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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922125/an-er%C3%AE-agonist-induces-browning-of-subcutaneous-abdominal-fat-pad-in-obese-female-mice
#1
Yi-Fei Miao, Wen Su, Yu-Bing Dai, Wan-Fu Wu, Bo Huang, Rodrigo P A Barros, Hao Nguyen, Laure Maneix, You-Fei Guan, Margaret Warner, Jan-Åke Gustafsson
Estrogen, via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα), exerts several beneficial effects on metabolism and energy homeostasis by controlling size, enzymatic activity and hormonal content of adipose tissue. The actions of estrogen on sympathetic ganglia, which are key players in the browning process, are less well known. In the present study we show that ERβ influences browning of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) via its actions both on sympathetic ganglia and on the SAT itself. A 3-day-treatment with a selective ERβ agonist, LY3201, induced browning of SAT in 1-year-old obese WT and ERα(-/-) female mice...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922059/protein-self-assembly-onto-nanodots-leads-to-formation-of-conductive-bio-based-hybrids
#2
Xiao Hu, Chenbo Dong, Rigu Su, Quan Xu, Cerasela Zoica Dinu
The next generation of nanowires that could advance the integration of functional nanosystems into synthetic applications from photocatalysis to optical devices need to demonstrate increased ability to promote electron transfer at their interfaces while ensuring optimum quantum confinement. Herein we used the biological recognition and the self-assembly properties of tubulin, a protein involved in building the filaments of cellular microtubules, to create stable, free standing and conductive sulfur-doped carbon nanodots-based conductive bio-hybrids...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922018/non-thermal-hydrogen-atoms-in-the-terrestrial-upper-thermosphere
#3
Jianqi Qin, Lara Waldrop
Model predictions of the distribution and dynamical transport of hydrogen atoms in the terrestrial atmosphere have long-standing discrepancies with ultraviolet remote sensing measurements, indicating likely deficiencies in conventional theories regarding this crucial atmospheric constituent. Here we report the existence of non-thermal hydrogen atoms that are much hotter than the ambient oxygen atoms in the upper thermosphere. Analysis of satellite measurements indicates that the upper thermospheric hydrogen temperature, more precisely the mean kinetic energy of the atomic hydrogen population, increases significantly with declining solar activity, contrary to contemporary understanding of thermospheric behaviour...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921518/increased-radio-toxicity-in-two-cancerous-cell-lines-irradiated-by-low-and-high-energy-photons-in-the-presence-of-thio-glucose-bound-gold-nanoparticles
#4
Shokouhozaman Soleymanifard, Atefeh Rostami, Seyed Amir Aledavood, Maryam Moghadam Matin, Ameneh Sazgarnia
PURPOSE: Gold nanoparticles modified by thio-glucose have been believed to increase the toxicity of radiotherapy in human malignant cells. We report the effect of thio-glucose-bound gold nanoparticles (Glu-G nanoparticles), 16 nm in size, on two human lung (QU-DB) and breast (MCF7) cancer cell lines combined with kilo and megavoltage X-rays. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The shape and surface characteristics, the size distribution and light absorption spectrum of the prepared nanoparticles were measured by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and Ultraviolet-Visible spectrophotometry, respectively...
December 6, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921296/digest-selection-on-life-histories-drives-the-formation-of-functional-mitonuclear-associations1
#5
Edward McAssey
The relative importance of interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear genes on adaptation has gained increased attention (see Wolff et al., 2014), although experimental systems to make direct tests of its importance are scarce. Mitonuclear epistasis is when nuclear and mitochondrial genes interact, often at the protein level, and variation in these interactions may result in phenotypic differences (Paliwal et al., 2014). These interactions are often found in the mitochondria where the energy-generating electron transport chain (ETC) is located, and consists of both nuclear and mitochondrial proteins...
December 6, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921259/from-compact-to-string-the-role-of-secondary-and-tertiary-structure-in-charge-induced-unzipping-of-gas-phase-proteins
#6
Stephan Warnke, Waldemar Hoffmann, Jongcheol Seo, Erwin De Genst, Gert von Helden, Kevin Pagel
In the gas phase, protein ions can adopt a broad range of structures, which have been investigated extensively in the past using ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS)-based methods. Compact ions with low number of charges undergo a Coulomb-driven transition to partially folded species when the charge increases, and finally form extended structures with presumably little or no defined structure when the charge state is high. However, with respect to the secondary structure, IM-MS methods are essentially blind...
