-among-mandarin-speaking-amusics
#11
Wei Tang, Xi-Jian Wang, Jia-Qi Li, Chang Liu, Qi Dong, Yun Nan
Music and language are two intricately linked communication modalities in humans. A deficit in music pitch processing as manifested in the condition of congenital amusia has been related to difficulties in lexical tone processing for both tone and non-tonal languages. However, it is still unclear whether amusia also affects the perception of vowel phonemes in quiet and in noise. In this study, we examined vowel-plus-tone identification in quiet and noise conditions among Mandarin-speaking amusics with and without speech tone difficulties (tone agnosics and pure amusics, respectively), and IQ- and age-matched controls...
June 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522407/design-and-preliminary-evaluation-of-electrolarynx-with-f0-control-based-on-capacitive-touch-technology
#12
Wang Li, Qian Zhaopeng, Feng Yijun, Niu Haijun
An electrolarynx (EL) is one of the most popular voice rehabilitation technologies used after laryngectomy. However, most ELs generate monotonic EL speech, which has been shown to create a particular deficit in speech intelligibility, especially for Chinese Mandarin (Mandarin). Mandarin is a tonal language that makes lexical distinctions using variations in tone. Our purpose is to design an EL that can produce the four Mandarin tones, and to evaluate its performance. We designed a fundamental frequency (F0) control method for Mandarin EL speech and manufactured a touch-controlled electrolarynx (T-EL) prototype...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29491454/the-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-processes-nested-non-local-dependencies-in-music
#13
Vincent K M Cheung, Lars Meyer, Angela D Friederici, Stefan Koelsch
Complex auditory sequences known as music have often been described as hierarchically structured. This permits the existence of non-local dependencies, which relate elements of a sequence beyond their temporal sequential order. Previous studies in music have reported differential activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) when comparing regular and irregular chord-transitions based on theories in Western tonal harmony. However, it is unclear if the observed activity reflects the interpretation of hierarchical structure as the effects are confounded by local irregularity...
February 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484971/music-training-can-improve-music-and-speech-perception-in-pediatric-mandarin-speaking-cochlear-implant-users
#14
Xiaoting Cheng, Yangwenyi Liu, Yilai Shu, Duo-Duo Tao, Bing Wang, Yasheng Yuan, John J Galvin, Qian-Jie Fu, Bing Chen
Due to limited spectral resolution, cochlear implants (CIs) do not convey pitch information very well. Pitch cues are important for perception of music and tonal language; it is possible that music training may improve performance in both listening tasks. In this study, we investigated music training outcomes in terms of perception of music, lexical tones, and sentences in 22 young (4.8 to 9.3 years old), prelingually deaf Mandarin-speaking CI users. Music perception was measured using a melodic contour identification (MCI) task...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401060/exponential-modeling-of-frequency-following-responses-in-american-neonates-and-adults
#15
Fuh-Cherng Jeng, Brandie Nance, Karen Montgomery-Reagan, Chia-Der Lin
BACKGROUND: The scalp-recorded frequency-following response (FFR) has been widely accepted in assessing the brain's processing of speech stimuli for people who speak tonal and nontonal languages. Characteristics of scalp-recorded FFRs with increasing number of sweeps have been delineated through the use of an exponential curve-fitting model in Chinese adults; however, characteristics of speech processing for people who speak a nontonal language remain unclear. PURPOSE: This study had two specific aims...
February 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344625/perception-of-cantonese-lexical-tones-by-pediatric-cochlear-implant-users
#16
Colleen M Holt, Kathy Y S Lee, Richard C Dowell, Adam P Vogel
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess Cantonese word recognition and the discrimination of Cantonese tones with manipulated contours by child and adolescent cochlear implant (CI) users and a group of peers with normal hearing (NH). It was hypothesized that the CI users would perform more poorly than their counterparts with NH in both tasks and that CI users implanted before 2 years of age would perform better than those implanted after 2 years. Method: Forty-one participants were recruited from hospitals, schools, and kindergartens in Hong Kong: Ten CI users implanted at or before 2 years of age ("early" CI group), 13 CI users implanted after 2 years of age ("late" CI group), and 18 individuals with NH...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246484/testing-native-language-neural-commitment-at-the-brainstem-level-a-cross-linguistic-investigation-of-the-association-between-frequency-following-response-and-speech-perception
#17
Luodi Yu, Yang Zhang
A current topic in auditory neurophysiology is how brainstem sensory coding contributes to higher-level perceptual, linguistic and cognitive skills. This cross-language study was designed to compare frequency following responses (FFRs) for lexical tones in tonal (Mandarin Chinese) and non-tonal (English) language users and test the correlational strength between FFRs and behavior as a function of language experience. The behavioral measures were obtained in the Garner paradigm to assess how lexical tones might interfere with vowel category and duration judgement...
January 31, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070915/sentiment-analysis-of-political-communication-combining-a-dictionary-approach-with-crowdcoding
#18
Martin Haselmayer, Marcelo Jenny
Sentiment is important in studies of news values, public opinion, negative campaigning or political polarization and an explosive expansion of digital textual data and fast progress in automated text analysis provide vast opportunities for innovative social science research. Unfortunately, tools currently available for automated sentiment analysis are mostly restricted to English texts and require considerable contextual adaption to produce valid results. We present a procedure for collecting fine-grained sentiment scores through crowdcoding to build a negative sentiment dictionary in a language and for a domain of choice...
2017: Quality & Quantity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018382/how-native-prosody-affects-pitch-processing-during-word-learning-in-limburgian-and-dutch-toddlers-and-adults
#19
Stefanie Ramachers, Susanne Brouwer, Paula Fikkert
In this study, Limburgian and Dutch 2.5- to 4-year-olds and adults took part in a word learning experiment. Following the procedure employed by Quam and Swingley (2010) and Singh et al. (2014), participants learned two novel word-object mappings. After training, word recognition was tested in correct pronunciation (CP) trials and mispronunciation (MP) trials featuring a pitch change. Since Limburgian is considered a restricted tone language, we expected that the pitch change would hinder word recognition in Limburgian, but not in non-tonal Dutch listeners...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974695/music-training-enhances-the-automatic-neural-processing-of-foreign-speech-sounds
#20
Bastien Intartaglia, Travis White-Schwoch, Nina Kraus, Daniele Schön
Growing evidence shows that music and language experience affect the neural processing of speech sounds throughout the auditory system. Recent work mainly focused on the benefits induced by musical practice on the processing of native language or tonal foreign language, which rely on pitch processing. The aim of the present study was to take this research a step further by investigating the effect of music training on processing English sounds by foreign listeners. We recorded subcortical electrophysiological responses to an English syllable in three groups of participants: native speakers, non-native nonmusicians, and non-native musicians...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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