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Yuanyuan Zhou, Xia Zheng, Jiaojiao Lu, Wei Chen, Xu Li, Le Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The Warburg effect is one of the main energy metabolism features supporting cancer cell growth. 20(S)-Rg3 exerts anti-tumor effect on ovarian cancer partly by inhibiting the Warburg effect. microRNAs are important regulators of the Warburg effect. However, the microRNA regulatory network mediating the anti-Warburg effect of 20(S)-Rg3 was largely unknown. METHODS: microRNA deep sequencing was performed to identify the 20(S)-Rg3-influenced microRNAs in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells...
March 16, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Wei Wu, Jin Wang, Peter Ercius, Nicomario Courtney Wright, Danielle Marie Leppert-Simenauer, Robert A Burke, Madan Dubey, Avinash M Dongare, Michael Thompson Pettes
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are particularly sensitive to mechanical strain as they are capable of experiencing high atomic displacements without nucleating defects to release excess energy. Promising for photonic applications, it has been shown that as certain phases of layered TMDs MX2 (M=Mo, W; X=S, Se, Te) are scaled to a thickness of one monolayer, the photoluminescence response is dramatically enhanced due to the emergence of a direct electronic band gap, compared with their multi-layer or bulk counterparts which typically exhibit indirect band gaps...
March 20, 2018: Nano Letters
Gracjana Leonowicz, Kamil F Trzebuniak, Paulina Zimak-Piekarczyk, Ireneusz Ślesak, Beata Mysliwa-Kurdziel
Unbound tetrapyrroles, i.e. protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), chlorophyllide and chlorophylls, bring the risk of reactive oxygen species (ROS) being generated in the initial stages of angiosperm deetiolation due to inefficient usage of the excitation energy for photosynthetic photochemistry. We analyzed the activity of superoxide dismutases (SODs) in etiolated wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves and at the beginning of their deetiolation. Mn-SOD and three isoforms of Cu/Zn-SODs were identified both in etiolated and greening leaves of T...
2018: PloS One
Christina Pedersen, Trine Porsgaard, Maria Thomsen, Mette Marie Rosenkilde, Nikolaj Kulahin Roed
Insulin is a vital part of diabetes treatment, whereas glucagon is primarily used to treat insulin-induced hypoglycemia. However, glucagon is suggested to have a central role in the regulation of body weight, which would be beneficial for diabetic patients. Since the glucagon effect on blood glucose is known to be transient, it is relevant to investigate the pharmacodynamics of glucagon after repeated dosing. In the present study, we used telemetry to continuously measure blood glucose in streptozotocin induced diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats...
2018: PloS One
Jong-Min Chae, Keun-Oh Lee, Auezhan Amanov
Microstructural evolution and wear performance of Tantalum (Ta) treated by ultrasonic nanocrystalline surface modification (UNSM) at 25 and 1000 °C were reported. The UNSM treatment modified a surface along with subsurface layer with a thickness in the range of 20 to 150 µm, which depends on the UNSM treatment temperature, via the surface severe plastic deformation (S²PD) method. The cross-sectional microstructure of the specimens was observed by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) in order to confirm the microstructural alteration in terms of effective depth and refined grain size...
March 20, 2018: Materials
Guilong Yan, Haitao Niu, Hua Zhou, Hongxia Wang, Hao Shao, Xueting Zhao, Tong Lin
Auxiliary fields have been used to enhance the performance of needle electrospinning. However, much less has been reported on how auxiliary fields affect needleless electrospinning. Herein, we report a novel needleless electrospinning technique that consists of an aerodynamic field and a second electric field. The second electric field is generated by setting two grounded inductive electrodes near the spinneret. The two auxiliary fields have to be applied simultaneously to ensure working of the electrospinning process...
March 20, 2018: Nanotechnology
Andrew J Clulow, Malinda Salim, Adrian Hawley, Elliot P Gilbert, Ben Boyd
Efforts to develop orally-administered drugs tend to place an exceptional focus on aqueous solubility as this is an essential criterion for their absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract. In this work we examine the solid state behaviour and solubility of OZ439, a promising single-dose cure for malaria being developed as the highly water-soluble mesylate salt. The aqueous phase behaviour of the OZ439 mesylate salt was determined using a combination of small angle neutron and X-ray scattering (SANS and SAXS, respectively)...
