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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668082/altered-stress-hormone-response-following-acute-exercise-during-prostate-cancer-treatment
#1
Erik D Hanson, Samy Sakkal, William S Evans, John A Violet, Claudio L Battaglini, Glenn K McConell, Alan Hayes
Exercise training reduces the side effects of cancer treatments, however, the stress hormone response to acute exercise during prostate cancer (PCa) treatment is unclear. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of acute exercise on circulating cortisol, epinephrine (Epi), and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations during PCa treatment with and without androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). METHODS: Men with PCa (n=11), with PCa on ADT (n=11) and non-cancer controls (n=8) had blood samples for stress hormones collected before and immediately (0h), 2h, and 24h after 45 minutes of intermittent cycling at 60% of peak wattage...
April 18, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668046/black-cohosh-extracts-and-powders-induce-micronuclei-a-biomarker-of-genetic-damage-in-human-cells
#2
Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Carol D Swartz, Kim G Shepard, Steven M Bryce, Stephen D Dertinger, Suramya Waidyanatha, Grace E Kissling, Scott S Auerbach, Kristine L Witt
Black cohosh extract (BCE) is a widely used dietary supplement marketed to women to alleviate symptoms of gynecological ailments, yet its toxicity has not been well characterized. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) previously reported significant increases in micronucleated erythrocytes in peripheral blood of female Wistar Han rats and B6C3F1/N mice administered 15-1,000 mg BCE/kg/day by gavage for 90 days. These animals also developed a dose-dependent nonregenerative macrocytic anemia characterized by clinical changes consistent with megaloblastic anemia...
April 18, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667913/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-deletion-is-associated-with-urinary-%C3%AE-klotho-deficiency-and-perturbed-phosphate-homeostasis
#3
Naomi C Boisvert, Chet E Holterman, Alexey Gutsol, Josee Coulombe, Wanling Pan, R Todd Alexander, Douglas A Gray, Chris R Kennedy
Loss of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), a deubiquitinating enzyme required for neuronal function, led to hyperphosphatemia accompanied by phosphaturia in mice, while calcium homeostasis remained intact. We therefore investigated the mechanisms underlying the phosphate imbalance in Uchl1-/- mice. Interestingly, phosphaturia was not a result of lower renal brush border membrane sodium-phosphate cotransporter expression as sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2a and 2c expression levels were similar to wild type levels...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667730/succinate-decreases-bladder-function-in-a-rat-model-associated-with-metabolic-syndrome
#4
Monica Velasquez Flores, Abubakr H Mossa, Philippe Cammisotto, Lysanne Campeau
AIMS: Succinate and its receptor, GPR91, have been implicated in different aspects of metabolic syndrome. As GPR91 is expressed in the urinary bladder, the aim of this study is to show the effect of chronically increased succinate levels on bladder function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and hypertensive Dahl rats received an intraperitoneal injection of either saline or succinate (50 mg/kg) daily for a period of 4 weeks. Conscious cystometry was performed at the end of this period...
April 18, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667480/the-human-gut-microbiota-metabolism-and-perspective-in-obesity
#5
Aline Corado Gomes, Christian Hoffmann, João Felipe Mota
The gut microbiota has been recognized as an important factor in the development of metabolic diseases such as obesity and is considered an endocrine organ involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis and host immunity. Dysbiosis can change the functioning of the intestinal barrier and the gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) by allowing the passage of structural components of bacteria, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which activate inflammatory pathways that may contribute to the development of insulin resistance...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667260/tai-chi-improves-brain-metabolism-and-muscle-energetics-in-older-adults
#6
Min Zhou, Huijun Liao, Lasya P Sreepada, Joshua R Ladner, James A Balschi, Alexander P Lin
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that has been shown to improve both mental and physical health. As a result, recent literature suggests the use of Tai Chi to treat both physical and psychological disorders. However, the underlying physiological changes have not been characterized. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the changes in brain metabolites and muscle energetics after Tai Chi training in an aging population using a combined brain-muscle magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) examination...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667097/an-elevated-respiratory-quotient-predicts-complications-after-cardiac-surgery-under-extracorporeal-circulation-an-observational-pilot-study
#7
J Piot, A Hébrard, M Durand, J F Payen, P Albaladejo
Following cardiac surgery, hyperlactatemia due to anaerobic metabolism is associated with an increase in both morbidity and mortality. We previously found that an elevated respiratory quotient (RQ) predicts anaerobic metabolism. In the present study we aimed to demonstrate that it is also associated with poor outcome following cardiac surgery. This single institution, prospective, observational study includes all those patients that were consecutively admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, that had also been monitored using pulmonary artery catheter...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667084/investigation-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-the-intrinsic-tumoral-component-of-the-kynurenine-pathway-of-tryptophan-metabolism-in-primary-brain-tumors
#8
Anthony R Guastella, Sharon K Michelhaugh, Neil V Klinger, Hassan A Fadel, Sam Kiousis, Rouba Ali-Fehmi, William J Kupsky, Csaba Juhász, Sandeep Mittal
INTRODUCTION: There is mounting evidence supporting the role of tryptophan metabolism via the kynurenine pathway (KP) in the pathogenesis of primary brain tumors. Under normal physiological conditions, the KP is the major catabolic pathway for the essential amino acid tryptophan. However, in cancer cells, the KP becomes dysregulated, depletes local tryptophan, and contributes to an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. METHODS: We examined the protein expression levels (in 73 gliomas and 48 meningiomas) of the KP rate-limiting enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) 1, IDO2, and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), as well as, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a carcinogenic transcription factor activated by KP metabolites...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667027/neonatal-overfeeding-impairs-differentiation-potential-of-mice-subcutaneous-adipose-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Isabelle Dias, Ísis Salviano, André Mencalha, Simone Nunes de Carvalho, Alessandra Alves Thole, Laís Carvalho, Erika Cortez, Ana Carolina Stumbo
Nutritional changes in the development (intrauterine life and postnatal period) may trigger long-term pathophysiological complications such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. Metabolic programming leads to organs and tissues modifications, including adipose tissue, with increased lipogenesis, production of inflammatory cytokines, and decreased glucose uptake. However, stem cells participation in adipose tissue dysfunctions triggered by overfeeding during lactation has not been elucidated. Therefore, this study was the first to evaluate the effect of metabolic programming on adipose mesenchymal stem cells (ASC) from mice submitted to overfeeding during lactation, using the litter reduction model...
