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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548993/muscle-metabolism
#1
Nicolas Tardif, Jonathan Grip, Olav Rooyackers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent findings on metabolic derangements leading to loss of muscle mass and function. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies investigated methods to assess muscle mass and function and its clinical relevance. These are also included. A few studies confirm that a low muscle mass is related to a worse outcome but also a compromised muscle function at discharge is related to long-term survival. A low quality of muscle assessed by the density of muscle from a computed tomography scan is related to mortality...
May 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547916/non-shivering-thermogenesis-as-a-mechanism-to-facilitate-sustainable-weight-loss
#2
REVIEW
B F Palmer, D J Clegg
Currently, there is a significant percentage of the population who are or will be classified as obese, necessitating novel strategies to facilitate sustainable weight loss. Reductions in basal metabolic rate occur in the face of weight loss and pose formidable barriers to individuals attempting to sustain meaningful weight reductions. Here, we discuss the mechanisms by which non-shivering thermogenesis may provide insight into metabolic pathways that can become druggable targets to facilitate sustainable weight loss...
May 25, 2017: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546765/vitamin-d-prohormone-in-the-treatment-of-secondary-hyperparathyroidism-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
REVIEW
Claudia Friedl, Emanuel Zitt
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) represents the adaptive and very often, finally, maladaptive response of the organism to control the disturbed homeostasis of calcium, phosphorus, and vitamin D metabolism caused by declining renal function in chronic kidney disease (CKD). sHPT leads to cardiovascular and extravascular calcifications and is directly linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality as well as excess all-cause mortality. Vitamin D plays an important role in the development of sHPT...
2017: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544936/effect-of-follicular-dendritic-cell-secreted-protein-on-gene-expression-of-human-periodontal-ligament-cells
#4
Lin Xiang, Na Xin, Ying Yuan, Xiaogang Hou, Junwei Chen, Na Wei, Ping Gong
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the specific roles of follicular dendritic cell secreted protein (FDC-SP), a protein exists in saliva, in the inhibition of calcium precipitation during periodontal regeneration, as well as affect phenotype expression of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) during the differentiation process. DESIGN: To investigate this, we applied microarray technology to identify gene expression changes in hPDLCs transfected with FDC-SP and then clustered them according to their biological functions...
May 17, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542430/ros-regulation-of-axonal-mitochondrial-transport-is-mediated-by-ca2-and-jnk-in-drosophila
#5
Pin-Chao Liao, Lauren C Tandarich, Peter J Hollenbeck
Mitochondria perform critical functions including aerobic ATP production and calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis, but are also a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. To maintain cellular function and survival in neurons, mitochondria are transported along axons, and accumulate in regions with high demand for their functions. Oxidative stress and abnormal mitochondrial axonal transport are associated with neurodegenerative disorders. However, we know little about the connection between these two...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542241/signification-of-distal-urinary-acidification-defects-in-hypocitraturic-patients
#6
Valentina Forni Ogna, Anne Blanchard, Rosa Vargas-Poussou, Adam Ogna, Stéphanie Baron, Jean-Philippe Bertocchio, Caroline Prot-Bertoye, Jérôme Nevoux, Julie Dubourg, Gérard Maruani, Margarida Mendes, Alejandro Garcia-Castaño, Cyrielle Treard, Nelly Lepottier, Pascal Houillier, Marie Courbebaisse
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypocitraturia has been associated with metabolic acidosis and mineral disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of urinary acidification defects underlying hypocitraturia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study included 67 patients (32 men), aged 40.7±15.1 years with hypocitraturia (<1.67 mmol/24-h) and nephrolithiasis, nephrocalcinosis, and/or bone demineralization, referred to our center from 2000 to 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540270/fgf-23-klotho-and-vitamin-d-levels-in-scleroderma
#7
Ravan Ahmadi, Mehrzad Hajialilo, Amir Ghorbanihaghjo, Ali Mota, Sina Raeisi, Nasrin Bargahi, Mohammad Valilo, Farahnaz Askarian
BACKGROUND: Scleroderma is a chronic connective tissue disease of unknown etiology. Vitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH) that play particular functions in calcium and phosphate homeostasis may be involved in the etiology of this disorder. Klotho, the co-receptor of the fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23), can interfere with calcium and phosphate metabolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum Klotho, FGF-23, intact PTH (iPTH) and vitamin D levels in scleroderma patients compared with the healthy controls...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539709/multipathway-integrated-adjustment-mechanism-of-glycyrrhiza-triterpenes-curing-gastric-ulcer-in-rats
#8
Ying Wang, Shuai Wang, Yongrui Bao, Tianjiao Li, Xin Chang, Guanlin Yang, Xiansheng Meng
BACKGROUND: Gastric ulcer is a common chronic disease in human digestive system, which is difficult to cure, easy to relapse, and endangers human health seriously. Compared with western medicine, traditional Chinese medicine has a unique advantage in improving the general situation, stablizing medical condition, and with little side effects. Glycyrrhiza known as "king of all the medicine", has a range of pharmacological activities and is commonly used in a variety of proprietary Chinese medicines and formulations...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539652/ano1-inhibits-cardiac-fibrosis-after-myocardial-infraction-via-tgf-%C3%AE-smad3-pathway
#9
Yao Gao, Yan Mei Zhang, Li Jun Qian, Ming Chu, Jian Hong, Di Xu
As a newly identified factor in calcium-activated chloride channel, ANO1 participates in various physiological processes like proliferation and differentiation, and expresses in human cardiac fibroblasts. In this experiment, we investigated the function of ANO1 in cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infraction (MI) with methods of Western blotting, Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), metabolic reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiozol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazo-lium bromide (MTT), immunofluorescence and confocal imaging, and Masson's trichrome staining...
