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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151184/analysis-of-an-optimal-public-transport-structure-under-a-carbon-emission-constraint-a-case-study-in-shanghai-china
#1
Linling Zhang, Ruyin Long, Hong Chen, Tong Yang
Along with the rapid development of the transportation industry, the problems of the energy crisis and transport emissions have become increasingly serious. The success of traffic emission reduction is related to the realization of global low-carbon goals. Placing priority on public transport is the internationally recognized traffic development model. This paper takes Shanghai, China, as an example to examine the optimal public transport structure. Five factors were selected from personal and public perspectives, including travel costs, crowding degree, occupied area, traffic emissions, and operating subsidies...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151105/eryptosis-the-neglected-cause-of-anemia-in-end-stage-renal-disease
#2
Florian Lang, Rosi Bissinger, Majed Abed, Ferruh Artunc
End stage renal disease (ESRD) invariably leads to anemia which has been mainly attributed to compromised release of erythropoietin from the defective kidneys with subsequent impairment of erythropoiesis. However, erythropoietin replacement only partially reverses anemia pointing to the involvement of additional mechanisms. As shown more recently, anemia of ESRD is indeed in large part a result of accelerated erythrocyte loss due to suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the cell surface...
October 23, 2017: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150901/expression-of-the-clock-gene-rev-erb%C3%AE-in-the-brain-controls-the-circadian-organization-of-food-intake-and-locomotor-activity-but-not-daily-variations-of-energy-metabolism
#3
Satish Sen, Stéphanie Dumont, Dominique Sage-Ciocca, Sophie Reibel, Paul de Goede, Andries Kalsbeek, Etienne Challet
The nuclear receptor REV-ERBα is part of the molecular clock mechanism and thought to be involved in a variety of biological processes within metabolically active peripheral tissues as well. To investigate whether Rev-erbα (also known as Nr1d1) in the brain plays a role in the daily variations of energy metabolism, feeding behaviour and the sleep-wake cycle, we studied mice with global (GKO) or brain (BKO) deletion of Rev-erbα. Mice were studied both in a light-dark cycle and constant darkness, and 24-h variations of Respiratory quotient (RQ) and energy expenditure, as well as the temporal patterns of rest-activity and feeding behavior were recorded...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150762/seasonal-influence-on-adherence-to-and-effects-of-an-interval-walking-training-program-on-sedentary-female-college-students-in-japan
#4
Aiko Tanabe, Shizue Masuki, Ken-Ichi Nemoto, Hiroshi Nose
Habitual exercise training is recommended to young people for their health promotion, but adherence may be influenced by atmospheric temperature (T a ) if performed outdoors. We compared the adherence to and the effects of a home-based interval walking training (IWT) program on sedentary female college students between winter and summer. For summer training over 176 days, 48 subjects (18-22 years old) were randomly divided into two groups: the control group (CNTsummer, n = 24), which maintained a sedentary lifestyle as before, and the IWT group (IWTsummer, n = 24), which performed IWT while energy expenditure was monitored by accelerometry...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150749/study-on-the-interaction-of-paeoniflorin-with-human-serum-albumin-hsa-by-spectroscopic-and-molecular-docking-techniques
#5
Liang Xu, Yan-Xi Hu, Yan-Cheng Li, Yu-Feng Liu, Li Zhang, Hai-Xin Ai, Hong-Sheng Liu
The interaction of paeoniflorin with human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and molecular docking techniques under simulative physiological conditions. The results clarified that the fluorescence quenching of HSA by paeoniflorin was a static quenching process and energy transfer as a result of a newly formed complex (1:1). Paeoniflorin spontaneously bound to HSA in site I (subdomain IIA), which was primarily driven by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds (ΔH° = - 9...
November 17, 2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150696/impact-of-prolonged-overfeeding-on-skeletal-muscle-mitochondria-in-healthy-individuals
#6
Frederico G S Toledo, Darcy L Johannsen, Jeffrey D Covington, Sudip Bajpeyi, Bret Goodpaster, Kevin E Conley, Eric Ravussin
AIMS/HYPOTHESES: Reduced mitochondrial capacity in skeletal muscle has been observed in obesity and type 2 diabetes. In humans, the aetiology of this abnormality is not well understood but the possibility that it is secondary to the stress of nutrient overload has been suggested. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether sustained overfeeding decreases skeletal muscle mitochondrial content or impairs function. METHODS: Twenty-six healthy volunteers (21 men, 5 women, age 25...
