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Increased metabolism

Amita Shukla-Dave, Mireia Castillo-Martin, Ming Chen, Jose Lobo, Nataliya Gladoun, Ana C Lorduy, Faisal M Khan, Vladimir Ponomarev, Zhengzi Yi, Weijia Zhang, Pier P Pandolfi, Hedvig Hricak, Carlos Cordon-Cardo
Increased polyamine synthesis is known to play an important role in prostate cancer. We aimed to explore its functional significance in prostate tumor initiation and its link to androgen receptor (AR) signaling. For this purpose, we generated a new cell line derived from normal epithelial prostate cells (RWPE-1) with overexpression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and used it for in vitro and in vivo experiments. We then comprehensively analyzed the expression of the main metabolic enzymes of the polyamine pathway and spermine abundance in 120 well-characterized cases of human prostate cancer and high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN)...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
K S Weber, K Strassburger, G Pacini, B Nowotny, K Müssig, J Szendroedi, C Herder, M Roden
AIMS: To examine the hypothesis that changes in serum adiponectin concentration inversely relate to changes in glucose tolerance and β-cell function already during the early stage of disease progression in recently diagnosed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Participants in the prospective observational German Diabetes Study (Type 2 diabetes, n = 94; Type 1 diabetes, n =42) underwent i.v. glucose tolerance and glucagon stimulation testing to assess pre-hepatic β-cell function, glucose tolerance index and C-peptide secretion within the first year of diabetes diagnosis and 2 years later...
October 22, 2016: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Silvania da Silva Teixeira, Carly Filgueira, Douglas H Sieglaff, Cindy Benod, Rosa Villagomez, Laurie J Minze, Aijun Zhang, Paul Webb, Maria Tereza Nunes
AIM: Thyroid hormones regulate metabolic response. While triiodothyronine (T3) is usually considered to be the active form of thyroid hormone, one form of diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) exerts T3-like effects on energy consumption and lipid metabolism. 3,5-T2 also improves glucose tolerance in rats and 3,5-T2 levels correlate with fasting glucose in humans. Presently, however, little is known about mechanisms of 3,5-T2 effects on glucose metabolism. Here, we set out to compare effects of T3, 3,5-T2 and another form of T2 (3,3-T2) in a mouse model of diet induced obesity and determined effects of T3 and 3,5-T2 on markers of classical insulin sensitization to understand how diiodothyronines influence blood glucose...
October 22, 2016: Acta Physiologica
Michael L Schulte, Matthew R Hight, Gregory D Ayers, Qi Liu, Yu Shyr, M Kay Washington, H Charles Manning
PURPOSE: This study aimed to study whether cancer cells possess distinguishing metabolic features compared with surrounding normal cells, such as increased glutamine uptake. Given this, quantitative measures of glutamine uptake may reflect critical processes in oncology. Approximately, 10 % of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) express BRAF (V600E) , which may be actionable with selective BRAF inhibitors or in combination with inhibitors of complementary signaling axes. Non-invasive and quantitative predictive measures of response to these targeted therapies remain poorly developed in this setting...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Miriam Krischke, Georg Hempel, Swantje Völler, Nicolas André, Maurizio D'Incalci, Gianni Bisogno, Wolfgang Köpcke, Matthias Borowski, Ralf Herold, Alan V Boddy, Joachim Boos
PURPOSE: Doxorubicin is a key component in many pediatric oncology treatment regimens; still pharmacology data on which current dosing regimens are based are very limited. METHODS: We conducted a multinational pharmacokinetic study investigating age dependency of doxorubicin metabolism and elimination in children with cancer. One hundred and one patients treated with doxorubicin according to a cancer-specific national or European therapeutic trial were recruited...
October 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Ellen K Silbergeld
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as a critical component in human development, health, and disease. Its relevance to toxicology and pharmacology involves challenges to current concepts related to absorption, metabolism, gene:environment, and pathways of response. Framing testable hypotheses for experimental and epidemiological studies will require attention to study designs, biosampling, data analysis, and attention to confounders.
October 21, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
Lana Shabala, Jingyi Zhang, Igor I Pottosin, Jayakumar Bose, Min Zhu, Anja Thoe Fuglsang, Ana Velarde-Buendia, Amandine Massart, Camilla B Hill, Ute Roessner, Antony Bacic, Honghong Wu, Elisa Azzarello, Camilla Pandolfi, Meixue Zhou, Charlotte Poschenrieder, Stefano Mancuso, Sergey Shabala
While the importance of cell-type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal physiological mechanisms conferring higher sensitivity of apical root cells to salinity in barley. We show that salinity application to the root apex arrests root growth in a highly tissue- and treatment-specific manner. Although salinity-induced transient net Na+ uptake was about 4-fold higher in the root apex compared with the mature zone, mature root cells accumulated more cytosolic and vacuolar Na+ suggesting that higher sensitivity of apical cells to salt is not related to either enhanced Na+ exclusion or sequestration inside the root...
