Read by QxMD icon Read

metabolism of calcium

Ahmed Hassoon, Erin D Michos, Edgar R Miller, Zeni Crisp, Lawrence J Appel
The "Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension" (DASH) diet, rich in fiber and low-fat dairy, effectively lowers blood pressure. DASH's effect on calcitriol and other markers of bone-mineral metabolism is unknown. This secondary analysis of the DASH trial aimed to determine the effect of dietary patterns on blood concentrations of calcitriol, parathyroid hormone (PTH), ionized calcium, and urinary excretion of calcium and phosphorus. Outcomes were available in 334 participants in the trial. After a 3-week run-in on the control diet, participants were randomized to control, fruits and vegetables (F&V), or DASH diets...
March 17, 2018: Nutrients
L X Zhang, Y M Balani, Sophia Trinh, Henry M Kronenberg, Yiming Mu
Objective: To investigate the distinct effects of intermittent and continuous administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). Methods: Six weeks old mice with C57/BL6J background and SOX9-creERT/Td-tomato/Osteocalcin-GFP genotype were divided into 6 groups: intermittent administration and withdraw group (subcutaneous injection with PTH 500 μg·kg-1 ·d-1 ), continuous administration and withdraw group (subcutaneous implantation of PTH pump, 80 μg·kg-1 ·d-1, with a rate of 0...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Jie Meng, Wen-Xiong Wang, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
Lead (Pb) is one of the ubiquitous and toxic elements in aquatic environment. In oysters, gills and digestive glands are the main target organs for Pb-induced toxicity, but there is limited information on the molecular mechanisms underlying its toxicity. The present study investigated the Pb-induced toxicity mechanisms in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) based on transcriptome, phenotypic anchoring, and validation of targeted gene expression. Gene ontology and pathway enrichment analyses revealed the differential Pb toxicity mechanisms in the tissues...
March 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Joana Vieira, Gonçalo Nunes, Carla Adriana Santos, Jorge Fonseca
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is a gold standard for long term enteral feeding. Neurologic dysphagia and head/neck cancer are the most common indications for PEG as they can lead to protein-energy malnutrition and serum electrolyte abnormalities, with potential negative impact on metabolic balance. Refeeding syndrome may also be related with severe electrolyte changes in PEG-fed patients and contribute to poor prognosis. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the changes in serum concentrations of the main electrolytes and its possible association with the outcome...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Geoffrey D Abrams, David Feldman, Marc R Safran
Vitamin D is known to be important for calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. It also has important direct effects on skeletal muscle. Unlike authentic vitamins, which cannot be synthesized in the body, vitamin D is produced in the skin using sunlight. Through its nuclear receptor (ie, vitamin D receptor) located throughout the body, including skeletal muscle, vitamin D initiates genomic and nongenomic pathways regulating multiple actions, including myocyte proliferation and growth. In some studies, vitamin D supplementation has been shown to increase muscle strength, particularly in people who are vitamin D deficient...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Alex B Addinsall, Craig R Wright, Sof Andrikopoulos, Chris van der Poel, Nicole Stupka
Chronic metabolic stress leads to cellular dysfunction, characterized by excessive reactive oxygen species, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation, which has been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The ER is gaining recognition as a key organelle in integrating cellular stress responses. ER homeostasis is tightly regulated by a complex antioxidant system, which includes the seven ER-resident selenoproteins - 15 kDa selenoprotein, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase and selenoproteins S, N, K, M and T...
March 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
M Dogru
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the skin. Apart from its well-known role on calcium metabolism, vitamin D is reported to affect skin functions. The study aims were to: compare the vitamin D levels of children with AD and healthy children; investigate the relationship between the severity of AD and vitamin D levels; and investigate the effect of vitamin D on the natural course of AD. PATIENTS OR MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-nine patients with AD were enrolled...
