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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822339/effects-of-simulated-n-deposition-on-foliar-nutrient-status-n-metabolism-and-photosynthetic-capacity-of-three-dominant-understory-plant-species-in-a-mature-tropical-forest
#1
Qinggong Mao, Xiankai Lu, Hui Mo, Per Gundersen, Jiangming Mo
Anthropogenic increase of nitrogen (N) deposition has threatened forest ecosystem health at both regional and global scales. In N-limited ecosystems, atmospheric N input is regarded as an important nutrient source for plant growth. However, it remains an open question on how elevated N deposition affects plant growth in N-rich forest ecosystems. To address this question, we used a simulated N deposition experiment in an N-rich mature tropical forest of southern China, with N addition levels as 0kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Control), 50kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Low-N), 100kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (Middle-N) and 150kgNha(-1)yr(-1) (High-N), respectively...
August 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822255/malnutrition-in-postacute-geriatric-care-basic-espen-diagnosis-and-etiology-based-diagnoses-analyzed-by-length-of-stay-in-hospital-mortality-and-functional-rehabilitation-indexes
#2
Dolores Sánchez-Rodríguez, Ester Marco, Cédric Annweiler, Natalia Ronquillo-Moreno, Andrea Tortosa, Olga Vázquez-Ibar, Ferran Escalada, Xavier Duran, Josep M Muniesa
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationships between malnutrition and nutrition-related conditions according to the European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) consensus and guidelines and clinical outcomes in postacute rehabilitation. METHODS: Of 102 eligible inpatients, 95 (84.5 years old, 63.2% women) fulfilled inclusion criteria: aged ≥70 years, body mass index <30kg/m(2), admission for rehabilitation. Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF≤11) identified patients "at risk" and ESPEN basic and etiology based definitions were applied...
August 2, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822244/new-insights-into-the-enhanced-performance-of-high-solid-anaerobic-digestion-with-dewatered-sludge-by-thermal-hydrolysis-organic-matter-degradation-and-methanogenic-pathways
#3
Sisi Chen, Ning Li, Bin Dong, Wentao Zhao, Lingling Dai, Xiaohu Dai
Two lab-scale high solid anaerobic digesters fed with untreated sludge (R1) and thermally hydrolyzed sludge (R2) were operated to investigate the influence of thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP) on the degradation of individual macromolecular organic components (MOCs), as well as the functional and metabolic responses of microbes during anaerobic digestion (AD). The degradation of MOCs was improved by THP at different rates, in which improved degradation of proteins (by 49.0%) and hemicelluloses (by 25.0%) were the main factors contributing to the increase in volatile solids (VS) reduction...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822233/obese-fathers-lead-to-an-altered-metabolism-and-obesity-in-their-children-in-adulthood-review-of-experimental-and-human-studies
#4
REVIEW
Fernanda Ornellas, Priscila V Carapeto, Carlos A Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia B Aguila
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the recent literature on paternal obesity, focusing on the possible mechanisms of transmission of the phenotypes from the father to the children. SOURCES: A non-systematic review in the PubMed database found few publications in which paternal obesity was implicated in the adverse transmission of characteristics to offspring. Specific articles on epigenetics were also evaluated. As the subject is recent and still controversial, all articles were considered regardless of year of publication...
August 16, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822229/vasculogenesis-and-angiogenesis-initiation-under-normoxic-conditions-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-gliomas
#5
Alexandre Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is up-regulated in gliomas and involved in proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation correlates with malignancy. Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α by inhibiting HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which promotes glycolytic energy metabolism, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, whereas HIF-1α is degraded by the HIF prolyl hydroxylase under normoxic conditions. We focus this review on the links between the activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis through HIF-1α under normoxic conditions in gliomas...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822176/-cerebral-microangiopathy-of-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Yuan Li, Ke-Wu Zeng, Xue-Mei Wang
Diabetes mellitus, a kind of chronic metabolic disease, has become one of major threats to human health with an increasing incidence. As a basic pathology of chronic complications related to diabetes mellitus, cerebral microangiopathy is mainly found in patients with Alzheimer's disease and lacunar infarction, and becomes one of the main reasons of death and disability in diabetic patients. The pathogenesis of cerebral microangiopathy is complicated, involving such signal pathways as metabolic abnormalities of polyol, saccharification hyperactivity, oxidative stress, abnormal transport of amyloid-β across blood-brain barrier and protein kinase C activation...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822160/-effects-of-active-components-group-of-xiaoxuming-decoction-on-brain-mitochondria-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-rats-during-early-recovery-period
#7
Xiao Du, Chang Lu, Xiao-Li He, Guan-Hua Du
To observe the effect of active components group of Xiaoxuming decoction (XXMD) on brain mitochondria in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats during early recovery period, and study its protective mechanism for nerves in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion rats during early recovery period. Cerebral ischemia model of middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats was established by suture method, and reperfusion was conducted 2 h later. The degree of cerebral ischemia in rats was evaluated by using Zea-Longa's standard grading method, and the model rats were randomly divided into model group, Xiaoxuming decoction active components low, medium and high dose groups and positive drug Ginaton group, with sham operated rats as control group...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822131/metabolic-engineering-of-photorespiration
#8
Martin K M Engqvist, Veronica G Maurino
The introduction of two alternative glycolate catabolic pathways in the chloroplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana rendered plants with increased biomass. To introduce these synthetic pathways, the selected genes were stepwise integrated in the nuclear genome of wild-type plants. These plants were transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the binary vectors using the floral dip method. Selection of transformants was conducted using different selection agents and the expression of the transgenes was confirmed by PCR and enzyme activity measurements...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822091/effect-of-ap102-a-subtype-2-and-5-specific-somatostatin-analog-on-glucose-metabolism-in-rats
#9
Erika Tarasco, Petra Seebeck, Svende Pfundstein, Adrian F Daly, Philippe J Eugster, Alan G Harris, Eric Grouzmann, Thomas A Lutz, Christina N Boyle
PURPOSE: Somatostatin analogs are widely used to treat conditions associated with hormonal hypersecretion such as acromegaly and metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. First generation somatostatin analogs, such as octreotide and lanreotide, have high affinity for somatostatin receptor subtype 2 (SSTR2), but have incomplete efficacy in many patients. Pasireotide targets multiple SSTRs, having the highest affinity for SSTR5, but causes hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus in preclinical and clinical studies...