October 21, 2016: Plant Physiology
Michael Karlsson, Johannes K Ehinger, Sarah Piel, Fredrik Sjövall, Johanna Henriksnäs, Urban Höglund, Magnus J Hansson, Eskil Elmér
Metabolic crisis is a clinical condition primarily affecting patients with inherent mitochondrial dysfunction in situations of augmented demand. To model this, ten pigs received an infusion of rotenone, a mitochondrial complex I inhibitor, or vehicle. Clinical parameters, blood gases, continuous indirect calorimetry, in vivo muscle oxygen tension, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration and metabolomics were assessed. Rotenone induced a progressive increase in lactate which was paralleled by an increase in oxygen tension in venous blood and skeletal muscle...
October 18, 2016: Mitochondrion
Ruinan Gu, Fali Zhang, Gang Chen, Chaojun Han, Jay Liu, Zhaoxiang Ren, Yi Zhu, John L Waddington, Long Tai Zheng, Xuechu Zhen
Clock (Clk)1/COQ7 is a mitochondrial hydroxylase that is necessary for the biosynthesis of ubiquinone (coenzyme Q or UQ). Here, we investigate the role of Clk1 in neuroinflammation and consequentially dopaminergic (DA) neuron survival. Reduced expression of Clk1 in microglia enhanced the LPS-induced proinflammatory response and promoted aerobic glycolysis. Inhibition of glycolysis abolished Clk1 deficiency-induced hypersensitivity to the inflammatory stimulation. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that mTOR/HIF-1α and ROS/HIF-1α signaling pathways were involved in Clk1 deficiency-induced aerobic glycolysis...
October 18, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Gary C Packard
Recent reports indicate that field metabolic rates (FMRs) of mammals conform to a pattern of complex allometry in which the exponent in a simple, two-parameter power equation increases steadily as a dependent function of body mass. The reports were based, however, on indirect analyses performed on logarithmic transformations of the original data. I re-examined values for FMR and body mass for 114 species of mammal by the conventional approach to allometric analysis (to illustrate why the approach is unreliable) and by linear and nonlinear regression on untransformed variables (to illustrate the power and versatility of newer analytical methods)...
October 19, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Michaela L Sundqvist, Jon O Lundberg, Eddie Weitzberg
The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a significant source of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity. Dietary intake of inorganic nitrate has a number of cardiovascular effects as well as a decrease in oxygen cost during exercise and a reduction in resting metabolic rate (RMR). Oral bacteria have a key role in bioactivation of inorganic nitrate since they catalyse the conversion of salivary nitrate to the more reactive nitrite anion. Recent studies demonstrate that blood pressure increases with the use of an antiseptic mouthwash, indicating that endogenous, NO-synthase derived nitrate is recycled into nitrite and NO, sufficiently to modulate cardiovascular function...
October 18, 2016: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Drew A Torigian, Judith Green-McKenzie, Xianling Liu, Frances S Shofer, Thomas Werner, Catherine E Smith, Andrew A Strasser, Mateen C Moghbel, Ami H Parekh, Grace Choi, Marcus D Goncalves, Natalie Spaccarelli, Saied Gholami, Prithvi S Kumar, Yubing Tong, Jayaram K Udupa, Clementina Mesaros, Abass Alavi
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to systematically detect and quantify differential effects of chronic tobacco use in organs of the whole body. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty healthy male subjects (10 nonsmokers and 10 chronic heavy smokers) were enrolled. Subjects underwent whole-body FDG-PET/CT, diagnostic unenhanced chest CT, mini-mental state examination, urine testing for oxidative stress, and serum testing...