April 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666899/altered-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-ultrastructure-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes
#10
Cynthia M F Monaco, Meghan C Hughes, Sofhia V Ramos, Nina E Varah, Christian Lamberz, Fasih A Rahman, Chris McGlory, Mark A Tarnopolsky, Matthew P Krause, Robert Laham, Thomas J Hawke, Christopher G R Perry
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A comprehensive assessment of skeletal muscle ultrastructure and mitochondrial bioenergetics has not been undertaken in individuals with type 1 diabetes. This study aimed to systematically assess skeletal muscle mitochondrial phenotype in young adults with type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Physically active, young adults (men and women) with type 1 diabetes (HbA1c 63.0 ± 16.0 mmol/mol [7.9% ± 1.5%]) and without type 1 diabetes (control), matched for sex, age, BMI and level of physical activity, were recruited (n = 12/group) to undergo vastus lateralis muscle microbiopsies...
April 18, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666732/renal-tubular-acidosis-an-adverse-effect-of-pd-1-inhibitor-immunotherapy
#11
Sandy El Bitar, Chanudi Weerasinghe, Elie El-Charabaty, Marcel Odaimi
Immune checkpoint blockade therapy is gaining popularity among oncologists for treatment of solid and hematologic malignancies. The widespread use of these agents resulted in increasing incidence of renal immune-related adverse events. Reported renal toxicity described so far includes acute interstitial nephritis, minimal change disease, and immune complex glomerulonephritis. We report the case of a 79-year-old female with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer on anti-PD-1 therapy nivolumab. After the 4th administration of nivolumab, the treatment course was complicated with normal anion gap metabolic acidosis...
2018: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666559/assessing-performance-in-pre-season-wrestling-athletes-using-biomarkers
#12
Ionas Papassotiriou, Artemissia-Phoebe Nifli
Introduction: Although regular training introduces the desired changes in athletes' metabolism towards optimal final performance, literature is rarely focusing on the metabolic responses off-competition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical indices during typical preseason training in wrestling athletes. Materials and methods: Twenty male freestyle and Greco-roman wrestlers (14 to 31 years) followed a typical session of the preparatory phase...
June 15, 2018: Biochemia Medica: časopis Hrvatskoga Društva Medicinskih Biokemičara
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666476/hif1a-inactivation-rescues-photoreceptor-degeneration-induced-by-a-chronic-hypoxia-like-stress
#13
Maya Barben, Divya Ail, Federica Storti, Katrin Klee, Christian Schori, Marijana Samardzija, Stylianos Michalakis, Martin Biel, Isabelle Meneau, Frank Blaser, Daniel Barthelmes, Christian Grimm
Reduced choroidal blood flow and tissue changes in the ageing human eye impair oxygen delivery to photoreceptors and the retinal pigment epithelium. As a consequence, mild but chronic hypoxia may develop and disturb cell metabolism, function and ultimately survival, potentially contributing to retinal pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we show that several hypoxia-inducible genes were expressed at higher levels in the aged human retina suggesting increased activity of hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs) during the physiological ageing process...
April 17, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666465/molecular-epidemiology-of-lung-cancer-in-iran-implications-for-drug-development-and-cancer-prevention
#14
REVIEW
Zahra Fathi, Nicholas L Syn, Jian-Guo Zhou, Raheleh Roudi
Epidemiological studies undertaken over the past decades reveal a gradual but progressive increase in the incidence and mortality attributable to lung cancer in the Islamic Republic of Iran, a sovereign state geographically situated at the crossroads of Central Eurasia and Western Asia. We identified references published in English and Persian through searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Scientific Information Database (SID)-a specialized Iranian database, which indexes Iranian scientific journals-between inception and 15 September 2017...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666451/exploring-the-extent-and-scope-of-epigenetic-inheritance
#15
REVIEW
Elizabeth J Radford
Environmental factors, particularly during early life, are important for the later metabolic health of the individual. In our obesogenic environment, it is of major socio-economic importance to investigate the mechanisms that contribute to the risk of metabolic ill health. Increasing evidence from a variety of model organisms suggests that non-genetically determined phenotypes, including metabolic effects such as glucose intolerance and obesity, can be passed between generations, which encourages us to revisit heredity...