March 17, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Guo Liu, Shengwei Sun, Baoyan Guo, Benchun Miao, Zhen Luo, Zumeng Xia, Danyang Ying, Fei Liu, Bin Guo, Jian Tang, Yong Cao, Jianyin Miao
Casein phosphopeptides (CPPs) have been demonstrated to be calcium chelators. Unfortunately, few studies have been reported on the effects of CPPs on the mechanism of the uptake and absorption of Ca2+ and bone metabolism. In this study, a monomeric peptide fraction isolated by RP-HPLC (F6-1) that possessed high calcium transport capacity in Caco-2 cell monolayers was separated and characterized. The effects of F6-1 on the absorption mechanisms of Ca2+ in a Caco-2 monolayer model and bone metabolism in rats were investigated...
March 20, 2018: Food & Function
Chun-Mei Wang, Xue-Lu Yang, Ming-Hui Liu, Bao-Hua Cheng, Jing Chen, Bo Bai
miRNAs regulate a variety of biological processes through pairing-based regulation of gene expression at the 3' end of the noncoding region of the target miRNA. miRNAs were found to be abnormally expressed in ischemia/reperfusion injury models. High-throughput sequencing is a recently developed method for sequencing miRNAs and has been widely used in the analysis of miRNAs. In this study, ischemia/reperfusion injury models were intracerebroventricularly injected with 50 μg/kg apelin-13. High-throughput sequencing showed that 357 known miRNAs were differentially expressed among rat models, among which 78 changed to > 2-fold or < 0...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Witold Krupski, Marcin R Tatara, Anna Charuta, Adam Brodzki, Maria Szpetnar, Artur Jóźwik, Nina Strzałkowska, Ewa Poławska, Iwona Łuszczewska-Sierakowska
1. Sex-related differences of long pelvic limb bones and serum bone metabolism indices were evaluated in 14-month-old female (N=7) and male (N=7) ostriches of similar body weights. 2. Bone weight and relative bone weight of all bones were significantly higher in males than in females. Significantly lower values of trabecular bone mineral density and calcium hydroxyapatite density were found in the trabecular bone of tibia in males. The highest number of the sex-related differences was observed in tarsometatarsus where bone length, bone mineral content, cortical bone area, cross-sectional area and ultimate strength were higher in males...
March 19, 2018: British Poultry Science
Tanya B Dorff, Neeraj Agarwal
Bone metastases are the main driver of morbidity and mortality in advanced prostate cancer. Targeting the bone microenvironment, a key player in the pathogenesis of bone metastasis, has become one of the mainstays of therapy in men with advanced prostate cancer. This review will evaluate the data supporting the use of bone-targeted therapy, including (1) bisphosphonates such as zoledronic acid, which directly target osteoclasts, (2) denosumab, a receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) ligand inhibitor, which targets a key component of bone stromal interaction, and (3) radium-223, an alpha-emitting calcium mimetic, which hones to the metabolically active areas of osteoblastic metastasis and induces double-strand breaks in the DNA...
March 16, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Jing Tian, Rong Lv, Wei Guo
Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, which are uncorrelated with underlying coronary artery disease or hypertension. As an important metabolic organelle, mitochondria directly involve the process of cell growth, proliferation, signal transduction, apoptosis and so on. Recent studies have demonstrated a close correlation between the mitochondrial dysfunction and the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The underlying effects of mitochondrial dysfunction in the progress of diabetic cardiomyopathy involve disturbed metabolism, oxidative stress, defective calcium handling, mitochondrial uncoupling, apoptosis, imbalance of mitochondrial quality control and regulation of MicroRNAs...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Chen Xiong, Yan-Zhao Wu, Yu Zhang, Zi-Xiao Wu, Xue-Yan Chen, Ping Jiang, Hui-Cai Guo, Ke-Rang Xie, Ke-Xin Wang, Su-Wen Su
Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and broad-spectrum anthracycline chemotherapeutic agent, but dose-dependent cardiotoxic side effects limit its clinical application. This toxicity is closely associated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) radical during DOX metabolism. The present study investigated the effects of Berberine (Ber) on DOX-induced acute cardiac injury in a rat model and analysed its mechanism in cardiomyocytes in vitro . Serum creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased in the DOX group compared with the control group...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Connor M Pettem, Jennifer M Briens, David M Janz, Lynn P Weber
Selenium (Se) is considered an essential trace element, involved in important physiological and metabolic functions for all vertebrate species. Fish require dietary concentrations of 0.1-0.5 μg Se/g dry mass (d.m.) to maintain normal physiological and selenoprotein function, however concentrations exceeding 3 μg/g d.m. have been shown to cause toxicity. As Se is reported to have a narrow margin between essentiality and toxicity, there is growing concern surrounding the adverse effects of elevated Se exposure caused by anthropogenic activities...