October 18, 2016: Academic Radiology
L Baila-Rueda, A Cenarro, I Lamiquiz-Moneo, R Mateo-Gallego, A M Bea-Sanz, S Perez-Calahorra, V Marco-Benedi, F Civeira
Some oxysterols are precursors of bile acid synthesis and play an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. However, if they are involved in the pathogeny of genetic hypercholesterolemia has not been previously explored. We have studied non-cholesterol sterol markers of cholesterol synthesis (lanosterol and desmosterol) and oxysterols (7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one, 24S-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol) in 200 affected subjects with primary hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin, negative for mutations in LDLR, APOB, PCSK9 and APOE genes (non-FH GH) and 100 normolipemic controls...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Joachim Niehren, Cristian Versari, Mathias John, François Coutte, Philippe Jacques
We wish to predict changes of reaction networks with partial kinetic information that lead to target changes of their steady states. The changes may be either increases or decreases of influxes, reaction knockouts, or multiple changes of these two kinds. Our prime applications are knockout prediction tasks for metabolic and regulation networks. In a first step, we propose a formal modeling language for reaction networks with partial kinetic information. The modeling language has a graphical syntax reminiscent to Petri nets...
October 18, 2016: Bio Systems
Chao-Ming Hung, Ying-Chao Lin, Liang-Chih Liu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Chi-Tang Ho, Tzong-Der Way
CWF-145, a synthetic 2-phenyl-4-quinolone derivative exerted potent cytotoxicity against prostate cancer. CWF-145 inhibited prostate cancer cell lines PC-3, DU-145 and LNCap. It had a very low IC50 about 200 nM against castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) PC-3. We found that CWF-145 had a similar effect to clinical trial antimitotic agents in cancer cells and normal cells. CWF-145 arrested cell cycle at G2/M phase by binding to the β-tubulin at the colchicine-binding site then disrupted microtubule polymerization...
October 18, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Michael G White, Marc A Ward, Megan K Applewhite, Harry Wong, Vivek Prachand, Peter Angelos, Edwin L Kaplan, Raymon H Grogan
BACKGROUND: With over 110,000 bariatric operations performed in the United States annually, it is important to understand the biochemical abnormalities causing endocrine dysfunction associated with these procedures. Here we compare 2 malabsorptive procedures, duodenal switch and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, to determine the role malabsorption plays in secondary hyperparathyroidism in this population. METHODS: Data from all super-obese patients undergoing duodenal switch or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass between August 2002 and October 2005 were prospectively collected...
October 18, 2016: Surgery
A Amaddeo, L de Sanctis, J Olmo Arroyo, J-P Giordanella, P-J Monteyrol, B Fauroux
Obesity, along with hypertrophy of the adenoids and the tonsils, represents one of the major risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children. Obesity is associated with an increase in the prevalence and the severity of OSA and is a major factor in the persistence and aggravation of OSA over time. Neurocognitive dysfunction and abnormal behavior are the most important and frequent end-organ morbidities associated with OSA in children. Other deleterious consequences such as cardiovascular stress and metabolic syndrome are less common in children than in adults with OSA...
October 18, 2016: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Michael S Gross, Hernando J Olivos, Deena M Butryn, James R Olson, Diana S Aga
Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs), which have anthropogenic and natural origins, have exhibited neurotoxic and endocrine disrupting effects in humans and wildlife. Therefore, there is an increased interest in the analysis of these compounds in biological matrices in order to assess their potential toxicological risks. Analysis of OH-BDEs is conventionally completed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS), or by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) after derivatization...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Alfred Amambua-Ngwa, Bakary Danso, Archibald Worwui, Sukai Ceesay, Nwakanma Davies, David Jeffries, Umberto D'Alessandro, David Conway
BACKGROUND: Previous genome-wide analyses of single nucleotide variation in Plasmodium falciparum identified evidence of an extended haplotype region on chromosome 6 in West Africa, suggesting recent positive selection. Such a pattern is not seen in samples from East Africa or South East Asia, so it could be marking a selective process specific to West Africa. Analyses of the haplotype structure in samples taken at different times could give clues to possible causes of selection. METHODS: This study investigates chromosome 6 extended haplotypes in The Gambia by analysing alleles at multiple microsatellite loci using genome sequence data previously obtained from clinical isolates collected in 2008, followed by genotyping of 13 loci in 439 isolates from 1984, 1991, 2008 and 2014...
October 21, 2016: Malaria Journal
Michael Coll Barroso, Frank Kramer, Stephen J Greene, Daniel Scheyer, Till Köhler, Martin Karoff, Melchior Seyfarth, Mihai Gheorghiade, Wilfried Dinh
BACKGROUND: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP-7) modulates the biological activities of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Previous studies demonstrated the prognostic value of IGFBP-7 and IGF-1 among patients with systolic heart failure (HF). This study aimed to evaluate the IGF1/IGFBP-7 axis in HF patients with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). METHODS: Serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-7 levels were measured in 300 eligible consecutive patients who underwent comprehensive cardiac assessment...
October 21, 2016: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
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