April 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666436/alterations-in-the-health-of-hibernating-bats-under-pathogen-pressure
#16
Hana Bandouchova, Tomáš Bartonička, Hana Berkova, Jiri Brichta, Tomasz Kokurewicz, Veronika Kovacova, Petr Linhart, Vladimir Piacek, Jiri Pikula, Alexandra Zahradníková, Jan Zukal
In underground hibernacula temperate northern hemisphere bats are exposed to Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungal agent of white-nose syndrome. While pathological and epidemiological data suggest that Palearctic bats tolerate this infection, we lack knowledge about bat health under pathogen pressure. Here we report blood profiles, along with body mass index (BMI), infection intensity and hibernation temperature, in greater mouse-eared bats (Myotis myotis). We sampled three European hibernacula that differ in geomorphology and microclimatic conditions...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666371/integration-of-human-adipocyte-chromosomal-interactions-with-adipose-gene-expression-prioritizes-obesity-related-genes-from-gwas
#17
David Z Pan, Kristina M Garske, Marcus Alvarez, Yash V Bhagat, James Boocock, Elina Nikkola, Zong Miao, Chelsea K Raulerson, Rita M Cantor, Mete Civelek, Craig A Glastonbury, Kerrin S Small, Michael Boehnke, Aldons J Lusis, Janet S Sinsheimer, Karen L Mohlke, Markku Laakso, Päivi Pajukanta, Arthur Ko
Increased adiposity is a hallmark of obesity and overweight, which affect 2.2 billion people world-wide. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related phenotypes can help to improve treatment options and drug development. Here we perform promoter Capture Hi-C in human adipocytes to investigate interactions between gene promoters and distal elements as a transcription-regulating mechanism contributing to these phenotypes. We find that promoter-interacting elements in human adipocytes are enriched for adipose-related transcription factor motifs, such as PPARG and CEBPB, and contribute to heritability of cis-regulated gene expression...
April 17, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666307/interleukin-2-shapes-the-cytotoxic-t-cell-proteome-and-immune-environment-sensing-programs
#18
Christina M Rollings, Linda V Sinclair, Hugh J M Brady, Doreen A Cantrell, Sarah H Ross
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Janus kinases (JAKs) regulate transcriptional programs and protein synthesis to promote the differentiation of effector CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we generated an in-depth characterization of how IL-2 and JAKs configure the CTL proteome to control CTL function. We found that IL-2 signaling through JAK1 and JAK3 (JAK1/3) increased the abundance of a key subset of proteins to induce the accumulation of critical cytokines and effector molecules in T cells...
April 17, 2018: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666229/drought-delays-development-of-the-sorghum-root-microbiome-and-enriches-for-monoderm-bacteria
#19
Ling Xu, Dan Naylor, Zhaobin Dong, Tuesday Simmons, Grady Pierroz, Kim K Hixson, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Kristin M Engbrecht, Yi Wang, Cheng Gao, Stephanie DeGraaf, Mary A Madera, Julie A Sievert, Joy Hollingsworth, Devon Birdseye, Henrik V Scheller, Robert Hutmacher, Jeffery Dahlberg, Christer Jansson, John W Taylor, Peggy G Lemaux, Devin Coleman-Derr
Drought stress is a major obstacle to crop productivity, and the severity and frequency of drought are expected to increase in the coming century. Certain root-associated bacteria have been shown to mitigate the negative effects of drought stress on plant growth, and manipulation of the crop microbiome is an emerging strategy for overcoming drought stress in agricultural systems, yet the effect of drought on the development of the root microbiome is poorly understood. Through 16S rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing, as well as root metabolomics, we demonstrate that drought delays the development of the early sorghum root microbiome and causes increased abundance and activity of monoderm bacteria, which lack an outer cell membrane and contain thick cell walls...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666220/synergistic-anti-proliferative-effect-of-mtor-inhibitor-rad001-plus-gemcitabine-on-cholangiocarcinoma-by-decreasing-choline-kinase-activity
#20
Gigin Lin, Kun-Ju Lin, Frank Wang, Tse-Ching Chen, Tzu-Chen Yen, Ta-Sen Yeh
Although gemcitabine plus cisplatin is the gold standard chemotherapy regimen for advanced cholangiocarcinoma, the response rate has been disappointing. This study aims to investigate a novel therapeutic regimen (gemcitabine plus rad001, an mTOR inhibitor) for cholangiocarcinoma. Gemcitabine, oxaliplatin, cetuximab, and rad001 in various combinations were first evaluated in vitro using six cholangiocarcinoma cell lines. In vivo therapeutic efficacies of gemcitabine, rad001 alone and combination were further evaluated using a xenograft mouse model and a chemically induced orthotopic cholangiocarcinoma rat model...
April 12, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
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