November 17, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150633/ketamine-s-antidepressant-effect-is-mediated-by-energy-metabolism-and-antioxidant-defense-system
#7
Katja Weckmann, Michael J Deery, Julie A Howard, Renata Feret, John M Asara, Frederik Dethloff, Michaela D Filiou, Jamie Iannace, Christiana Labermaier, Giuseppina Maccarrone, Christian Webhofer, Larysa Teplytska, Kathryn Lilley, Marianne B Müller, Christoph W Turck
Fewer than 50% of all patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) treated with currently available antidepressants (ADs) show full remission. Moreover, about one third of the patients suffering from MDD does not respond to conventional ADs and develop treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Ketamine, a non-competitive, voltage-dependent N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonist, has been shown to have a rapid antidepressant effect, especially in patients suffering from TRD. Hippocampi of ketamine-treated mice were analysed by metabolome and proteome profiling to delineate ketamine treatment-affected molecular pathways and biosignatures...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150461/gabaa-receptor-activation-in-the-allosteric-coagonist-model-framework-relationship-between-ec50-and-basal-activity
#8
Gustav Akk, Daniel J Shin, Allison L Germann, Joseph H Steinbach
The concerted transition model for multimeric proteins is a simple formulation for analyzing the behavior of transmitter-gated ion channels. Here, we use the model to examine the relationship between the EC50 for activation of the GABAA receptor by the transmitter GABA and basal activity employing concatemeric ternary GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The basal activity reflects receptor function in the absence of transmitter, and can be changed either by mutation to increase constitutive activity, or by addition of a second agonist (acting at a different site) to increase background activity...
November 17, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150352/dysregulation-of-mrna-translation-and-energy-metabolism-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Matthew Leibovitch, Ivan Topisirovic
Dysregulated mRNA translation and aberrant energy metabolism are frequent in cancer. Considering that mRNA translation is an energy demanding process, cancer cells must produce sufficient ATP to meet energy demand of hyperactive translational machinery. In recent years, the mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) emerged as a central regulatory node which coordinates energy consumption by the translation apparatus and ATP production in mitochondria. Aberrant mTOR signaling underpins the vast majority of cancers whereby increased mTOR activity is thought to be a major determinant of both malignant translatomes and metabolomes...
November 2, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150259/reduction-of-co2-emission-by-incam-model-in-malaysia-biomass-power-plants-during-the-year-2016
#10
Nor Aishah Saidina Amin, Amin Talebian-Kiakalaieh
As the world's second largest palm oil producer and exporter, Malaysia could capitalize on its oil palm biomass waste for power generation. The emission factors from this renewable energy source are far lower than that of fossil fuels. This study applies an integrated carbon accounting and mitigation (INCAM) model to calculate the amount of CO2 emissions from two biomass thermal power plants. The CO2 emissions released from biomass plants utilizing empty fruit bunch (EFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME), as alternative fuels for powering steam and gas turbines, were determined using the INCAM model...
November 15, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149933/nutrition-therapy-in-sepsis
#11
REVIEW
Paul E Wischmeyer
Sepsis is characterized by early massive catabolism, lean body mass (LBM) loss, and escalating hypermetabolism persisting for months to years. Early enteral nutrition should attempt to correct micronutrient/vitamin deficiencies, deliver adequate protein and moderated nonprotein calories, as well-nourished patients can generate reasonable endogenous energy. After resuscitation, increasing protein/calories are needed to attenuate LBM loss and promote recovery. Malnutrition screening is essential, and parenteral nutrition can be safely added when enteral nutrition is failing based on preillness malnutrition...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149890/physical-activity-and-calorie-intake-mediate-the-relationship-from-depression-to-body-fat-mass-among-female-mexican-health-workers
#12
Amado D Quezada, Nayeli Macías-Waldman, Jorge Salmerón, Tessa Swigart, Katia Gallegos-Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Depression is a foremost cause of morbidity throughout the world and the prevalence of depression in women is about twice as high as men. Additionally, overweight and obesity are major global health concerns. We explored the relationship between depression and body fat, and the role of physical activity and diet as mediators of this relationship in a sample of 456 adult female Mexican health workers. METHOD: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses using data from adult women of the Health Workers Cohort Study (HWCS) Measures of body fat mass (kg from DEXA), dietary intake (kcal from FFQ), leisure time activity (METs/wk) and depression (CES-D) were determined in two waves (2004-2006 and 2010-2011)...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149674/the-impact-of-operational-strategies-on-the-performance-of-a-photo-ebpr-system
#13
V C F Carvalho, E B Freitas, P J Silva, J C Fradinho, M A M Reis, A Oehmen
A novel Phototrophic - Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (Photo-EBPR) system, consisting of a consortium of photosynthetic organisms and polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs), was studied in this work. A sequencing batch reactor was fed with a mixture of acetate and propionate (75%-25%) and subjected to dark/light cycles in order to select a photo-EBPR system containing PAOs and photosynthetic organisms, the latter likely providers of oxygen to the system. The results from the selection period (stage 1) showed that the photo-EBPR culture was capable of performing P release in the dark and P uptake in the presence of light, under limited oxygen concentrations...
November 4, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149673/the-feasibility-of-nanofiltration-membrane-bioreactor-nf-mbr-reverse-osmosis-ro-process-for-water-reclamation-comparison-with-ultrafiltration-membrane-bioreactor-uf-mbr-ro-process
#14
Ming Feng Tay, Chang Liu, Emile R Cornelissen, Bing Wu, Tzyy Haur Chong
This study examines the feasibility of a novel nanofiltration membrane bioreactor (NF-MBR) followed by reverse osmosis (RO) process for water reclamation at 90% recovery and using an ultrafiltration MBR (UF-MBR)+RO as baseline for comparison. Both MBRs adopted the same external hollow fiber membrane configurations and operating conditions. The collected permeates of the MBRs were subsequently fed to the respective RO systems. The results showed that the NF-MBR (operated at a constant flux of 10 L/m(2)h) achieved superior MBR permeate quality due to enhanced biodegradation and high rejection capacity of the NF membrane, leading to lower RO fouling rates (∼3...
