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Tonal language

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443053/perceptual-improvement-of-lexical-tones-in-infants-effects-of-tone-language-experience
#1
Feng-Ming Tsao
To learn words in a tonal language, tone-language learners should not only develop better abilities for perceiving consonants and vowels, but also for lexical tones. The divergent trend of enhancing sensitivity to native phonetic contrasts and reduced sensitivity to non-native phonetic contrast is theoretically essential to evaluate effects of listening to an ambient language on speech perception development. The loss of sensitivity in discriminating lexical tones among non-tonal language-learning infants was apparent between 6 and 12 months of age, but only few studies examined trends of differentiating native lexical tones in infancy...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301851/the-effect-of-focus-and-phrase-position-on-east-norwegian-lexical-tonal-accents
#2
Niamh E Kelly, Rajka Smiljanic
Two experiments examined the acoustic correlates of the disyllabic tonal accent contrast in the Trøndersk dialect of Norwegian, and how narrow focus and phrasal position shape the contrast. Production results showed that both tonal accents have a high-low (HL) pitch contour, with different timing. In narrow focus, the pitch contrast was enlarged through asymmetrical F0 changes. When at the right edge of an accent phrase (AP), the accents were shown to have a higher L, lower AP H% tone, shorter stressed vowel, and longer final vowel...
March 17, 2017: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225070/speech-specific-categorical-perception-deficit-in-autism-an-event-related-potential-study-of-lexical-tone-processing-in-mandarin-speaking-children
#3
Xiaoyue Wang, Suiping Wang, Yuebo Fan, Dan Huang, Yang Zhang
Recent studies reveal that tonal language speakers with autism have enhanced neural sensitivity to pitch changes in nonspeech stimuli but not to lexical tone contrasts in their native language. The present ERP study investigated whether the distinct pitch processing pattern for speech and nonspeech stimuli in autism was due to a speech-specific deficit in categorical perception of lexical tones. A passive oddball paradigm was adopted to examine two groups (16 in the autism group and 15 in the control group) of Chinese children's Mismatch Responses (MMRs) to equivalent pitch deviations representing within-category and between-category differences in speech and nonspeech contexts...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208141/the-phonetics-and-phonology-of-the-polish-calling-melodies
#4
Amalia Arvaniti, Marzena Żygis, Marek Jaskuła
Two calling melodies of Polish were investigated, the routine call, used to call someone for an everyday reason, and the urgent call, which conveys disapproval of the addressee's actions. A Discourse Completion Task was used to elicit the two melodies from Polish speakers using twelve names from one to four syllables long; there were three names per syllable count, and speakers produced three tokens of each name with each melody. The results, based on eleven speakers, show that the routine calling melody consists of a low F0 stretch followed by a rise-fall-rise; the urgent calling melody, on the other hand, is a simple rise-fall...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208133/how-truncating-are-truncating-languages-evidence-from-russian-and-german
#5
Tamara V Rathcke
Russian and German have pr eviously been described as 'truncating', or cutting off target frequencies of the phrase-final pitch trajectories when the time available for voicing is compromised. However, supporting evidence is rare and limited to only a few pitch categories. This paper reports a production study conducted to document pitch adjustments to linguistic materials, in which the amount of voicing available for the realization of a pitch pattern varies from relatively long to extremely short. Productions of nuclear H+L*, H* and L*+H pitch accents followed by a low boundary tone were investigated in the two languages...
