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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738635/microwave-induced-combustion-thermal-and-morphological-aspects-for-understanding-the-mechanism-of-ignition-process-for-analytical-applications
#1
Matheus F Pedrotti, Leticia S F Pereira, Cezar A Bizzi, Jose N G Paniz, Juliano S Barin, Erico M M Flores
In the present work, for the first time a systematic study was performed using an infrared camera and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) to evaluate the mechanisms involved in microwave-induced combustion method, which has been extensively used for sample preparation. Cellulose and glass fiber discs, wetted with the igniter solution (6molL(-1) NH4NO3), were evaluated under microwave field in a monomode system. The temperature of the discs surface was recorded during microwave irradiation and the effect of NH4NO3 concentration and irradiation time on cellulose oxidation was evaluated...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738546/a-new-method-for-the-simultaneous-enhancement-of-methane-yield-and-reduction-of-hydrogen-sulfide-production-in-the-anaerobic-digestion-of-waste-activated-sludge
#2
Xiaohu Dai, Chongliang Hu, Dong Zhang, Yinguang Chen
The biogas generated from anaerobic digestion (AD) also includes undesirable by-product such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which must be removed before the biogas can be used as a clean energy source. Therefore, it is necessary to find an appropriate strategy to simultaneously enhance the methane yield and reduce H2S production. An efficient strategy-pretreating sludge at pH 10 for 8d and adjusting the system at neutral pH to produce methane for 20d-is reported for the synchronous enhancement of methane production and reduction of H2S production during AD...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738351/major-depression-as-a-neuroprogressive-prelude-to-dementia-what-is-the-evidence
#3
Brian E Leonard
Epidemiological studies implicate chronic depression as a predisposing factor for dementia in later life. However, the link is incompletely understood and controversial. The aim of this review is to consider some of the biological factors that contribute to neuroprogressive brain dysfunction in late life as a consequence of prolonged, low-grade inflammation in the course of depressive episodes. As chronic inflammation is known to precipitate increased apoptosis of neurons and astrocytes, this could be a contributing factor to brain dysfunction...
2017: Modern Trends in Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738225/the-effect-of-low-fat-beef-patties-formulated-with-a-low-energy-fat-analogue-enriched-in-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-on-lipid-oxidation-and-sensory-attributes
#4
Marta Alejandre, Denis Passarini, Iciar Astiasarán, Diana Ansorena
A new low-energy gelled emulsion containing algae oil was developed as animal fat replacer. Its stability was evaluated under different storage conditions: 4V (4°C/vacuum), 4NV (4°C/no vacuum), 25V (25°C/vacuum) and 25NV (25°C/no vacuum). According to moisture, hardness, color and lipid oxidation data, 4°C under vacuum (4V) was selected as the best condition. Once the gelled emulsion was characterized, its effectiveness as fat analogue was demonstrated in beef patties. Reformulated patties were produced with 100% of animal fat replacement and compared to conventional patties (9%fat)...
July 13, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738206/a-preliminary-study-on-the-effects-of-lanthanum-iii-on-plant-vitronectin-like-protein-and-its-toxicological-basis
#5
Lihong Wang, Jingfang He, Qing Yang, Xiaodong Li, Haiyan Wei, David D Y Chen, Xiaohua Huang
Vitronectin-like protein (VN) is widely found outside plant plasma membranes. The VN molecular surface contains a large number of active groups that combine strongly with rare earth elements (REEs), which means that VN is a preferential binding target for REEs exhibiting their toxic effects, but the toxicological mechanism remains unknown. This study used transmission electron microscopy, circular dichroism, fluorescence spectrometry, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and calculational chemistry (homology modeling, molecular dynamics simulation and quantum chemical calculation) to preliminarily investigate the effect of lanthanum [La(III)] as an REE, on the structure of VN and its toxicological mechanism...
July 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738154/modifying-surface-chemistry-of-metal-oxides-for-boosting-dissolution-kinetics-in-water-by-liquid-cell-electron-microscopy
#6
Yue Lu, Jiguo Geng, Kuan Wang, Wei Zhang, Wenqiang Ding, Zhenhua Zhang, Shaohua Xie, Hongxing Dai, Fu-Rong Chen, Manling Sui
Dissolution of metal oxides is fundamentally important for understanding mineral evolution and micromachining oxide functional materials. In general, dissolution of metal oxides is a slow and inefficient chemical reaction. Here, by introducing oxygen deficiencies to modify the surface chemistry of oxides, we can boost the dissolution kinetics of metal oxides in water, as in situ demonstrated in a liquid environmental transmission electron microscope (LETEM). The dissolution rate constant significantly increases by 16-19 orders of magnitude, equivalently a reduction of 0...