December 5, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921150/bone-mineral-density-is-decreased-in-fibromyalgia-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Sikarin Upala, Wai Chung Yong, Anawin Sanguankeo
Previous studies have shown that fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is associated with low level of physical activity and exercise, which may lead to an increased risk of osteoporosis. However, studies of bone mineral density (BMD) in fibromyalgia have shown conflicting results. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to better characterize the association between FMS and BMD. A comprehensive search of the databases MEDLINE and EMBASE was performed from inception through May 2016. The inclusion criterion was the observational studies' assessment of the association between fibromyalgia and bone mineral density in adult subjects...
December 5, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921146/bone-loss-at-the-distal-femur-and-proximal-tibia-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-imaging-approaches-risk-of-fracture-and-potential-treatment-options
#8
REVIEW
C M Cirnigliaro, M J Myslinski, M F La Fountaine, S C Kirshblum, G F Forrest, W A Bauman
Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) undergo immediate unloading of the skeleton and, as a result, have severe bone loss below the level of lesion associated with increased risk of long-bone fractures. The pattern of bone loss in individuals with SCI differs from other forms of secondary osteoporosis because the skeleton above the level of lesion remains unaffected, while marked bone loss occurs in the regions of neurological impairment. Striking demineralization of the trabecular epiphyses of the distal femur (supracondylar) and proximal tibia occurs, with the knee region being highly vulnerable to fracture because many accidents occur while sitting in a wheelchair, making the knee region the first point of contact to any applied force...
December 5, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921106/quantum-and-classical-inter-cage-hopping-of-hydrogen-molecules-in-clathrate-hydrate-temperature-and-cage-occupation-effects
#9
Christian J Burnham, Zdenek Futera, Niall J English
Building on our previous work (J. Phys. Chem. C, 2016, 120, 16561), using an empirical model we run both classical and path-integral molecular dynamics simulations for a type II clathrate hydrate containing different amounts of guest H2 molecules from 1 to 5 molecules per large cage, with results presented at temperatures of 50, 100 K and 200 K. We present results for the density isosurfaces of the guest molecules at all different occupations and temperatures, showing how the density approaches the perfect tetrahedral structure which has been found for the n = 4 case in which each molecule sits on the vertex of a tetrahedron about the centre of each large cage...
December 6, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920973/consumption-of-caffeinated-energy-drinks-among-youth-and-young-adults-in-canada
#10
Jessica L Reid, Cassondra McCrory, Christine M White, Chantal Martineau, Pat Vanderkooy, Nancy Fenton, David Hammond
The growing market for caffeinated energy drinks (CEDs) has caused concern about excessive caffeine intake and potential adverse effects, particularly among young people. The current study examined patterns of CED consumption among youth and young adults in Canada, using data from a national online survey conducted in October 2014. Data from a non-probability sample of 2040 respondents aged 12-24 from a consumer panel was weighted to national proportions; measures of CED consumption were estimated, including prevalence, excessive daily consumption, and context for use (locations and reasons)...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920386/does-eutrophication-driven-evolution-change-aquatic-ecosystems
#11
REVIEW
Timothy J Alexander, Pascal Vonlanthen, Ole Seehausen
Eutrophication increases primary production and changes the relative abundance, taxonomic composition and spatial distribution of primary producers within an aquatic ecosystem. The changes in composition and location of resources alter the distribution and flow of energy and biomass throughout the food web. Changes in productivity also alter the physico-chemical environment, which has further effects on the biota. Such ecological changes influence the direction and strength of natural and sexual selection experienced by populations...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920195/efficacy-of-1-3-diacylglycerol-as-a-fat-emulsifier-in-low-density-diet-for-broilers
#12
S D Upadhaya, J W Park, J H Park, I H Kim
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of 1,3-diacylglycerol (DAG) as an emulsifier in a low-density diet on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 480 1-day-old male 308 Ross broiler chicks were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 5 treatments: Control, fed a basal diet (CON), basal diet minus 100 kcal ME diet (LE), T1 (LE + 0.075% 1,3-DAG), T2 (LE + 0.10% 1,3-DAG), and T3 (LE + 0.15% 1,3-DAG)...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919760/proton-therapy-present-and-future
#13
REVIEW
Radhe Mohan, David Grosshans
In principle, proton therapy offers a substantial clinical advantage over the conventional photon therapy. This is because of the unique depth-dose characteristics of protons, which can be exploited to achieve significant reductions in normal tissue doses proximal and distal to the target volume. These may, in turn, allow escalation of tumor doses, greater sparing of normal tissues, thus potentially improving local control and survival while at the same time reducing toxicity and improving quality of life. Protons, accelerated to therapeutic energies ranging from 70 to 250MeV, typically with a cyclotron or a synchrotron, are transported to the treatment room where they enter the treatment head mounted on a rotating gantry...