March 8, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Kanwal Rehman, Kiran Saeed, Syeda Mehak Munawar, Muhammad Sajid Hamid Akash
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a metabolic disorder that is associated with variable degrees of glucose intolerance, impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production. The aim of present study was to investigate the therapeutic potentials of resveratrol (RSV) alone and/or in combination with vitamin-E (Vit-E) against hyperglycemia-induced modulations using experimentally alloxan-induced diabetic animal model. Alloxan was used to induce diabetes mellitus in white albino rats and metformin (MF) was used as standard anti-diabetic drug to compare the therapeutic potentials of RSV (alone and/or with Vit-E) by estimating the effect of treatment on glycemia, insulin resistance, liver and kidney function biomarkers, anti-oxidant status, and serum levels of calcium and magnesium...
March 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Cynthia L Miltenburg, Todd F Duffield, Dorothee Bienzle, Elizabeth L Scholtz, Stephen J LeBlanc
The determinants of metabolic and reproductive health disorders in the peripartum period and the degree to which feeding and lying space and management can influence health are only partially understood. The objective of this randomized controlled study was to determine whether providing noncompetitive feeding and lying access in the close-up dry period improves health and immune function. Forty-eight Holstein cows of all parities were randomly assigned to a treatment group of 6 to 10 cows in 1 pen with either 80% cows to stalls and 90 cm of feeding space per cow (understocked) or 120% stocking density and 45 cm of feeding space per cow (overstocked) for 3 wk before expected calving...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Zhengwen Ding, Hong Li, Jie Wei, Ruijiang Li, Yonggang Yan
Considering that the phospholipids and glycerophosphoric acid are the basic materials throughout the metabolism of the whole life period and the bone is composed of organic polymer collagen and inorganic mineral apatite, a novel self-setting composite of magnesium glycerophosphate (MG) and di-calcium silicate(C2S)/tri-calcium silicate(C3S) was developed as bio-cement for bone repair, reconstruction and regeneration. The composite was prepared by mixing the MG, C2S and C3S with the certain ratios, and using the deionized water and phosphoric acid solution as mixed liquid...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan, Bianca Cotto, Santhanam Shanmughapriya, Alyssa A Lombardi, Prasun K Datta, Muniswamy Madesh, John W Elrod, Kamel Khalili, Dianne Langford
Calcium (Ca2+ ) dynamics and oxidative signaling control mitochondrial bioenergetics in the central nervous system, where astrocytes are a major energy source for neurons. Cocaine use exacerbates HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, but little is known about disruptions in astrocyte metabolism in this context. Our data show that the HIV protein Tat and cocaine induce a metabolic switch from glucose to fatty acid oxidation in astrocytes, thereby limiting lactate transport to neurons. Mechanistic analyses revealed increased Mitochondrial Ca2+ Uniporter (MCU)-mediated Ca2+ uptake in astrocytes exposed to Tat and cocaine due to oxidation of MCU...
March 16, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Michaël R Laurent
An overview of selected papers related to bone published in 2017 is provided. PURPOSE: This paper accompanies a lecture at the 2018 Belgian Bone Club annual Clinical Update Symposium held in Brussels on January 20th, discussing the best papers (in the opinion of the author) published in the previous year. METHODS: A PubMed search using the keyword "bone" and articles published in 2017. RESULTS: Hot topics include screening for osteoporosis, novel anabolic drugs such as romosozumab and abaloparatide for osteoporosis and rare metabolic bone diseases, as well as long-term efficacy of denosumab and possible risk of multiple vertebral fractures following its discontinuation...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"