July 24, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738076/the-comparison-of-chca-solvent-compositions-for-improving-lc-maldi-performance-and-its-application-to-study-the-impact-of-aflatoxin-b1-on-the-liver-proteome-of-diabetes-mellitus-type-1-mice
#7
Fuu-Jen Tsai, Shih-Yin Chen, Yu-Ching Liu, Hsin-Yi Liao, Chao-Jung Chen
In nanoflow liquid chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (nanoLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF) approaches, it is critical to directly apply small amounts of the sample elutes on the sample target using a nanoLC system due to its low flow rate of 200 ~ 300 nl/min. It is recommended to apply a sheath liquid containing a matrix with a several μL/min flow rate at the end of the nanoLC column to ensure a larger co-eluted droplet for more reproducible sample spotting and avoid the laborious task of post-manual matrix spotting...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737942/the-role-of-rydberg-valence-coupling-in-the-ultrafast-relaxation-dynamics-of-acetone
#8
Markus Koch, Bernhard Thaler, Pascal Heim, Wolfgang E Ernst
The electronic structure of excited states of acetone is represented by a Rydberg manifold that is coupled to valence states which provide very fast and efficient relaxation pathways. We observe and characterize the transfer of population from photoexcited Rydberg states (6p, 6d, 7s) to a whole series of lower Rydberg states (3p to 4d) and a simultaneous decay of population from these states. We obtain these results with time-resolved photoelectron-photoion coincidence (PEPICO) detection in combination with the application of Bayesian statistics for data analysis...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737940/defining-the-structural-basis-for-allosteric-product-release-from-e-coli-dihydrofolate-reductase-using-nmr-relaxation-dispersion
#9
David Oyen, R Bryn Fenwick, Phillip C Aoto, Robyn L Stanfield, Ian A Wilson, H Jane Dyson, Peter E Wright
The rate-determining step in the catalytic cycle of E.coli dihydrofolate reductase is tetrahydrofolate (THF) product release, which can occur via an allosteric or an intrinsic pathway. The allosteric pathway, which becomes accessible when the reduced cofactor NADPH is bound, involves transient sampling of a higher energy conformational state, greatly increasing the product dissociation rate compared to the intrinsic pathway that obtains when NADPH is absent. Although the kinetics of this process are known, the enzyme structure and the THF product conformation in the transiently formed excited state remains elusive...
July 24, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737922/disentangling-the-complex-vibrational-spectrum-of-the-protonated-water-trimer-h-h2o-3-with-two-color-ir-ir-photodissociation-of-the-bare-ion-and-anharmonic-vscf-vci-theory
#10
Chinh H Duong, Olga Gorlova, Nan Yang, Patrick J Kelleher, Qi Yu, Anne B McCoy, Joel M Bowman, Mark A Johnson
Vibrational spectroscopy of the protonated water trimer provides a stringent constraint on the details of the potential energy surface (PES) and vibrational dynamics governing excess proton motion far from equilibrium. Here we report the linear spectrum of the cold, bare H(+)(H2O)3 ion using a two-color, IR-IR photofragmentation technique and follow the evolution of the bands with increasing temperature. The key low energy features are insensitive to both D2-tagging and internal energy. The D2-tagged D(+)(D2O)3 spectrum is reported for the first time, and the isotope dependence of the band pattern is surprisingly complex...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737804/modulation-of-in-out-and-out-out-conformations-in-x-x-x-phosphatranes-by-lewis-acids
#11
Goar Sánchez-Sanz, Cristina Trujillo, Ibon Alkorta, José Elguero
A theoretical study of [X.X'.X'']phosphatrane:Lewis acid complexes has been carried out in order to analyze how the in:out and out:out conformations can be modulated by the interaction with Lewis acids (LA). It has been found that in:out structures are more stable in larger systems i.e. in [4.4.3]:LA and [4.4.4]:LA than in [3.3.3]:LA and [4.3.3]:LA. The results obtained for the relative energies in conjunction with electron density properties showed that upon complexation, in:out conformers become more stable with the increasing acidity of the corresponding Lewis acid...
July 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737790/tuning-the-gap-of-lead-based-halide-perovskites-by-introducing-superalkali-species-at-the-cationic-sites-of-abx3-type-structure
#12
C Paduani, Andrew M Rappe
We study with scalar relativistic density functional theory (DFT) calculations the effect of changes in the ionicity of the bonding mechanism and charge donation on the structure and electronic properties of new lead halide perovskites which show promising performance in optoelectronic applications as long-wave infrared detectors and thermoelectrics. Our results provide evidence that the band gap of these compounds can be tuned upon the introduction of appropriate superalkali moieties at the cationic A-sites in the CsPbI3-type structure...
July 24, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737706/redox-properties-of-tryptophan-metabolism-and-the-concept-of-tryptophan-use-in-pregnancy
#13
REVIEW
Kang Xu, Hongnan Liu, Miaomiao Bai, Jing Gao, Xin Wu, Yulong Yin
During pregnancy, tryptophan (Trp) is required for several purposes, and Trp metabolism varies over time in the mother and fetus. Increased oxidative stress (OS) with high metabolic, energy and oxygen demands during normal pregnancy or in pregnancy-associated disorders has been reported. Taking the antioxidant properties of Trp and its metabolites into consideration, we made four hypotheses. First, the use of Trp and its metabolites is optional based on their antioxidant properties during pregnancy. Second, dynamic Trp metabolism is an accommodation mechanism in response to OS...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737689/highly-efficient-near-infrared-photothermal-conversion-properties-of-reduced-tungsten-oxide-polyurethane-nanocomposites
#14
Tolesa Fita Chala, Chang-Mou Wu, Min-Hui Chou, Molla Bahiru Gebeyehu, Kuo-Bing Cheng
In this work, novel WO3-x/polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were prepared by ball milling followed by stirring using a planetary mixer/de-aerator. The effects of phase transformation (WO₃ → WO2.8 → WO2.72) and different weight fractions of tungsten oxide on the optical performance, photothermal conversion, and thermal properties of the prepared nanocomposites were examined. It was found that the nanocomposites exhibited strong photoabsorption in the entire near-infrared (NIR) region of 780-2500 nm and excellent photothermal conversion properties...