March 20, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Peitao Xiao, Fanxing Bu, Ranran Zhao, Mohamed F Aly Aboud, Imran Shakir, Yuxi Xu
Synthesis of ultrasmall metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) nanoparticles has been widely recognized as a promising route to greatly enhance their properties but remains a considerable challenge. Herein, we report one facile and effective spatial-confined thermal pulverization strategy to successfully transform bulk Co-MOFs particles into sub-5 nm nanocrystals encapsulated within N-doped carbon/graphene (NC/G) by using conducting polymer coated Co-MOFs/graphene oxide as precursors. This strategy involves a feasible mechanism: calcination of Co-MOFs at proper temperature in air induces the partial thermal collapse/distortion of the framework, while the uniform coating of conducting polymer can significantly improve the decomposition temperature and maintain the component stability of Co-MOFs, thus leading to the pulverization of bulk Co-MOFs particles into ultrasmall nanocrystals without oxidation...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Chengbo Tian, Shujing Zhang, Anyi Mei, Yaoguang Rong, Yue Hu, Kai Du, Miao Duan, Yusong Sheng, Pei Jiang, Gengzhao Xu, Hongwei Han
The printable mesoscopic perovskite solar cells (PMPSCs) have exhibited great attracting prospects in the energy conversion field due to their high stability and potential scalability. However, the thick perovskite film in the mesoporous layers challenge the charge transportation and increase grain boundary defects, limiting the performance of the PMPSCs. It is critical not only to improve the electric property of the perovskite film but also to passivate the charge traps to improve the device performance. Herein we synthesized a bis-adduct 2, 5-(Dimethyl ester) C60 fulleropyrrolidine (bis-DMEC60 ) via rational molecular design and incorporated it into the PMPSCs...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yanyan Gao, Jianping Xu, Shaobo Shi, Hong Dong, Yahui Cheng, Chengtai Wei, Xiaosong Zhang, Shougen Yin, Lan Li
The self-powered ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs) have attracted increasing attention due to their potential applications without consuming any external power. It is important to obtain the high performance self-powered UV PDs by a simple method for the practical application. Herein, TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method, which were integrated with p-type NiO nanoflakes to realize a high performance pn heterojunction for the efficient UV photodetection. TiOx thin film can improve the morphological and carrier transport properties of TiO2 NRs, and decrease the surface and defect states, resulting in the enhanced photocurrent of the devices...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Rajesh Sharma, Lalit Kumar Saini, Bhagwati Prasad Bahuguna
We study the phase diagram of symmetric electron-hole bilayer at zero temperature and zero magnetic field within quantum Monte Carlo approach. Particularly, we conduct variational Monte Carlo simulation for various phases viz. paramagnetic fluid phase, ferromagnetic fluid phase, anti-ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase, ferromagnetic Wigner crystal phase and excitonic phase to
 estimate the ground-state energy at different values of inlayer density and inter-layer spacing. The Slater-Jastrow style trial wave function, with suitable single particle orbitals appropriate for different phases, are used to construct the phase diagram in (r<sub>s</sub> , d) plane by finding relative stability of trial wave functions...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
E Nji Nde Aboringong, Alain M Dikandé
The amide-I [Formula: see text] -helix protein is a long molecular chain made up of regularly spaced peptide groups interacting via C=O bonds. According to the current theory the energy released by hydrolyzed adenosine triphosphate is carried across the protein via vibration modes, caused by C=O bond stretchings which, in the presence of anharmonic molecular vibrations, can promote nonlinear localized excitations called excitons. In this work the effects of long-range interactions between amide-I molecules on the modulational instability of small-amplitude excitons, and on characteristic parameters of soliton wavetrain-type excitons, are investigated with emphasis on long-range interactions saturating at finite intermolecular interaction ranges...
March 21, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Ezekiel Maloney, Andrew M Zbojniewicz, Jie Nguyen, Yu Luo, Mahesh M Thapa
Ligamentous injuries of the pediatric wrist, once thought to be relatively uncommon, are increasingly recognized in the context of acute high-energy mechanism trauma and chronic axial loading, including those encountered in both recreational and high-performance competitive sports. Recent advances in MR-based techniques for imaging the pediatric wrist allow for sensitive identification of these often radiographically occult injuries. Detailed knowledge of the intrinsic and supportive extrinsic ligamentous complexes, as well as normal developmental anatomy and congenital variation, are essential to accurately diagnose injuries to these structures...