2016: Phonetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203463/the-relative-weight-of-temporal-envelope-cues-in-different-frequency-regions-for-mandarin-sentence-recognition
#6
Yang Guo, Yuanyuan Sun, Yanmei Feng, Yujun Zhang, Shankai Yin
Acoustic temporal envelope (E) cues containing speech information are distributed across the frequency spectrum. To investigate the relative weight of E cues in different frequency regions for Mandarin sentence recognition, E information was extracted from 30 contiguous bands across the range of 80-7,562 Hz using Hilbert decomposition and then allocated to five frequency regions. Recognition scores were obtained with acoustic E cues from 1 or 2 random regions from 40 normal-hearing listeners. While the recognition scores ranged from 8...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174545/categorization-of-natural-whistled-vowels-by-na%C3%A3-ve-listeners-of-different-language-background
#7
Julien Meyer, Laure Dentel, Fanny Meunier
Whistled speech in a non-tonal language consists of the natural emulation of vocalic and consonantal qualities in a simple modulated whistled signal. This special speech register represents a natural telecommunication system that enables high levels of sentence intelligibility by trained speakers and is not directly intelligible to naïve listeners. Yet, it is easily learned by speakers of the language that is being whistled, as attested by the current efforts of the revitalization of whistled Spanish in the Canary Islands...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174518/assessing-music-perception-in-young-children-evidence-for-and-psychometric-features-of-the-m-factor
#8
Caio G Barros, Walter Swardfager, Sylvain Moreno, Graziela Bortz, Beatriz Ilari, Andrea P Jackowski, George Ploubidis, Todd D Little, Alexandra Lamont, Hugo Cogo-Moreira
Given the relationship between language acquisition and music processing, musical perception (MP) skills have been proposed as a tool for early diagnosis of speech and language difficulties; therefore, a psychometric instrument is needed to assess music perception in children under 10 years of age, a crucial period in neurodevelopment. We created a set of 80 musical stimuli encompassing seven domains of music perception to inform perception of tonal, atonal, and modal stimuli, in a random sample of 1006 children, 6-13 years of age, equally distributed from first to fifth grades, from 14 schools (38% private schools) in So Paulo State...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153640/neural-bases-of-congenital-amusia-in-tonal-language-speakers
#9
Caicai Zhang, Gang Peng, Jing Shao, William S-Y Wang
Congenital amusia is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder of fine-grained pitch processing. In this fMRI study, we examined the neural bases of congenial amusia in speakers of a tonal language - Cantonese. Previous studies on non-tonal language speakers suggest that the neural deficits of congenital amusia lie in the music-selective neural circuitry in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, it is unclear whether this finding can generalize to congenital amusics in tonal languages. Tonal language experience has been reported to shape the neural processing of pitch, which raises the question of how tonal language experience affects the neural bases of congenital amusia...
January 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107359/sustained-cortical-and-subcortical-measures-of-auditory-and-visual-plasticity-following-short-term-perceptual-learning
#10
Bonnie K Lau, Dorea R Ruggles, Sucharit Katyal, Stephen A Engel, Andrew J Oxenham
Short-term training can lead to improvements in behavioral discrimination of auditory and visual stimuli, as well as enhanced EEG responses to those stimuli. In the auditory domain, fluency with tonal languages and musical training has been associated with long-term cortical and subcortical plasticity, but less is known about the effects of shorter-term training. This study combined electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures to investigate short-term learning and neural plasticity in both auditory and visual domains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040029/categorical-perception-of-lexical-tones-by-english-learners-of-mandarin-chinese
#11
Guannan Shen, Karen Froud
Whether native speakers of non-tonal languages can acquire categorical representations of lexical tones remains controversial. This study investigates the acquisition of lexical tone categories by native English speakers learning Mandarin Chinese as a foreign language by comparing the categorical perception (CP) of lexical tones between three groups of listeners: (1) native English speakers who had taken advanced Mandarin courses in colleges; (2) native English speakers with no knowledge of Mandarin Chinese; and (3) native Mandarin speakers...
December 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013472/development-and-evaluation-of-wheel-controlled-pitch-adjustable-electrolarynx
#12
Li Wang, Yijun Feng, Ze Yang, Haijun Niu
Tone is important in tonal languages, especially in Mandarin. However, there is presently no commercially available electrolarynx (EL) for laryngectomized Mandarin speakers. Moreover, few studies have focused on this area. Our purpose is to design an EL that produces the four Mandarin tones and to evaluate its performance. We designed a wheel-controlled pitch-adjustable EL and manufactured a prototype (Wheel-EL). Using monosyllables, disyllabic segments, and frequently used phrases, we evaluated speech produced by Wheel-EL and by monotone (M-TruTone) and variable-frequency modes (V-TruTone) of the commercially available TruTone EL...
December 24, 2016: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008803/seeking-an-anchorage-stability-and-variability-in-tonal-alignment-of-rising-prenuclear-pitch-accents-in-cypriot-greek
#13
Charalambos Themistocleous
Although tonal alignment constitutes a quintessential property of pitch accents, its exact characteristics remain unclear. This study, by exploring the timing of the Cypriot Greek L*+H prenuclear pitch accent, examines the predictions of three hypotheses about tonal alignment: the invariance hypothesis, the segmental anchoring hypothesis, and the segmental anchorage hypothesis. The study reports on two experiments: the first of which manipulates the syllable patterns of the stressed syllable, and the second of which modifies the distance of the L*+H from the following pitch accent...