July 22, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737617/management-of-acetabular-fractures-in-the-elderly
#15
Nicholas B Antell, Julie A Switzer, Andrew H Schmidt
The incidence of acetabular fractures in the elderly population is increasing. Fractures in this population differ from those in younger patients, with more frequent involvement of the anterior column, more comminution, and more severe articular impaction in elderly patients. Although acetabular fractures in geriatric patients are more likely the result of low-energy trauma, outcomes are generally poorer than those in young patients. Multiple management options have been proposed, but no intervention has become the standard of care for these fractures in the elderly...
August 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737531/potential-causes-of-elevated-ree-following-high-intensity-exercise
#16
Gary R Hunter, Douglas R Moellering, Stephen J Carter, Barbara A Gower, Marcas M Bamman, Lyndsey M Hornbuckle, Eric P Plaisance, Gordon Fisher
INTRODUCTION: Resting energy expenditure (REE) increases following intense exercise; however, little is known concerning mechanisms. PURPOSE: Determine effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity continuous aerobic exercise (MIC), or high intensity interval exercise (HII) on REE under energy balance conditions. METHODS: Thirty-three untrained premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline, after 8-16 weeks of training, 22 hours following either MIC (50% peak VO2) or HII (84% peak VO2)...
July 21, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737524/female-athlete-triad
#17
Meredith B Loveless
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The obstetrician/gynecologist (ob/gyn) may be the first provider to have the opportunity to recognize and diagnose female athlete triad. This review will help the ob/gyn to understand the female athlete triad and what is new on this topic, how to screen and diagnose the condition and the ob/gyn's role in treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Female athlete triad, also known as relative energy deficiency in sports, involves an interrelationship among energy availability, menstrual function and low bone density...
July 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737504/laser-driven-coating-of-vertically-aligned-carbon-nanotubes-with-manganese-oxide-from-metal-organic-precursors-for-energy-storage
#18
Angel Perez Del Pino, Eniko Gyorgy, Islam Alshaikh, Fernando Pantoja-Suárez, José Luis Andújar, Esther Pascual, Roger Amade, Enric Bertran Serra
Carbon nanotubes-transition metal oxide systems are intensively studied due to their excellent properties for electrochemical applications. In this work, an innovative procedure is developed for the synthesis of vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) coated with transition metal oxide nanostructures. VACNTs are grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition and coated with a manganese-based metal organic precursor (MOP) film based on manganese acetate solution. Subsequent UV pulsed laser irradiation induces the effective heating-decomposition of the MOP leading to the crystallization of manganese oxide nanostructures on the VACNT surface...
July 24, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737502/intrinsic-plasmaron-in-warm-graphene
#19
Daqing Liu, Shueyue Chen, Shengli Zhang, Ning Ma
Basing on a self-consistent method, we predict theoretically that there exists intrinsic plasmaron in graphene at nonzero temperature and it is a well defined mode, as shown by the result of Landau damping. We find that there are sharp differences between the discussed system and the QCD/QED system. Firstly, the thermal mass is proportional to α<sub>g</sub><sup>3/4</sup>T but not α<sub>g</sub>T. Secondly, at long wavelength region, the fermion channel and plasmaron channel are nearly degenerate and furthermore, the energy difference between fermion and plasmaron becomes more and more larger with increasing q at the region q>q<sub>c</sub>...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737401/effect-of-charged-group-spacer-length-on-hydration-state-in-zwitterionic-poly-sulfobetaine-brushes
#20
Yuji Higaki, Yoshihiro Inutsuka, Tatsunori Sakamaki, Yuki Terayama, Ai Takenaka, Keiko Higaki, Norifumi L Yamada, Taro Moriwaki, Yuka Ikemoto, Atsushi Takahara
Effect of alkyl chain spacer length between the charged groups (CSL) in zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine) (PSB) brushes on hydration state was investigated. PSB brushes with ethyl (PMAES), propyl (PMAPS), or butyl (PMABS) CSL were prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization on silicon wafers. Hydration states of the PSB brushes in aqueous solutions and/or humid vapor were investigated by contact angle measurement, infrared spectroscopy, AFM observation, and neutron reflectivity. The PSB brushes were swollen in deionized water due to the hydration of the charged groups in SBs leading to the reduction of hydrated PSB brushes/water interfacial free energy...
July 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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