December 2, 2016: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919623/assessment-of-the-neutron-dose-field-around-a-biomedical-cyclotron-fluka-simulation-and-experimental-measurements
#14
Angelo Infantino, Gianfranco Cicoria, Giulia Lucconi, Davide Pancaldi, Sara Vichi, Federico Zagni, Domiziano Mostacci, Mario Marengo
In the planning of a new cyclotron facility, an accurate knowledge of the radiation field around the accelerator is fundamental for the design of shielding, the protection of workers, the general public and the environment. Monte Carlo simulations can be very useful in this process, and their use is constantly increasing. However, few data have been published so far as regards the proper validation of Monte Carlo simulation against experimental measurements, particularly in the energy range of biomedical cyclotrons...
December 2, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919389/older-patients-use-of-technology-for-a-post-discharge-nutritional-intervention-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study
#15
T Lindhardt, M H Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is frequent in older people and a precursor for morbidity and hospitalisation; furthermore low intake and weight loss during and after hospitalisation is well-described. Such patients are often excluded from technology projects on account of lack of skills. This is a barrier for their access to many current and future health care offers. OBJECTIVES: To test the acceptability, feasibility and preliminary efficacy of technology-supported energy- and protein-enforced homedelivered meals for older patients discharged from hospital...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919361/adverse-effects-on-insulin-secretion-of-replacing-saturated-fat-with-refined-carbohydrate-but-not-with-monounsaturated-fat-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-centrally-obese-subjects
#16
Lin F Chang, Shireene R Vethakkan, Kalanithi Nesaretnam, Thomas A B Sanders, Kim-Tiu Teng
BACKGROUND: Current dietary guidelines recommend the replacement of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) with carbohydrates or monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) based on evidence on lipid profile alone, the chronic effects of the mentioned replacements on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are however unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the chronic effects of the substitution of refined carbohydrate or MUFA for SAFA on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in centrally obese subjects...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919339/the-role-of-gene-mutations-and-gene-products-in-intestinal-tissue-reactions-from-ionising-radiation
#17
Jolyon H Hendry, Kensuke Otsuka
The response of the intestine to (low linear-energy-transfer) ionising radiation is reviewed regarding the cellular basis to the reactions, the regenerative processes which restore the tissue, and external agents which aid its recovery. In the steady-state, it is generally considered that the crypt cell lineages in both small and large intestine are maintained by a small number of stem cells, but there are differences for example in the composition of their niche residence and in the numbers of transit cell generations...
October 2016: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919269/comparison-of-voluntary-food-intake-and-palatability-of-commercial-weight-loss-diets-in-healthy-dogs-and-cats
#18
Marie Anne Hours, Emmanuelle Sagols, Ariane Junien-Castagna, Alexandre Feugier, Delphine Moniot, Ingrid Daniel, Vincent Biourge, Serisier Samuel, Yann Queau, Alexander J German
BACKGROUND: Obesity in dogs and cats is usually managed by dietary energy restriction using a purpose-formulated weight loss diet, but signs of hunger and begging commonly occur causing poor owner compliance. Altering diet characteristics so as to reduce voluntary food intake (VFI) can improve the likelihood of success, although this should not be at the expense of palatability. The aim of the current study was to compare the VFI and palatibility of novel commercially available canine and feline weight loss diets...
December 5, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919227/high-light-stress-triggers-distinct-proteomic-responses-in-the-marine-diatom-thalassiosira-pseudonana
#19
Hong-Po Dong, Yue-Lei Dong, Lei Cui, Srinivasan Balamurugan, Jian Gao, Song-Hui Lu, Tao Jiang
BACKGROUND: Diatoms are able to acclimate to frequent and large light fluctuations in the surface ocean waters. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these acclimation responses of diaotms remain elusive. RESULTS: In this study, we investigated the mechanism of high light protection in marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana using comparative proteomics in combination with biochemical analyses. Cells treated under high light (800 μmol photons m(-2)s(-1)) for 10 h were subjected to proteomic analysis...
December 5, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919217/drug-delivery-nanoparticles-in-treating-chemoresistant-tumor-cells
#20
Giuseppina Barrera, Martina Daga, Benedetta Ferrara, Chiara Dianzani, Stefania Pizzimenti, Monica Argenziano, Roberta Cavalli, Francesco Trotta
Intrinsic or acquired chemoresistance represents the main obstacle to the successful treatment of cancer patients. Several mechanisms are involved in multidrug resistance: decreased uptake of hydrophilic drugs, increase of energy dependent efflux, alteration of the redox state, alteration of apoptotic pathways, and modification of the tumor microenvironment. In recent years, several types of nanoparticles have been developed to overcome these obstacles and improve the accumulation and release of drugs at the pathological site...
December 5, 2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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