May 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535516/citrate-anticoagulation-during-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#10
Davide Ricci, Laura Panicali, Maria Grazia Facchini, Elena Mancini
During extracorporeal dialysis, some anticoagulation strategy is necessary to prevent the coagulation of blood. Heparin has historically been used as an anticoagulant because of its efficacy combined with low cost. However, a variable incidence of hemorrhagic complications (5-30%) has been documented in patients undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with heparin as an anticoagulant. Citrate has anticoagulation properties secondary to its ability to chelate calcium, which is necessary for the coagulation cascade...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532144/physically-targeted-intravenous-polyurethane-nanoparticles-for-controlled-release-of-atorvastatin-calcium
#11
Behnaz Sadat Eftekhari, Akbar Karkhaneh, Ali Alizadeh
Background: Intravenous drug delivery is an advantageous choice for rapid administration, immediate drug effect, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism in oral drug delivery. In this study, the synthesis, formulation, and characterization of atorvastatin-loaded polyurethane (PU) nanoparticles were investigated for intravenous route of administration. Methods: First, PU was synthesized and characterized. Second, nanoparticles were prepared in four different ratios of drug to polymer through two different techniques including emulsion-diffusion and single-emulsion...
May 23, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531662/microencapsulation-of-gulosibacter-molinativorax-on4-t-cells-by-a-spray-drying-process-using-different-biopolymers
#12
Berta N Estevinho, A Rita Lopes, Vera Sousa, Fernando Rocha, Olga C Nunes
Molinate is a thiocarbamate herbicide used in rice crop protection. As other pesticides, molinate is a recognized environmental pollutant and bio-accumulated by some wildlife forms. Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4(T) is able to hydrolyse molinate into metabolites which are further degraded by other un-related bacteria. Hence, it can be used in molinate bioremediation processes. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of producing G. molinativorax ON4(T) microparticles, using different non-toxic biopolymers (arabic gum, modified chitosan, calcium alginate and sodium alginate) as encapsulating agents by a spray-drying process...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530221/micu1-drives-glycolysis-and-chemoresistance-in-ovarian-cancer
#13
Prabir K Chakraborty, Soumyajit Banerjee Mustafi, Xunhao Xiong, Shailendra Kumar Dhar Dwivedi, Vasyl Nesin, Sounik Saha, Min Zhang, Danny Dhanasekaran, Muralidharan Jayaraman, Robert Mannel, Kathleen Moore, Scott McMeekin, Da Yang, Rosemary Zuna, Kai Ding, Leonidas Tsiokas, Resham Bhattacharya, Priyabrata Mukherjee
Cancer cells actively promote aerobic glycolysis to sustain their metabolic requirements through mechanisms not always clear. Here, we demonstrate that the gatekeeper of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake 1 (MICU1/CBARA1) drives aerobic glycolysis in ovarian cancer. We show that MICU1 is overexpressed in a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines and that MICU1 overexpression correlates with poor overall survival (OS). Silencing MICU1 in vitro increases oxygen consumption, decreases lactate production, inhibits clonal growth, migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, whereas silencing in vivo inhibits tumour growth, increases cisplatin efficacy and OS...