August 18, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822077/increased-serum-levels-of-fetuin-b-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#10
Kefu Zhu, Yuming Wang, Pengqin Shu, Qinyi Zhou, Jinzhou Zhu, Wenjing Zhou, Changqing Du, Chenkai Xu, Xiaowei Liu, Lijiang Tang
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence indicates a pivotal role for fetuin B, one of the cystatin superfamily of cysteine protease inhibitors, in the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. This study investigated whether serum fetuin B levels are associated with the presence of coronary artery disease. METHODS: Serum fetuin B levels were assessed in 87 patients with coronary artery disease (41 with acute coronary syndromes and 46 with stable angina pectoris) and 87 healthy controls using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
August 19, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821991/transcranial-doppler-in-autonomic-testing-standards-and-clinical-applications
#11
REVIEW
Lucy Norcliffe-Kaufmann, Brahyan Galindo-Mendez, Ana-Lucia Garcia-Guarniz, Estibaliz Villarreal-Vitorica, Vera Novak
When cerebral blood flow falls below a critical limit, syncope occurs and, if prolonged, ischemia leads to neuronal death. The cerebral circulation has its own complex finely tuned autoregulatory mechanisms to ensure blood supply to the brain can meet the high metabolic demands of the underlying neuronal tissue. This involves the interplay between myogenic and metabolic mechanisms, input from noradrenergic and cholinergic neurons, and the release of vasoactive substrates, including adenosine from astrocytes and nitric oxide from the endothelium...
August 18, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821856/smoking-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-and-their-combined-effects-on-metabolic-parameters-evidence-from-a-large-cross-sectional-study
#12
Huaming Zhu, Huajun Xu, Rui Chen, Suru Liu, Yunyan Xia, Yiqun Fu, Xinyi Li, Yingjun Qian, Jianyin Zou, Hongliang Yi, Jian Guan
Metabolic disorders have been separately associated with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and smoking. However, no study has examined their interactions with metabolic parameters, including insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. To investigate whether the combination of OSAS and smoking results in an additive detriment in metabolic disorder parameters, we enrolled consecutive adult men during 2014-2015. Fasted blood samples were taken to determine glucose, insulin, and lipid levels. A questionnaire including an item on smoking pack-year exposure was administered, and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and overnight polysomnography were performed...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821813/metabolomic-and-lipidomic-profiling-identifies-the-role-of-the-rna-editing-pathway-in-endometrial-carcinogenesis
#13
Tatiana Altadill, Tyrone M Dowdy, Kirandeep Gill, Armando Reques, Smrithi S Menon, Cristian P Moiola, Carlos Lopez-Gil, Eva Coll, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Silvia Cabrera, Angel Garcia, Jaume Reventos, Stephen W Byers, Antonio Gil-Moreno, Amrita K Cheema, Eva Colas
Endometrial cancer (EC) remains the most common malignancy of the genital tract among women in developed countries. Although much research has been performed at genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic level, there is still a significant gap in the metabolomic studies of EC. In order to gain insights into altered metabolic pathways in the onset and progression of EC carcinogenesis, we used high resolution mass spectrometry to characterize the metabolomic and lipidomic profile of 39 human EC and 17 healthy endometrial tissue samples...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821788/bioenergetic-adaptations-in-chemoresistant-ovarian-cancer-cells
#14
Sajad Dar, Jasdeep Chhina, Ismail Mert, Dhananjay Chitale, Thomas Buekers, Hareena Kaur, Shailendra Giri, Adnan Munkarah, Ramandeep Rattan
Earlier investigations have revealed that tumor cells undergo metabolic reprogramming and mainly derive their cellular energy from aerobic glycolysis rather than oxidative phosphorylation even in the presence of oxygen. However, recent studies have shown that certain cancer cells display increased oxidative phosphorylation or high metabolically active phenotype. Cellular bioenergetic profiling of 13 established and 12 patient derived ovarian cancer cell lines revealed significant bioenergetics diversity. The bioenergetics phenotype of ovarian cancer cell lines correlated with functional phenotypes of doubling time and oxidative stress...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821754/discovery-of-potential-biomarkers-in-human-melanoma-cells-with-different-metastatic-potential-by-metabolic-and-lipidomic-profiling
#15
Hye-Youn Kim, Hwanhui Lee, So-Hyun Kim, Hanyong Jin, Jeehyeon Bae, Hyung-Kyoon Choi