December 2016: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988939/second-language-experience-facilitates-statistical-learning-of-novel-linguistic-materials
#14
Christine E Potter, Tianlin Wang, Jenny R Saffran
Recent research has begun to explore individual differences in statistical learning, and how those differences may be related to other cognitive abilities, particularly their effects on language learning. In this research, we explored a different type of relationship between language learning and statistical learning: the possibility that learning a new language may also influence statistical learning by changing the regularities to which learners are sensitive. We tested two groups of participants, Mandarin Learners and Naïve Controls, at two time points, 6 months apart...
April 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965572/voice-pitch-elicited-frequency-following-response-in-chinese-elderlies
#15
Shuo Wang, Jiong Hu, Ruijuan Dong, Dongxin Liu, Jing Chen, Gabriella Musacchia, Bo Liu
Background: Perceptual and electrophysiological studies have found reduced speech discrimination in quiet and noisy environment, delayed neural timing, decreased neural synchrony, and decreased temporal processing ability in elderlies, even those with normal hearing. However, recent studies have also demonstrated that language experience and auditory training enhance the temporal dynamics of sound encoding in the auditory brainstem response (ABR). The purpose of this study was to explore the pitch processing ability at the brainstem level in an aging population that has a tonal language background...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965527/lexical-specification-of-prosodic-information-in-swedish-evidence-from-mismatch-negativity
#16
Hatice Zora, Tomas Riad, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, Mattias Heldner
Like that of many other Germanic languages, the stress system of Swedish has mainly undergone phonological analysis. Recently, however, researchers have begun to recognize the central role of morphology in these systems. Similar to the lexical specification of tonal accent, the Swedish stress system is claimed to be morphologically determined and morphemes are thus categorized as prosodically specified and prosodically unspecified. Prosodically specified morphemes bear stress information as part of their lexical representations and are classified as tonic (i...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927962/selective-neuronal-activation-by-cochlear-implant-stimulation-in-auditory-cortex-of-awake-primate
#17
Luke A Johnson, Charles C Della Santina, Xiaoqin Wang
Despite the success of cochlear implants (CIs) in human populations, most users perform poorly in noisy environments and music and tonal language perception. How CI devices engage the brain at the single neuron level has remained largely unknown, in particular in the primate brain. By comparing neuronal responses with acoustic and CI stimulation in marmoset monkeys unilaterally implanted with a CI electrode array, we discovered that CI stimulation was surprisingly ineffective at activating many neurons in auditory cortex, particularly in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the CI...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790084/music-proficiency-and-quantification-of-absolute-pitch-a-large-scale-study-among-brazilian-musicians
#18
Raphael B C Leite, Sergio A Mota-Rolim, Claudio M T Queiroz
Absolute pitch (AP) is the ability to identify and name the pitch of a sound without external reference. Often, accuracy and speed at naming isolated musical pitches are correlated with demographic, biological, and acoustical parameters to gain insight into the genesis and evolution of this ability in specific cohorts. However, the majority of those studies were conducted in North America, Europe, or Asia. To fill this gap, here we investigated the pitch-naming performance in a large population of Brazilian conservatory musicians (N = 200)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774762/hearing-characterization-in-oculoauriculovertebral-spectrum-a-prospective-study-with-10-patients
#19
Thayse Bienert Goetze, Pricila Sleifer, Rafael Fabiano Machado Rosa, Alessandra Pawelec da Silva, Carla Graziadio, Paulo Ricardo Gazzola Zen
Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS), also known as Goldenhar syndrome, is considered a condition associated to failing of embryogenesis involving the first and second branchial arches, leading to structural abnormalities arising from it. The aim of this study is to verify the hearing features presented by patients with OAVS and provide additional information that may contribute to improvement of speech therapy. The sample consisted of 10 individuals diagnosed with OAVS and cared for by the Clinical Genetics Service...
February 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701966/speech-recognition-outcomes-in-mandarin-speaking-cochlear-implant-users-with-fine-structure-processing
#20
Beier Qi, Ziye Liu, Xin Gu, Bo Liu
CONCLUSION: Mandarin-speaking adults can use the Fine Structure Processing (FSP) coding strategy as well as the Continuous Interleaved Sampling (CIS+) coding strategy. No loss in performance was observed after switch-over. Tone identification improves over time with the FSP coding strategy, which is of benefit to tonal-language users. After some time, fine structure was preferred. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine speech perception, tone perception, and the subjective preferences of Mandarin-speaking adults who received the FSP coding strategy, at upgrade from the CIS + coding strategy...
March 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
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