May 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527957/streptozotocin-alters-glucose-transport-connexin-expression-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-functions-in-neurons-and-astrocytes
#14
Joyshree Biswas, Sonam Gupta, Dinesh Kumar Verma, Sarika Singh
The study was undertaken to explore the cell specific streptozotocin (STZ) induced mechanistic alterations. STZ induced rodent model is a well established experimental model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in our previous studies we have established it as an in vitro screening model of AD by employing N2A neuronal cells. Therefore, STZ was selected in the present study to understand the STZ induced cell specific alterations by utilizing neuronal N2A and astrocytes C6 cells. Both neuronal and astrocyte cells were treated with STZ at 10, 50, 100 and 1000μM concentration for 48 h...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527949/microproteome-of-dentoalveolar-tissues
#15
Cristiane R Salmon, Ana Paula O Giorgetti, Adriana F Paes Leme, Romênia R Domingues, Tamara N Kolli, Brian L Foster, Francisco H Nociti
Proteomic analysis of extracellular matrices (ECM) of dentoalveolar tissues can provide insights into developmental, pathological, and reparative processes. However, targeted dissection of mineralized tissues, dental cementum (DC), alveolar bone (AB), and dentin (DE), presents technical difficulties. We demonstrate an approach combining EDTA decalcification and laser capture microdissection (LCM), followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to analyze proteome profiles of these tissues...
May 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527919/mechanisms-of-the-amplifying-pathway-of-insulin-secretion-in-the-%C3%AE-cell
#16
REVIEW
Michael A Kalwat, Melanie Cobb
Pancreatic islet β cells secrete insulin in response to nutrient secretagogues, like glucose, dependent on calcium influx and nutrient metabolism. One of the most intriguing qualities of β cells is their ability to use metabolism to amplify the amount of secreted insulin independent of further alterations in intracellular calcium. Many years studying this amplifying process have shaped our current understanding of β cell stimulus-secretion coupling; yet, the exact mechanisms of amplification have been elusive...
May 17, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527697/antibiotics-induce-mitonuclear-protein-imbalance-but-fail-to-inhibit-respiration-and-nutrient-activation-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#17
Jaime Santo-Domingo, Isabelle Chareyron, Charlotte Broenimann, Steve Lassueur, Andreas Wiederkehr
Chloramphenicol and several other antibiotics targeting bacterial ribosomes inhibit mitochondrial protein translation. Inhibition of mitochondrial protein synthesis leads to mitonuclear protein imbalance and reduced respiratory rates as confirmed here in HeLa and PC12 cells. Unexpectedly, respiration in INS-1E insulinoma cells and primary human islets was unaltered in the presence of chloramphenicol. Resting respiratory rates and glucose stimulated acceleration of respiration were also not lowered when a range of antibiotics including, thiamphenicol, streptomycin, gentamycin and doxycycline known to interfere with bacterial protein synthesis were tested...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526618/24-hour-urine-metabolic-differences-between-solitary-and-multiple-stone-formers-results-of-the-collaboration-on-urolithiasis-in-pediatrics-cup-working-group
#18
Theodore R Saitz, Solange Mongoue-Tchokote, Cynthia Sharadin, Dana W Giel, Sean Corbett, Larisa Kovacevic, Aaron P Bayne
INTRODUCTION: Specific factors associated with the risk of developing pediatric urinary stone disease remain unclear, especially those that may be associated with recurrent stone disease. OBJECTIVE: We compared the results of 24-h urine collections in children with a solitary stone episode to those with multiple stone episodes to determine if there is a difference that may be associated with multiple stone formation in children. STUDY DESIGN: A multi-institutional retrospective analysis was completed to assess 24-h urinary metabolic profiles in children with urolithiasis aged 2-18 years old...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522133/does-calcemia-influence-the-onset-of-myringosclerosis-after-myringotomy-with-the-insertion-of-ventilation-tubes
#19
Carla Branco, João Paço
INTRODUCTION: Myringosclerosis is one of the most frequent late complications of the insertion of ventilation tubes, and its aetiopathogenesis remains unknown. The calcification that occurs in the formation of myringosclerosis plaque raises the hypothesis of the presence of a calcium metabolism disorder. The objective is to determine whether calcemia contributes to the development of myringoscelerosis after insertion of ventilation tubes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A longitudinal, prospective, analytical cohort study was conducted in patients undergoing myringotomy with the insertion of ventilation tubes due to otitis media with effusion...
May 15, 2017: Acta Otorrinolaringológica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518143/calcium-sensing-receptor-protects-high-glucose-induced-energy-metabolism-disorder-via-blocking-gp78-ubiquitin-proteasome-pathway
#20
Yuehong Wang, Ping Gao, Can Wei, Hongzhu Li, Li Zhang, Yajun Zhao, Bo Wu, Ye Tian, Weihua Zhang, Lingyun Wu, Rui Wang, Changqing Xu
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a major complication and fatal cause of the patients with diabetes. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a G protein-coupled receptor, which is involved in maintaining calcium homeostasis, regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis, and so on. In our previous study, we found that CaSR expression, intracellular calcium levels and cardiac function were all significantly decreased in DCM rats; however, the exact mechanism are not clear yet. The present study revealed the protective role of CaSR in myocardial energy metabolism disorder induced by high glucose (HG) as well as the underlying mechanism...
May 18, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
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