November 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149560/the-extended-zinc-amber-force-field-ezaff
#15
Zhuoqin Yu, Pengfei Li, Kenneth M Merz
An empirical approach based on the previously developed zinc AMBER force field (ZAFF) is proposed for the determination of the parameters for bonds and angles involving zinc. We call it the extended ZAFF (EZAFF) model because the original ZAFF model was only formulated for 4-coordinated systems, while EZAFF additionally can tackle 5- and 6-coordinated systems. Tests were carried out for 6 metalloproteins and 5 organometallic compounds with different coordination spheres. Results validated the reliability of the current model to handle a variety of zinc containing complexes...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149423/structural-and-visible-near%C3%A2-infrared-optical-properties-of-cr-doped-tio2-for-colored-cool-pigments
#16
Le Yuan, Xiaolong Weng, Ming Zhou, Qingyong Zhang, Longjiang Deng
Chromium-doped TiO2 pigments were synthesized via a solid-state reaction method and studied with X-ray diffraction, SEM, XPS, and UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectroscopy. The incorporation of Cr(3+) accelerates the transition from the anatase phase to the rutile phase and compresses the crystal lattice. Moreover, the particle morphology, energy gap, and reflectance spectrum of Cr-doped TiO2 pigments is affected by the crystal structure and doping concentration. For the rutile samples, some of the Cr(3+) ions are oxidized to Cr(4+) after sintering at a high temperature, which leads to a strong near-infrared absorption band due to the (3)A2 → (3) T1 electric dipole-allowed transitions of Cr(4+)...
November 17, 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149207/evolution-of-the-metabolome-in-response-to-selection-for-increased-immunity-in-populations-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#17
Navdeep Gogna, Rakesh Sharma, Vanika Gupta, Kavita Dorai, N G Prasad
We used NMR-based metabolomics to test two hypotheses-(i) there will be evolved differences in the metabolome of selected and control populations even under un-infected conditions and (ii) post infection, the metabolomes of the selected and control populations will respond differently. We selected replicate populations of Drosophila melanogaster for increased survivorship (I) against a gram-negative pathogen. We subjected the selected (I) and their control populations (S) to three different treatments: (1) infected with heat-killed bacteria (i), (2) sham infected (s), and (3) untreated (u)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149029/kappaphycus-alvarezii-as-a-food-supplement-prevents-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome-in-rats
#18
Stephen Wanyonyi, Ryan du Preez, Lindsay Brown, Nicholas A Paul, Sunil K Panchal
The red seaweed, Kappaphycus alvarezii, was evaluated for its potential to prevent signs of metabolic syndrome through use as a whole food supplement. Major biochemical components of dried Kappaphycus are carrageenan (soluble fiber ~34.6%) and salt (predominantly potassium (K) 20%) with a low overall energy content for whole seaweed. Eight to nine week old male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed for 8 weeks on a corn starch diet, a high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet, alone or supplemented with a 5% (w/w) dried and milled Kappaphycus blended into the base diet...
November 17, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148805/near-infrared-quantum-dot-emission-enhanced-by-stabilized-self-assembled-j-aggregate-antennas
#19
Francesca S Freyria, José M Cordero, Justin R Caram, Sandra Doria, Amro Dodin, Yue Chen, Adam P Willard, Moungi G Bawendi
Enhancing photoluminescent emission (PL) in the near-infrared-infrared (NIR-IR) spectral region has broad applications from solar energy conversion to biological imaging. We show that self-assembled molecular dye J-aggregates (light-harvesting nanotubes, LHNs) can increase the PL emission of NIR PbS quantum dots (QDs) in both liquid and solid media more than 8-fold, promoted primarily by a long-range antenna effect and efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from donor to acceptor. To create this composite material and preserve the optical properties of the nanocrystals, we performed an in situ ligand substitution followed by a functionalization reaction using click-chemistry...
November 17, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148711/rational-manipulation-of-iro2-lattice-strain-on-%C3%AE-mno2-nanorods-as-a-highly-efficient-water-splitting-catalyst
#20
Wei Sun, Zhenhua Zhou, Waqas Qamar Zaman, Li-Mei Cao, Ji Yang
Developing more efficient and stable oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalysts is critical for future energy conversion and storage technologies. We demonstrate that inducing a lattice strain in IrO2 crystal structure due to interface lattice mismatch enables an enhancement of the OER catalytic activity. The lattice strain is obtained by the direct growth of IrO2 nanoparticles on a specially exposed surface of α-MnO2 nanorods via a simple two-step hydrothermal synthesis. Interestingly, the prepared hydride OER activity increases with a lower IrO2 grown mass, which offers an opportunity to reduce the usage of precious iridium and ultimately obtains a specific mass activity of 3...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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