Malignant melanoma, characterized by its ability to metastasize to other organs, is responsible for 90% of skin cancer mortality. To investigate alterations in the cellular metabolome and lipidome related to melanoma metastasis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and direct infusion-mass spectrometry (DI-MS)-based metabolic and lipidomic profiling were performed on extracts of normal human melanocyte (HEMn-LP), low metastatic melanoma (A375, G361), and highly metastatic melanoma (A2058, SK-MEL-28) cell lines...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821636/twenty-four-hour-rhythmicity-of-circulating-metabolites-effect-of-body-mass-and-type-2-diabetes
#16
Cheryl M Isherwood, Daan R Van der Veen, Jonathan D Johnston, Debra J Skene
Metabolic profiling of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has previously been limited to single-time-point samples, ignoring time-of-day variation. Here, we tested our hypothesis that body mass and T2DM affect daily rhythmicity and concentrations of circulating metabolites across a 24-h day in 3 age-matched, male groups-lean, overweight/obese (OW/OB), and OW/OB with T2DM-in controlled laboratory conditions, which were not confounded by large meals. By using targeted liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry metabolomics, we quantified 130 plasma metabolites every 2 h over 24 h, and we show that average metabolite concentrations were significantly altered by increased body mass (90 of 130) and T2DM (56 of 130)...
August 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821603/a-simple-light-isotope-metabolic-labeling-slim-labeling-strategy-a-powerful-tool-to-address-the-dynamics-of-proteome-variations-in-vivo
#17
Thibaut Léger, Camille Garcia, Laetitia Collomb, Jean-Michel Camadro
Many quantitative proteomics strategies rely on in vivo metabolic incorporation of amino acids with modified stable isotope profiles into proteins. These methods give rise to multiple ions for each peptide, with possible distortion of the isotopolog distribution, making the overall analytical process complex. We validated an alternative strategy, simple light isotope metabolic labeling (SLIM-labeling), which alleviates many of these problems. SLIM-labeling is based on the in vivo reduction of the isotopic composition of proteins using metabolic precursors with a unique light isotope composition to label all amino acids...
August 18, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821596/hypoxia-decreases-creatine-uptake-in-cardiomyocytes-while-creatine-supplementation-enhances-hif-activation
#18
Lucia Santacruz, Antonio Jose Luis Arciniegas, Marcus Darrabie, Jose G Mantilla, Rebecca M Baron, Dawn E Bowles, Rajashree Mishra, Danny O Jacobs
Creatine (Cr), phosphocreatine (PCr), and creatine kinases (CK) comprise an energy shuttle linking ATP production in mitochondria with cellular consumption sites. Myocytes cannot synthesize Cr: these cells depend on uptake across the cell membrane by a specialized creatine transporter (CrT) to maintain intracellular Cr levels. Hypoxia interferes with energy metabolism, including the activity of the creatine energy shuttle, and therefore affects intracellular ATP and PCr levels. Here, we report that exposing cultured cardiomyocytes to low oxygen levels rapidly diminishes Cr transport by decreasing Vmax and Km Pharmacological activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) abrogated the reduction in Cr transport caused by hypoxia...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821569/elevated-temperature-and-acclimation-time-affect-metabolic-performance-in-the-heavily-exploited-nile-perch-of-lake-victoria
#19
Elizabeth A Nyboer, Lauren J Chapman
Increasing water temperatures due to anthropogenic climate change are predicted to negatively impact the aerobic metabolic performance of aquatic ectotherms. Specifically, it has been hypothesized that thermal increases result in reductions in aerobic scope (AS), which lead to decreases in energy available for essential fitness and performance functions. Consequences of warming are anticipated to be especially severe for warm-adapted tropical species as they are thought to have narrow thermal windows and limited plasticity for coping with elevated temperatures...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821567/chronic-spinal-cord-changes-in-a-high-fat-diet-fed-male-rat-model-of-thoracic-spinal-contusion
#20
Redin A Spann, William J Lawson, Raymond J Grill, Michael R Garrett, Bernadette E Grayson
Individuals that suffer injury to the spinal cord can result in long-term, debilitating sequelae. Spinal cord injured patients have increased risk for the development of metabolic disease which can further hinder the effectiveness of treatments to rehabilitate the cord and improve quality of life. In the present study, we sought to understand the impact of high-fat diet induced obesity on spinal cord injury (SCI) by examining transcriptome changes in the area of the injury and rostral and caudal to site of damage 12 weeks after injury...
August 18, 2017: Physiological Genomics
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