March 20, 2018: Pediatric Radiology
Ren Sasaki, Arif Md Rashedul Kabir, Daisuke Inoue, Shizuka Anan, Atsushi P Kimura, Akihiko Konagaya, Kazuki Sada, Akira Kakugo
Self-organized structures of biomolecular motor systems, such as cilia and flagella, play key roles in the dynamic processes of living organisms, like locomotion or the transportation of materials. Although fabrication of such self-organized structures from reconstructed biomolecular motor systems has attracted much attention in recent years, a systematic construction methodology is still lacking. In this work, through a bottom-up approach, we fabricated artificial cilia from a reconstructed biomolecular motor system, microtubule/kinesin...
March 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Xin Zhang, Xiaoli Wang, Qinglin Wang, Xinjun Ma, Chunming Liu, Peifang Li, Cailong Liu, Yonghao Han, Yanzhang Ma, Chunxiao Gao
Hydride ions (H-) have an appropriate size for fast transport, which makes the conduction of H- attractive. In this work, the H- transport properties of BaH2 have been investigated under pressure using in situ impedance spectroscopy measurements up to 11.2 GPa and density functional theoretical calculations. The H- transport properties, including ionic migration resistance, relaxation frequency, and relative permittivity, change significantly with pressure around 2.3 GPa, which can be attributed to the structural phase transition of BaH2...
March 20, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
C Kaewpila, K Sommart, M Mitsumori
The mitigation of enteric methane emission in beef cattle production is important for reducing feed energy loss and increasing environmental sustainability. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different oilseeds included in fermented total mixed rations (whole soyabean seed (SBS, control), whole kapok seed (KPS) and cracked oil palm fruit (OPF)) on feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial populations, energy partition and methane emissions in different cattle genotypes (Charolais crossbred v...
March 20, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Stefan Bröer
Amino acids perform a variety of functions in cells and organisms, particularly in the synthesis of proteins, as energy metabolites, neurotransmitters, and precursors for many other molecules. Amino acid transport plays a key role in all these functions. Inhibition of amino acid transport is pursued as a therapeutic strategy in several areas, such as diabetes and related metabolic disorders, neurological disorders, cancer, and stem cell biology. The role of amino acid transporters in these disorders and processes is well established, but the implementation of amino acid transporters as drug targets is still in its infancy...
April 2018: SLAS Discovery
Meltem Aygüler, Alexander Georg Hufnagel, Philipp Rieder, Michael Wussler, Wolfram Jaegermann, Thomas Bein, Vladimir Dyakonov, Michiel L Petrus, Andreas Baumann, Pablo Docampo
We tune the Fermi level alignment between the SnOX electron transport layer (ETL) and Cs0.05(FA0.83MA0.17)0.95Pb(I0.83Br0.17)3 and highlight that this parameter is interlinked with current-voltage hysteresis in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Furthermore, thermally stimulated current measurements reveal that the depth of trap states in the ETL or at the ETL-perovskite interface correlates with Fermi level positions, ultimately linking it to the energy difference between the Fermi level and conduction band minimum...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Dario Giugliano, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Katherine Esposito
In the past decades, dietary guidelines focused on reducing saturated fat as the primary strategy for cardiovascular disease prevention, neglecting the many other potential effects of diet on health, in particular the harmful effects of sugar. A greater intake of soft drinks (sugar-sweetened beverages), for example, is associated with a 44% increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a higher risk of obesity, and a 26% increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus. Carbohydrates comprise around 55% of the typical western diet, ranging from 200 to 350 g/day in relation to a person's overall caloric intake...
March 19, 2018: Endocrine
Gui-Yun Hang, Wen-Li Yu, Tao Wang, Zhen Li
In this work, a CL-20/DNB cocrystal explosive model was established and six different kinds of fluoropolymers, i.e., PVDF, PCTFE, F2311 , F2312 , F2313 and F2314 were added into the (1 0 0), (0 1 0), (0 0 1) crystal orientations to obtain the corresponding polymer bonded explosives (PBXs). The influence of fluoropolymers on PBX properties (energetic property, stability and mechanical properties) was investigated and evaluated using molecular dynamics (MD) methods. The results reveal a decrease in engineering moduli, an increase in Cauchy pressure (i...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
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